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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221100/intracellular-degradation-and-localization-of-ns1-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-affect-its-protective-properties
#1
Yulia V Kuzmenko, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Anastasia S Shevtsova, Liubov L Chernokhaeva, Anastasia A Latanova, Olga V Preobrazhenskaia, Andrey V Timofeev, Galina G Karganova, Vadim L Karpov
Currently, many DNA vaccines against infectious diseases are in clinical trials; however, their efficacy needs to be improved. The potency of DNA immunogen can be optimized by targeting technologies. In the current study, to increase the efficacy of NS1 encoded by plasmid, proteasome targeting was applied. NS1 variants with or without translocation sequence and with ornithine decarboxylase as a signal of proteasomal degradation were tested for expression, localization, protein turnover, proteasomal degradation and protection properties...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213810/how-to-tackle-natural-focal-infections-from-risk-assessment-to-vaccination-strategies
#2
Luca Busani, Alexander E Platonov, Onder Ergonul, Giovanni Rezza
Natural focal diseases are caused by biological agents associated with specific landscapes. The natural focus of such diseases is defined as any natural ecosystem containing the pathogen's population as an essential component. In such context, the agent circulates independently on human presence, and humans may become accidentally infected through contact with vectors or reservoirs. Some viruses (i.e., tick-borne encephalitis and Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus) are paradigmatic examples of natural focal diseases...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212848/major-vectors-and-vector-borne-diseases-in-small-ruminants-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Kassahun Asmare, Takele Abayneh, Berhanu Sibhat, Dessie Shiferaw, Barbara Szonyi, Randi I Krontveit, Eystein Skjerve, Barbara Wieland
Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202075/tick-borne-pathogens-induce-differential-expression-of-genes-promoting-cell-survival-and-host-resistance-in-ixodes-ricinus-cells
#4
Karen L Mansfield, Charlotte Cook, Richard J Ellis, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Nicholas Johnson, Pilar Alberdi, José de la Fuente, Anthony R Fooks
BACKGROUND: There has been an emergence and expansion of tick-borne diseases in Europe, Asia and North America in recent years, including Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and human anaplasmosis. The primary vectors implicated are hard ticks of the genus Ixodes. Although much is known about the host response to these bacterial and viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of the cellular responses to infection within the tick vector. The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum is able to bypass apoptotic processes in ticks, enabling infection to proceed...
February 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196318/common-skin-conditions-in-children-skin-infections
#5
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Recognition of their common and atypical presentations is necessary to differentiate them from other skin conditions of similar morphology. Impetigo, cellulitis, and abscess comprise the majority of childhood bacterial skin infections and are treated with topical or systemic antibiotics that cover group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus...
February 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194148/animal-models-of-emerging-tick-borne-phleboviruses-determining-target-cells-in-a-lethal-model-of-sftsv-infection
#6
Keita Matsuno, Yasuko Orba, Kimberly Maede-White, Dana Scott, Friederike Feldmann, Mifang Liang, Hideki Ebihara
The pathogenesis of clinical manifestations caused by newly emerging tick-borne phleboviruses [i.e., Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and Heartland virus (HRTV)], such as severe thrombocytopenia and lymphocytopenia, are not yet fully understood. In the present study, to establish an animal model mimicking the profile of fatal human cases, we examined the susceptibilities of adult mice from 12 strains, aged mice from two strains, and cynomolgus macaques to SFTSV and/or HRTV infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189117/blocking-transmission-of-vector-borne-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Sandra Schorderet-Weber, Sandra Noack, Paul M Selzer, Ronald Kaminsky
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for significant health problems in humans, as well as in companion and farm animals. Killing the vectors with ectoparasitic drugs before they have the opportunity to pass on their pathogens could be the ideal way to prevent vector borne diseases. Blocking of transmission might work when transmission is delayed during blood meal, as often happens in ticks. The recently described systemic isoxazolines have been shown to successfully prevent disease transmission under conditions of delayed pathogen transfer...
