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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213899/human-influence-and-biotic-homogenization-drive-the-distribution-of-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-in-natural-habitats
#1
Adriana Cabal, Joaquin Vicente, Julio Alvarez, Jose Angel Barasona, Mariana Boadella, Lucas Dominguez, Christian Gortazar
Cattle are the main reservoirs for Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the only known zoonotic intestinal E. coli pathotype. However, there are other intestinal pathotypes that can cause disease in humans, whose presence has been seldom investigated. Thus, our aim was to identify the effects of anthropic pressure and of wild and domestic ungulate abundance on the distribution and diversity of the main human E. coli pathotypes and nine of their representative virulence genes (VGs). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the direct detection and quantification of the genus-specific gene uidA, nine E...
February 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213036/meat-sources-of-infection-for-outbreaks-of-human-trichinellosis
#2
REVIEW
Ali Rostami, H Ray Gamble, Jean Dupouy-Camet, Hooshang Khazan, Fabrizio Bruschi
Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne zoonotic diseases, with worldwide distribution. While human risk for trichinellosis has historically been linked to pork, modern pork production systems and slaughter inspection programs have reduced or eliminated pork as a source for trichinellosis in many countries. While pork may no longer pose a significant risk for trichinellosis, many other animal species may be hosts for Trichinella species nematodes and when human consume meat from these animal species, there may be risk for acquiring trichinellosis...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212791/echinococcosis-control-and-prevention
#3
P S Craig, D Hegglin, M W Lightowlers, P R Torgerson, Q Wang
Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been eliminated or significantly reduced as a public health problem in several previously highly endemic regions. This has been achieved by the long-term application of prevention and control measures primarily targeted to deworming dogs, health education, meat inspection, and effective surveillance in livestock and human populations. Human CE, however, remains a serious neglected zoonotic disease in many resource-poor pastoral regions. The incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has increased in continental Europe and is a major public health problem in parts of Eurasia...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212285/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-selective-metabolic-adaptation-of-streptococcus-suis-to-porcine-blood-and-cerebrospinal-fluid
#4
Anna Koczula, Michael Jarek, Christian Visscher, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Ralph Goethe, Jörg Willenborg
Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe pathologies such as septicemia and meningitis in its natural porcine host as well as in humans. Establishment of disease requires not only virulence of the infecting strain but also an appropriate metabolic activity of the pathogen in its host environment. However, it is yet largely unknown how the streptococcal metabolism adapts to the different host niches encountered during infection. Our previous isotopologue profiling studies on S. suis grown in porcine blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed conserved activities of central carbon metabolism in both body fluids...
February 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210253/genomic-analysis-of-a-new-serovar-of-leptospira-weilii-serogroup-manhao
#5
Yinghua Xu, Huajun Zheng, Ying Zhang, Yuezhu Wang, Jinlong Zhang, Zhe Li, Shenghui Cui, Xiaofang Xin, Qiang Ye, Yung-Fu Chang, Junzhi Wang
Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., is recognized as an important emerging zoonotic disease throughout the world. In this study, multiple approaches were used to characterize the recently discovered serovar Heyan strain L231. This strain can infect guinea pigs and belonged to the pathogenic species L. weilii. Genome sequencing analysis revealed the draft genome of 4.2 M bp with a G+C content of 40.67% for strain L231, and a total of 4,794 ORFs were identified. The strain L231 genome was found to have a larger LPS biosynthesis locus than that of strains L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205112/autochthonous-sporadic-acute-hepatitis-e-caused-by-two-distinct-subgenotype-3b-hepatitis-e-virus-strains-with-only-90-nucleotide-identity
#6
Yasuko Yamaguchi, Hitoshi Takagi, Yuhei Suzuki, Kyoko Maruhashi, Takashi Kosone, Satoru Kakizaki, Ken Sato, Masanobu Yamada, Shigeo Nagashima, Masaharu Takahashi, Hiroaki Okamoto
Hepatitis E, which is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a public health concern in Japan, where the zoonotic food-borne transmission of HEV from domestic pigs and wild boars plays an important role. A 44-year-old Japanese man with autochthonous sporadic acute hepatitis E was admitted with general fatigue and moderate liver dysfunction. In the present study, two distinct HEV strains were recovered from the patient, who had consumed the raw or undercooked pig liver and intestine two or three times per week for 3 months before the disease onset...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205052/a-novel-subgenotype-3a-hepatitis-e-virus-isolated-from-pigs-in-china
#7
Yufeng Cao, Lisai Zhu, Dan Liu, Changming Guo, Yue Yuan, Chengbo Shi, Zhaohui Liu, Xinping Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging disease with zoonotic transmission that represents a serious public health concern, especially in developing countries. Here we characterize a novel HEV strain CCST-517, which possesses a complete genome sequence of 7284 bp with typical HEV genome organization including 5' and 3' non-coding regions and three open reading frames. The sequence identities of CCST-517 with known HEV genotype 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 73.4-73.7, 73.2, 80.4-90.4, and 75.1-75.7%, respectively...
