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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159591/evaluation-of-the-associations-between-endothelial-dysfunction-inflammation-and-coagulation-in-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-patients
#1
Halef Okan Doğan, Seyit Ali Büyüktuna, Sercan Kapancik, Sevtap Bakir
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in CCHF. The study population consisted of 40 patients and 50 healthy controls. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), endocan, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and platelets values were determined in blood samples...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159172/examining-the-link-between-biofilm-formation-and-the-ability-of-pathogenic-salmonella-strains-to-colonize-multiple-host-species
#2
REVIEW
Keith D MacKenzie, Melissa B Palmer, Wolfgang L Köster, Aaron P White
Salmonella are important pathogens worldwide and a predominant number of human infections are zoonotic in nature. The ability of strains to form biofilms, which is a multicellular behavior characterized by the aggregation of cells, is predicted to be a conserved strategy for increased persistence and survival. It may also contribute to the increasing number of infections caused by ingestion of contaminated fruits and vegetables. There is a correlation between biofilm formation and the ability of strains to colonize and replicate within the intestines of multiple host species...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158922/hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-from-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-secondary-to-leptospirosis
#3
Shannon M Fernando, Pierre Cardinal, Peter G Brindley
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by hypoxemic respiratory failure, is associated with a mortality of 30-50% and is precipitated by both direct and indirect pulmonary insults. Treatment is largely supportive, consisting of lung protective ventilation and thereby necessitating Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. The most common precipitant is community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, but other putative pathogens include viruses and fungi. On rare occasions, ARDS can be secondary to tropical disease...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157317/entomopathogenic-bacteria-photorhabdus-luminescens-as-drug-source-against-leishmania-amazonensis
#4
Ana Maria Antonello, Thaís Sartori, Ana Paula Folmer Correa, Adriano Brandelli, Ralf Heermann, Luiz Carlos Rodrigues Júnior, Alessandra Peres, Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão, Onilda Santos Da Silva
Leishmaniasis is a widely spread and zoonotic disease with serious problems as low effectiveness of drugs, emergence of parasite resistance and severe adverse reactions. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to secondary metabolites produced by Photorhabdus luminescens, an entomopathogenic bacterium. Here, we assessed the leishmanicidal activity of P. luminescens culture fluids. Initially, promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis were incubated with cell free conditioned medium of P. luminescens and parasite survival was monitored...
November 21, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157312/combating-echinococcosis-in-china-strengthening-the-research-and-development
#5
Men-Bao Qian, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Wei-Ping Wu, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Echinococcosis is a neglected zoonotic disease, causing great morbidity and mortality due to the wide distribution of its endemic areas. China holds a high percentage in the global burden of both cystic and alveolar echinococcosis. A national survey conducted between 2012 and 2016 showed that an estimated 50 million people are at risk of contracting the disease in western China, of whom about 0.17 million are cases with echinococcosis.Despite this, research and development on echinococcosis in China is greatly inadequate compared to that in other countries...
November 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157209/transcriptome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-zinc-uptake-related-genes-in-trichophyton-mentagrophytes
#6
Xinke Zhang, Pengxiu Dai, Yongping Gao, Xiaowen Gong, Hao Cui, Yipeng Jin, Yihua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Trichophyton mentagrophytes is an important zoonotic dermatophytic (ringworm) pathogen; causing severe skin infection in humans and other animals worldwide. Fortunately, commonly used fungal skin disease prevention and treatment measures are relatively simple. However, T. mentagrophytes is primarily studied at the epidemiology and drug efficacy research levels, yet current study has been unable to meet the needs of clinical medicine. Zinc is a crucial trace element for the growth and reproduction of fungi and other microorganisms...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155664/prioritizing-zoonoses-for-global-health-capacity-building-themes-from-one-health-zoonotic-disease-workshops-in-7-countries-2014-2016
#7
Stephanie J Salyer, Rachel Silver, Kerri Simone, Casey Barton Behravesh
Zoonotic diseases represent critical threats to global health security. Effective mitigation of the impact of endemic and emerging zoonotic diseases of public health importance requires multisectoral collaboration and interdisciplinary partnerships. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention created the One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Tool to help countries identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern using input from representatives of human health, agriculture, environment, and wildlife sectors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155663/frameworks-for-preventing-detecting-and-controlling-zoonotic-diseases
#8