January 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179396/the-antigenic-structure-of-zika-virus-and-its-relation-to-other-flaviviruses-implications-for-infection-and-immunoprophylaxis
#8
REVIEW
Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Zika virus was discovered ∼70 years ago in Uganda and maintained a low profile as a human disease agent in Africa and Asia. Only recently has it caused explosive outbreaks in previously unaffected regions, first in Oceania and then in the Americas since 2015. Of special concern is the newly identified link between congenital malformations (especially microcephaly) and Zika virus infections during pregnancy. At present, it is unclear whether Zika virus changed its pathogenicity or whether the huge number of infections allowed the recognition of a previously cryptic pathogenic property...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179027/genome-scaffolding-and-annotation-for-the-pathogen-vector-ixodes-ricinus-by-ultra-long-single-molecule-sequencing
#9
Wibke J Cramaro, Oliver E Hunewald, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Claude P Muller
BACKGROUND: Global warming and other ecological changes have facilitated the expansion of Ixodes ricinus tick populations. Ixodes ricinus is the most important carrier of vector-borne pathogens in Europe, transmitting viruses, protozoa and bacteria, in particular Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern hemisphere. To faster control this disease vector, a better understanding of the I...
February 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175945/-neuroborreliosis-diagnostics-treatment-and-course
#10
R Dersch, S Rauer
Lyme neuroborreliosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Clinical manifestations are classified as early and late Lyme neuroborreliosis. Early manifestations are much more common than late manifestations. Serological testing should only be performed when typical neurological symptoms are present because false positive results are common due to a high seroprevalence in the population. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis should be performed if Lyme neuroborreliosis is suspected...
February 7, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169507/predictive-factors-for-fatal-tick-borne-spotted-fever-in-brazil
#11
S V de Oliveira, M C A Willemann, G S Gazeta, R N Angerami, R Gurgel-Gonçalves
In Brazil, two pathogenic Rickettsia species have been identified causing tick-borne spotted fever (SF). The aetiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii causes serious illness, particularly in the south-eastern region of the country. Moreover, the Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic Rainforest cause milder clinical manifestations in south-eastern, south and north-east regions. This study has sought to analyse predictive factors for fatal SF. A case-control study was performed using disease notification records in Brazil...
February 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169172/molecular-characterisation-of-anaplasma-species-from-african-buffalo-syncerus-caffer-in-kruger-national-park-south-africa
#12
Danielle Sisson, Jasmin Hufschmid, Anna Jolles, Brianna Beechler, Abdul Jabbar
Bovine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, mainly caused by Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale and is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. This study aimed to characterise A. marginale and A. centrale from African buffaloes in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, using the DNA sequences of the genes coding for major surface protein (msp1β) and heat shock protein (groEL), respectively. A total of 747 blood samples were collected from February 2014 to August 2016 from African buffaloes kept in KNP, and DNAs were tested using a molecular-phylogenetic approach...
January 17, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166814/closely-related-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-stricto-strains-exhibit-similar-fitness-in-single-infections-and-asymmetric-competition-in-multiple-infections
#13
Evelyn C Rynkiewicz, Julia Brown, Danielle M Tufts, Ching-I Huang, Helge Kampen, Stephen J Bent, Durland Fish, Maria A Diuk-Wasser
BACKGROUND: Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America...