February 15, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202761/the-long-noncoding-rna-neat1-exerts-anti-hantaviral-effects-by-acting-as-a-positive-feedback-for-rig-i-signaling
#8
Hongwei Ma, Peijun Han, Wei Ye, Hesong Chen, Xuyang Zheng, Linfeng Cheng, Liang Zhang, Lan Yu, Xing'an Wu, Zhikai Xu, Yingfeng Lei, Fanglin Zhang
Hantavirus infection, which causes zoonotic diseases with a high mortality rate in humans, has long been a global public health concern. Over the past decades, accumulating evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key regulatory roles in innate immunity. However, the involvement of host lncRNAs in hantaviral control remains uncharacterized. In this study, we identified the lncRNA, NEAT1, as a vital antiviral modulator. NEAT1 was dramatically upregulated after Hantaan virus (HTNV) infection, whereas its downregulation in vitro or in vivo delayed host innate immune responses and aggravated HTNV replication...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202592/extinction-pathways-and-outbreak-vulnerability-in-a-stochastic-ebola-model
#9
Garrett T Nieddu, Lora Billings, James H Kaufman, Eric Forgoston, Simone Bianco
A zoonotic disease is a disease that can be passed from animals to humans. Zoonotic viruses may adapt to a human host eventually becoming endemic in humans, but before doing so punctuated outbreaks of the zoonotic virus may be observed. The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an example of such a disease. The animal population in which the disease agent is able to reproduce in sufficient number to be able to transmit to a susceptible human host is called a reservoir. There is little work devoted to understanding stochastic population dynamics in the presence of a reservoir, specifically the phenomena of disease extinction and reintroduction...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202077/repellent-effects-of-the-essential-oils-of-cymbopogon-citratus-and-tagetes-minuta-on-the-sandfly-phlebotomus-duboscqi
#10
Albert Kimutai, Moses Ngeiywa, Margaret Mulaa, Peter G N Njagi, Johnstone Ingonga, Lydia B Nyamwamu, Cyprian Ombati, Philip Ngumbi
BACKGROUND: The sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi is a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) that is an important public health problem in Eastern Africa. Repellents have been used for protection of humans against vectors of ZCL and other vectors that transmit killer diseases including malaria, Rift Valley fever, dengue, and yellow fever. The repellent effects of different doses of the essential oils from the lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus and Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta were evaluated in a two-chamber bioassay against 3- to 7-day-old unfed females of P...
February 15, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202022/hematologic-manifestations-of-babesiosis
#11
REVIEW
Tamer Akel, Neville Mobarakai
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis, a zoonotic parasitic infection transmitted by the Ixodes tick, has become an emerging health problem in humans that is attracting attention worldwide. Most cases of human babesiosis are reported in the United States and Europe. The disease is caused by the protozoa of the genus Babesia, which invade human erythrocytes and lyse them causing a febrile hemolytic anemia. The infection is usually asymptomatic or self-limited in the immunocompetent host, or follows a persistent, relapsing, and/or life threatening course with multi-organ failure, mainly in the splenectomized or immunosuppressed patients...
February 15, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197622/-practicing-veterinarians-perception-of-bovine-ringworm-as-herd-health-problem
#12
Joachim L Kleen, Tatjana Andres, Ulrike Exner, Regina Strie
OBJECTIVE: Bovine ringworm (tinea) is generally described as a disease occurring regularly in cattle. Actual data are rare, whereas the disease is regularly reported in case reports. To eradicate bovine ringworm, perception as well as measures, including hygiene and disinfection, are required. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a course for continuing education, 378 practicing veterinarians were asked in a questionnaire to state their view on bovine ringworm. RESULTS: The majority of the participants stated that ringworm was not satisfactorily perceived as an animal health problem and that the zoonotic potential was underestimated...