Miriam L Shiferaw, Jeffrey B Doty, Giorgi Maghlakelidze, Juliette Morgan, Ekaterine Khmaladze, Otar Parkadze, Marina Donduashvili, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Leopold Mulumba, Jean Malekani, Joelle Kabamba, Theresa Kanter, Linda Lucy Boulanger, Abraham Haile, Abyot Bekele, Meseret Bekele, Kasahun Tafese, Andrea A McCollum, Mary G Reynolds
Preventing zoonotic diseases requires coordinated actions by government authorities responsible for human and animal health. Constructing the frameworks needed to foster intersectoral collaboration can be approached in many ways. We highlight 3 examples of approaches to implement zoonotic disease prevention and control programs. The first, rabies control in Ethiopia, was implemented using an umbrella approach: a comprehensive program designed for accelerated impact. The second, a monkeypox program in Democratic Republic of the Congo, was implemented in a stepwise manner, whereby incremental improvements and activities were incorporated into the program...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155661/zoonotic-disease-programs-for-enhancing-global-health-security
#9
Ermias D Belay, James C Kile, Aron J Hall, Casey Barton-Behravesh, Michele B Parsons, Stephanie Salyer, Henry Walke
Most infectious diseases that recently emerged in humans originated in animals. Besides close contact between animals and humans, other factors probably contribute to the cross-species transmission of infectious diseases. It is critical to establish effective mechanisms for coordination and collaboration between the animal, human, and environmental health sectors before new threats emerge by bringing the different sectors together to tackle endemic zoonotic diseases of greatest concern. Such multisectoral partnerships should begin by identifying priority zoonotic diseases for national engagement with equal input from the different sectors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155658/building-global-epidemiology-and-response-capacity-with-field-epidemiology-training-programs
#10
Donna S Jones, Richard C Dicker, Robert E Fontaine, Amy L Boore, Jared O Omolo, Rana J Ashgar, Henry C Baggett
More than ever, competent field epidemiologists are needed worldwide. As known, new, and resurgent communicable diseases increase their global impact, the International Health Regulations and the Global Health Security Agenda call for sufficient field epidemiologic capacity in every country to rapidly detect, respond to, and contain public health emergencies, thereby ensuring global health security. To build this capacity, for >35 years the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with countries around the globe to develop Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs)...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155651/enhancing-surveillance-and-diagnostics-in-anthrax-endemic-countries
#11
Antonio R Vieira, Johanna S Salzer, Rita M Traxler, Katherine A Hendricks, Melissa E Kadzik, Chung K Marston, Cari B Kolton, Robyn A Stoddard, Alex R Hoffmaster, William A Bower, Henry T Walke
Naturally occurring anthrax disproportionately affects the health and economic welfare of poor, rural communities in anthrax-endemic countries. However, many of these countries have limited anthrax prevention and control programs. Effective prevention of anthrax outbreaks among humans is accomplished through routine livestock vaccination programs and prompt response to animal outbreaks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses a 2-phase framework when providing technical assistance to partners in anthrax-endemic countries...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154929/identification-of-genetic-variants-of-brucella-spp-through-genome-wide-association-studies
#12
Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian, Udayakumar S Vishnu, Paramasamy Gunasekaran, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. We present a phylogeny of 552 strains based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determined by an alignment-free k-mer approach. A total of 138,029 SNPs were identified from 552 Brucella genomes. Of these, 31,152 and 106,877 were core and non-core SNPs, respectively. Based on pan-genome analysis 11,937 and 972 genes were identified as pan and core genome, respectively. The pan-genome-wide analysis studies (Pan-GWAS) could not identify the group-specific variants in Brucella spp...
November 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154369/hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Nassim Kamar, Jacques Izopet, Nicole Pavio, Rakesh Aggarwal, Alain Labrique, Heiner Wedemeyer, Harry R Dalton
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis as well as to extrahepatic manifestations such as neurological and renal disease; it is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Four genotypes are responsible for most infection in humans, of which HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are obligate human pathogens and HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are mostly zoonotic. Until quite recently, HEV was considered to be mainly responsible for epidemics of acute hepatitis in developing regions owing to contamination of drinking water supplies with human faeces...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152884/economic-impacts-of-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-kerala-india
#14
G Govindaraj, R Sridevi, S N Nandakumar, R Vineet, P Rajeev, M K Binu, V Balamurugan, H Rahman
This study assessed the short-run impact to poultry farmers, duck hatcheries, control costs, compensation paid to stakeholders (transfer payments) and market reactions on own and substitute product prices and backwater tourism (boat operators) due to avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in Kuttanad region of Kerala, India, during 2014. The primary data from 91 poultry farms (duck farms, broiler chicken and backyard poultry), four hatcheries and 90 backwater boat owners were collected through pre-tested schedules...