February 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163928/arboviruses-and-the-eye
#14
REVIEW
Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Camila V Ventura, Paulo Augusto de Arruda Mello Filho, Maurício Maia, Silvana Vianello, Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues
Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes and ticks. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease, however no specific treatment or vaccine is available for them. In addition, ocular manifestations of these diseases have become more prevalent over the past few years...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163889/ticks-and-tick-borne-diseases-in-ireland
#15
REVIEW
Annetta Zintl, Sara Moutailler, Peter Stuart, Linda Paredis, Justine Dutraive, Estelle Gonzalez, Jack O'Connor, Elodie Devillers, Barbara Good, Colm OMuireagain, Theo De Waal, Fergal Morris, Jeremy Gray
Throughout Europe interest in tick-borne agents is increasing, particularly with regard to those that can cause human disease. The reason for this is the apparent rise in the incidence of many tick-borne diseases (TBD's). While there has never been a national survey of ticks or TBD's in Ireland, the trend here appears to be the reverse with a decline in the incidence of some agents seemingly associated with decreasing tick numbers particularly on agricultural land. In the absence of robust baseline data, however, this development cannot be confirmed...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161419/control-of-infestations-by-ixodes-ricinus-tick-larvae-in-rabbits-vaccinated-with-aquaporin-recombinant-antigens
#16
Marinela Contreras, José de la Fuente
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases greatly impact human and animal health worldwide, and vaccines are an environmentally friendly alternative to acaricides for their control. Recent results have suggested that aquaporin (AQP) water channels have a key function during tick feeding and development, and constitute good candidate antigens for the control of tick infestations. METHODS: Here we describe the effect of vaccination with the Ixodes ricinus AQP1 (IrAQP) and a tick AQP conserved region (CoAQP) on I...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155284/molecular-surveillance-of-spotted-fever-group-rickettsioses-in-wildlife-and-detection-of-i-rickettsia-sibirica-i-in-a-topi-i-damaliscus-lunatus-i-ssp-i-jimela-i-in-kenya
#17
David Ndeereh, Andrew Thaiyah, Gerald Muchemi, Antoinette A Miyunga
Spotted fever group rickettsioses are a group of tick-borne zoonotic diseases caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. The diseases are widely reported amongst international travellers returning from most sub-Saharan Africa with fever, yet their importance in local populations largely remains unknown. Although this has started to change and recently there have been increasing reports of the diseases in livestock, ticks and humans in Kenya, they have not been investigated in wildlife. We examined the presence, prevalence and species of Rickettsia present in wildlife in two regions of Kenya with a unique human-wildlife-livestock interface...
January 30, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153343/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-china-a-review-of-epidemiology-and-vaccines
#18
REVIEW
Yi Xing, Heinz-Josef Schmitt, Adriano Arguedas, Junfeng Yang
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been shown to be endemic in northern and western China, including the three mountain areas in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang. In addition, serology evidence shows that there is human infection in south-west provinces of China, including Xizang (Tibet) and Yunnan. TBE in China is caused by the Far Eastern TBE virus subtype and there is no biphasic course for disease presentation. The majority of TBE cases in China have occurred in people who were living or working in forests...
January 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153052/distribution-and-molecular-characteristics-of-rickettsiae-found-in-ticks-across-central-mongolia
#19
Bazartseren Boldbaatar, Rui-Ruo Jiang, Michael E von Fricken, Sukhbaatar Lkhagvatseren, Pagbajab Nymadawa, Bekhochir Baigalmaa, Ya-Wei Wang, Benjamin D Anderson, Jia-Fu Jiang, Gregory C Gray
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding tick-borne diseases in Mongolia, despite having 26% of the population still living nomadic pastoral lifestyles. A total of 1497 adult unfed ticks: 261 Ixodes persulcatus, 795 Dermacentor nuttalli, and 441 Hyalomma asiaticum, were collected from three ecologically distinct regions in Central Mongolia. Tick pools (n = 299) containing ~5 ticks each, were tested for Rickettsia and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) using nested polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription-PCR, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR...
February 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146594/lyme-carditis-a-case-involving-the-conduction-system-and-mitral-valve
#20
Lakir D Patel, Jay S Schachne
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infection in the Northern hemisphere. Cardiac manifestations of Lyme disease typically include variable atrioventricular nodal block and rarely structural heart pathology. The incidence of Lyme carditis may be underestimated based on current reporting practices of confirmed cases. This case of a 59-year-old man with Lyme carditis demonstrates the unique presentation of widespread conduction system disease, mitral regurgitation, and suspected ischemic disease. Through clinical data, electrocardiograms, and cardiac imaging, we show the progression, and resolution, of a variety of cardiac symptoms attributable to infection with Lyme...
February 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
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