February 15, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195145/the-nexus-between-forest-fragmentation-in-africa-and-ebola-virus-disease-outbreaks
#13
Maria Cristina Rulli, Monia Santini, David T S Hayman, Paolo D'Odorico
Tropical forests are undergoing land use change in many regions of the world, including the African continent. Human populations living close to forest margins fragmented and disturbed by deforestation may be particularly exposed to zoonotic infections because of the higher likelihood for humans to be in contact with disease reservoirs. Quantitative analysis of the nexus between deforestation and the emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, is still missing. Here we use land cover change data in conjunction with EVD outbreak records to investigate the association between recent (2004-2014) outbreaks in West and Central Africa, and patterns of land use change in the region...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194111/syringa-oblata-lindl-aqueous-extract-is-a-potential-biofilm-inhibitor-in-s-suis
#14
Jingwen Bai, Yanbei Yang, Shuai Wang, Lingfei Gao, Jianqing Chen, Yongzhi Ren, Wenya Ding, Ishfaq Muhammad, Yanhua Li
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease symptoms in pigs and humans. Syringa oblata Lindl. distributed in the middle latitudes of Eurasia and North America were proved as the most development potential of Chinese Medicine. In this study, biofilm formation by S. suis decreased after growth with 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC, or 1/8 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the potential effect of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin against biofilm formation by S...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193766/molecular-mechanisms-of-chronic-wasting-disease-prion-propagation
#15
Julie A Moreno, Glenn C Telling
Prion disease epidemics, which have been unpredictable recurrences, are of significant concern for animal and human health. Examples include kuru, once the leading cause of death among the Fore people in Papua New Guinea and caused by mortuary feasting; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and its subsequent transmission to humans in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), and repeated examples of large-scale prion disease epidemics in animals caused by contaminated vaccines. The etiology of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a relatively new and burgeoning prion epidemic in deer, elk, and moose (members of the cervid family), is more enigmatic...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190501/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers-coronavirus-and-dromedaries
#16
REVIEW
Ulrich Wernery, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a zoonotic viral disease that can be transmitted from dromedaries to human beings. More than 1500 cases of MERS have been reported in human beings to date. Although MERS has been associated with 30% case fatality in human beings, MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in dromedaries is usually asymptomatic. In rare cases, dromedaries may develop mild respiratory signs. No MERS-CoV or antibodies against the virus have been detected in camelids other than dromedaries...
February 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185821/public-response-to-mers-cov-in-the-middle-east-iphone-survey-in-six-countries
#17
Amani S Alqahtani, Harunor Rashid, Mada H Basyouni, Tariq M Alhawassi, Nasser F BinDhim
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries bear the heaviest brunt of MERS-CoV. This study aims to compare public awareness and practice around MERS-CoV across GCC countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Gulf Indicators (GI) smartphone app among people in the six GCC countries, namely Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman. A total of 1812 participants recruited. All were aware of MERS-CoV, yet the perception and practice around MERS-CoV varied widely between countries...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183751/genome-sequences-of-human-and-livestock-isolates-of-brucella-melitensis-and-brucella-abortus-from-the-country-of-georgia
#18
Ketevan Sidamonidze, Jun Hang, Yu Yang, George Dzavashvili, Ekaterine Zhgenti, Nino Trapaidze, Paata Imnadze, Mikeljon P Nikolich
Brucellosis, which is among the most widespread global zoonotic diseases, is endemic in the nation of Georgia and causes substantial human morbidity and economic loss. Here, we report whole-genome sequences of three Brucella melitensis and seven Brucella abortus isolates from cattle, sheep, and humans that represent genetic groups discovered in Georgia.
February 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182662/investigation-on-predominant-leptospira-serovars-and-its-distribution-in-humans-and-livestock-in-thailand-2010-2015
#19
Sudarat Chadsuthi, Dominique J Bicout, Anuwat Wiratsudakul, Duangjai Suwancharoen, Wimol Petkanchanapong, Charin Modchang, Wannapong Triampo, Parntep Ratanakorn, Karine Chalvet-Monfray
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic bacterial disease caused by infection with leptospires. Leptospirosis in humans and livestock is an endemic and epidemic disease in Thailand. Livestock may act as reservoirs for leptospires and source for human infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on leptospirosis infection in humans and livestock (Buffaloes, Cattle, and Pigs) species during 2010 to 2015 were analyzed. Serum samples were examined using Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) to identify antibodies against Leptospira serovars using a cut-off titer ≥ 1:100...
February 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177294/lactococcus-garvieae-an-emerging-bacterial-pathogen-of-fish
#20
REVIEW
C M Meyburgh, R R Bragg, C E Boucher
Lactococcus garvieae is the causative agent of lactococcosis, a hyperacute, haemorrhagic septicaemia of fish. This bacterium is also considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen, as reports of human infection are increasing. Significant economic loss in aquaculture is suffered as a result of lactococcosis, as numerous freshwater and marine species of commercial interest are affected. Development of antibiotic resistance in L. garvieae to several chemotherapeutic agents complicates and restricts treatment options...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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