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tick-borne diseases

Han Xia, Andrew S Beck, Aysen Gargili, Naomi Forrester, Alan D T Barrett, Dennis A Bente
The trade-off hypothesis, the current paradigm of arbovirus evolution, proposes that cycling between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts presents significant constraints on genetic change of arboviruses. Studying these constraints in mosquito-borne viruses has led to a new understanding of epizootics. The trade-off hypothesis is assumed to be applicable to tick-borne viruses too, although studies are lacking. Tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, is a major cause of severe human disease worldwide and shows an extraordinary amount of genetic diversity compared to other arboviruses, which has been linked to increased virulence and emergence in new environments...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bruce H Noden, Scott R Loss, Courtney Maichak, Faithful Williams
The prevalence of tick-borne diseases has increased dramatically in many urban areas of the U.S., yet little is known about the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in relation to characteristics of North American urban and suburban landscapes. This study aimed to begin identification of the risk of encountering ticks and tick-borne pathogens within a rapidly expanding metropolitan area in the U.S. Great Plains region. Ten sites across Oklahoma City, Oklahoma were selected for tick sampling based on presence of tick habitat and level of urbanization intensity...
October 14, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
P Zeman
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is peculiar due to its unstable dynamics with profound inter-annual fluctuations in case numbers - a phenomenon not well understood to date. Possible reasons - apart from variable human contact with TBE foci - include external factors, e.g. climatic forcing, autonomous oscillations of the disease system itself, or a combined action of both. Spectral analysis of TBE data from six regions of central Europe (CE) revealed that the ostensibly chaotic dynamics can be explained in terms of four superposed (quasi-)periodical oscillations: a quasi-biennial, triennial, pentennial, and a decadal cycle...
October 24, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Y Yang, Y D Du
Tick-borne encephalitis, also called forest encephalitis, is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus. Central nervous system lesion is the major clinical symptom of tick-borne encephalitis, as an acute infectious disease, the case fatality rate is as high as 10%-20%. Virology experts consider it as a key and difficult point in recent years. This paper summarizes the progress in research of epidemiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, outcome, diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne encephalitis to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of tick-borne encephalitis...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Youmna M'ghirbi, Marwa Bèji, Beatriz Oporto, Fatma Khrouf, Ana Hurtado, Ali Bouattour
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma species put serious constraints on the health and production of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions. After recovering from a primary infection, cattle typically become persistent carriers of pathogens and play a critical role in the epidemiology of the disease, acting as reservoirs of the Anaplasma spp. METHODS: In this study a duplex PCR assay was used for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle using two primer pairs targeting msp4 and msp2 genes, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
M H Reiskind, R H Griffin, M S Janairo, K A Hopperstad
Knowledge of the distribution of arthropod vectors across a landscape is important in determining the risk for vector-borne disease. This has been well explored for ticks, but not for mosquitoes, despite their importance in the transmission of a variety of pathogens. This study examined the importance of habitat, habitat edges, and the scale at which mosquito abundance and diversity vary in a rural landscape by trapping along transects from grassland areas into forest patches. Significant patterns of vector diversity and distinct mosquito assemblages across habitats were found...
October 19, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Annukka Pietikäinen, Mikael Maksimow, Tommi Kauko, Saija Hurme, Marko Salmi, Jukka Hytönen
BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is one of the manifestations of Lyme disease. Although it is known that immune reaction of LNB patients is dominated by Th1 and Th2 responses and patients have elevated numbers of B cells in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), not all the cells involved in inflammation and cytokine secretion have been characterized. The current diagnostics of LNB is based on intrathecal production of antibodies. In recent years, the measurement of chemokine CXCL13 concentration from the CSF has been introduced as a new promising diagnostic tool for LNB to complement the antibody-based diagnostic methods...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Qingli Niu, Zhijie Liu, Jifei Yang, Peifa Yu, Yuping Pan, Bintao Zhai, Jianxun Luo, Guiquan Guan, Hong Yin
Ovine babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases of small ruminants. The ovine parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China. In this study, recombinant full-length XJrRAP-1aα2 (rhoptry-associated protein 1aα2) and C-terminal XJrRAP-1aα2 CT of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were expressed and used to evaluate their diagnostic potential for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infections by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purified XJrRAP-1aα2 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally infected with Babesia sp...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
Liangliang Xiang, Błażej Poźniak, Tian-Yin Cheng
Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera...