November 19, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151852/ancient-oncogenesis-infection-and-human-evolution
#15
REVIEW
Riaan F Rifkin, Marnie Potgieter, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Don A Cowan
The recent discovery that malignant neoplastic lesions date back nearly 2 million years ago not only highlights the antiquity of cancer in the human lineage, but also provides remarkable insight into ancestral hominin disease pathology. Using these Early Pleistocene examples as a point of departure, we emphasize the prominent role of viral and bacterial pathogens in oncogenesis and evaluate the impact of pathogens on human evolutionary processes in Africa. In the Shakespearean vernacular "what's past is prologue," we highlight the significance of novel information derived from ancient pathogenic DNA...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150828/vectors-hosts-and-control-measures-for-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#16
REVIEW
Sarah J Thompson, John M Pearce, Andrew M Ramey
We examine Zika virus (ZIKV) from an ecological perspective and with a focus on the Americas. We assess (1) the role of wildlife in ZIKV disease ecology, (2) how mosquito behavior and biology influence disease dynamics, and (3) how nontarget species and ecosystems may be impacted by vector control programs. Our review suggests that free-ranging, non-human primates may be involved in ZIKV transmission in the Old World; however, other wildlife species likely play a limited role in maintaining or transmitting ZIKV...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150826/rethinking-human-nonhuman-primate-contact-and-pathogenic-disease-spillover
#17
REVIEW
Victor Narat, Lys Alcayna-Stevens, Stephanie Rupp, Tamara Giles-Vernick
Zoonotic transmissions are a major global health risk, and human-animal contact is frequently raised as an important driver of transmission. A literature examining zooanthroponosis largely agrees that more human-animal contact leads to more risk. Yet the basis of this proposition, the term contact, has not been rigorously analyzed. To understand how contact is used to explain cross-species spillovers, we conducted a multi-disciplinary review of studies addressing human-nonhuman primate (NHP) engagements and pathogenic transmissions and employing the term contact...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150700/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-companion-dogs-with-diarrhea-in-beijing-china-and-genetic-characteristics-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-species
#18
Zhongjia Yu, Yang Ruan, Mengjie Zhou, Siyuan Chen, Yinxin Zhang, Liya Wang, Guan Zhu, Yonglan Yu
Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25...
November 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150322/sex-ratios-of-the-tick-ixodes-arboricola-are-strongly-female-biased-but-there-are-no-indications-of-sex-distorting-bacteria
#19
A Raoul Van Oosten, Olivier Duron, Dieter J A Heylen
Studies on sex ratio are of fundamental importance for understanding the biology of populations and biological control of pests and pathogens. In most Ixodes tick species, only females feed in the adult stage and, hence, contribute to pathogen transmission. The tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola infests cavity-nesting birds and has limited dispersal possibilities. It plays an important role in the maintenance of zoonotic disease cycles. Here, we quantified the sex ratio of 718 adult I. arboricola ticks obtained from a laboratory stock at nine distinct periods (cohorts) from 2008 to 2015...
November 11, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147568/environmental-influences-on-the-skin-microbiome-of-humans-and-cattle-in-rural-madagascar
#20
Melissa B Manus, James J Yu, Lawrence P Park, Olaf Mueller, Sarah C Windsor, Julie E Horvath, Charles L Nunn
Background and objectives: The skin harbors a dynamic community of microorganisms, where contact with humans, other animals and the environment can alter microbial communities. Most research on the human skin microbiome features Western populations living in hygienic conditions, yet these populations have vastly different patterns of environmental contact than the majority of people on Earth, including those living in developing countries. Methodology: We studied skin microbial communities of humans and cattle (zebu) in rural Madagascar to investigate how zebu ownership affects microbial composition of the human skin, and to characterize non-Western human and zebu skin communities more generally...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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