October 15, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Diane G Edmondson, Sabitha Prabhakaran, Steven J Norris, Amy J Ullmann, Joe Piesman, Marc Dolan, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Winfried Stöcker, Lars Komorowski
Lyme borreliosis is caused by tick-transmitted spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a 23 kDa outer surface lipoprotein expressed during spirochete transmission from the tick to the vertebrate host. In a previous study, we found that immunization with a recombinant disulfide-bridged dimeric form of OspC (D-OspC) stimulates increased antibody responses relative to immunization with commonly employed monomeric OspC...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
P V Shiji, Veena Viswanath, Sreena Sreekumar, R Sreejith, Abdul Majeed, V Udayabhaskaran
Kyasanur Forest disease is a tick-borne arboviral fever with biphasic course of illness with prominent hemorrhagic features in the first phase and encephalitic picture in the second phase. So far it has been described in the southern Karnataka only. Here we report a case of Kyasanur Forest Disease for the first time from Kerala in an 18 year old male from Noolpuzha - Alathoor colony of Wayanad district.
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Tom G Schwan, Job E Lopez, David Safronetz, Jennifer M Anderson, Robert J Fischer, Ousmane Maïga, Nafomon Sogoba
BACKGROUND: Fleas are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites and vectors of several bacterial zoonotic pathogens as well as trypanosomes that parasitize rodents and other small mammals. During investigations of tick- and rodent-borne diseases in Mali, West Africa, we included fleas and rodent-borne trypanosomes, both of which are poorly known in this country, but are attracting greater public health interest. METHODS: Small mammals were captured in 20 Malian villages from December 2007 to October 2011...
October 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Mario Alvarado-Rybak, Laia Solano-Gallego, Javier Millán
Piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. They cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. Piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. There are currently nine recognized species of Babesia, two of Theileria, two of Cytauxzoon and one of Rangelia infecting captive and wild carnivores, including members of Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Herpestidae in the Americas, Eurasia and Africa...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jason A Dunlop, Dmitry A Apanaskevich, Jens Lehmann, René Hoffmann, Florian Fusseis, Moritz Ehlke, Stefan Zachow, Xianghui Xiao
BACKGROUND: Fossil ticks are extremely rare and Ixodes succineus Weidner, 1964 from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber is one of the oldest examples of a living hard tick genus (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Previous work suggested it was most closely related to the modern and widespread European sheep tick Ixodes ricinus (Linneaus, 1758). RESULTS: Restudy using phase contrast synchrotron x-ray tomography yielded images of exceptional quality. These confirm the fossil's referral to Ixodes Latreille, 1795, but the characters resolved here suggest instead affinities with the Asian subgenus Partipalpiger Hoogstraal et al...
October 10, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Katherine Sayler, Jessica Rowland, Carisa Boyce, Emma Weeks
Tick-borne diseases are an emerging public health threat in the United States. In Florida, there has been public attention directed towards the possibility of locally acquired Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of Lyme disease, in association with the lone star tick. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ticks and the pathogens they carry and potentially transmit, such as B. burgdorferi, in a highly utilized teaching and research forest in North Central Florida. Ticks were collected by dragging and flagging methods over a four month period in early 2014, identified, and tested by PCR for multiple pathogens including Anaplasma, Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia species...
September 24, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana
Arthropods transmit several medically important arboviruses that cause diseases in humans. Therapeutic strategies to treat or prevent diseases transmitted by the arthropods are limiting. Understanding the role of arthropod gut receptors in the interactions with various arboviruses would provide important means for the development of a strong anti-vector vaccine. In this review, we summarize some of the potential findings in the field of arthropod gut receptors for tick-borne or mosquito-borne viruses and discuss their relevance in the development of a broad-spectrum transmission-blocking vaccine to treat or control various diseases caused by arboviruses...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
David S Younger
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness and the fifth most common disease in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. If left untreated, infection disseminates to the nervous system. The nonhuman primate model of Lyme disease of the nervous system, or Lyme neuroborreliosis, accurately mimics the aspects of the human illness...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Aleš Chrdle, Vaclav Chmelik, Daniel Ruzek
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations that is prevalent in forested areas of moderate climate in Europe and Asia. TBE virus is transmitted by ticks and rarely by unpasteurized milk and dairy products. The disease burden is attributed mainly to resulting long-term disability, especially in individuals over 50 years of age. Currently, there is no causative treatment, but a very effective vaccination is available with a good safety profile. The vaccination requires three basic doses to be fully effective and regular boosters afterwards...
August 15, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Setareh Jahfari, Agnetha Hofhuis, Manoj Fonville, Joke van der Giessen, Wilfrid van Pelt, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. METHODS: Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease, tick-borne encephalitis, or Zika disease. This viral genus groups >50 viral species of small enveloped plus strand RNA virus that are phylogenetically closely related to hepatitis C virus. Importantly, the flavivirus life cycle is intimately associated to host cell lipids. Along this line, flaviviruses rearrange intracellular membranes from the endoplasmic-reticulum of the infected cells to develop adequate platforms for viral replication and particle biogenesis...
October 1, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
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