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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908919/better-evidence-for-smarter-policy-making
#1
EDITORIAL
David J Hunter, Shelina Visram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906516/what-is-the-flynn-effect-and-how-does-it-change-our-understanding-of-iq
#2
REVIEW
David Shenk
In 1981, psychologist James Flynn noticed that IQ scores had risen streadily over nearly a century a staggering difference of 18 points over two generations. After a careful analysis, he concluded the cause to be culture. Society had become more intelligent-come to grips with bigger, more abstract ideas over time-and had made people smarter. This observation, combined with solid evidence that IQ scores are also not fixed within an individual, neatly dispels the idea of intelligence being an innate and fixed entity...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893260/brain-drain-an-examination-of-stereotype-threat-effects-during-training-on-knowledge-acquisition-and-organizational-effectiveness
#3
James A Grand
Stereotype threat describes a situation in which individuals are faced with the risk of upholding a negative stereotype about their subgroup based on their actions. Empirical work in this area has primarily examined the impact of negative stereotypes on performance for threatened individuals. However, this body of research seldom acknowledges that performance is a function of learning-which may also be impaired by pervasive group stereotypes. This study presents evidence from a 3-day self-guided training program demonstrating that stereotype threat impairs acquisition of cognitive learning outcomes for females facing a negative group stereotype...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888244/book-review-neurotribes-the-legacy-of-autism-and-how-to-think-smarter-about-people-who-think-differently-steve-silberman
#4
Michael Sawyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867503/the-croprotect-project-and-wider-opportunities-to-improve-farm-productivity-through-web-based-knowledge-exchange
#5
REVIEW
Toby J A Bruce
A key global 21st century challenge is to maximize agricultural production while minimizing use of resources such as land, water, and energy to meet rising demand for produce. To meet this challenge, while also adapting to climate change, agriculture will have to become more knowledge intensive and deploy smarter farming techniques. The intention of this study was to: (1) Highlight the opportunity for web-based knowledge exchange to increase farm productivity and thus contribute to achieving food and energy security, (2) Give some examples of online farming information services such as the "CROPROTECT" tool I am developing in the UK, the CABI "Plantwise" Knowledge Bank and the IRRI "Rice Doctor," and (3) Consider lessons learnt so far...
May 2016: Food and energy security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847673/site-saturation-mutagenesis-applications-on-candida-methylica-formate-dehydrogenase
#6
Gülşah P Özgün, Emel B Ordu, H Esra Tütüncü, Emrah Yelboğa, Richard B Sessions, Nevin Gül Karagüler
In NADH regeneration, Candida methylica formate dehydrogenase (cmFDH) is a highly significant enzyme in pharmaceutical industry. In this work, site saturation mutagenesis (SSM) which is a combination of both rational design and directed evolution approaches is applied to alter the coenzyme specificity of NAD(+)-dependent cmFDH from NAD(+) to NADP(+) and increase its thermostability. For this aim, two separate libraries are constructed for screening a change in coenzyme specificity and an increase in thermostability...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766364/applicability-of-predictive-toxicology-methods-for-monoclonal-antibody-therapeutics-status-quo-and-scope
#7
Arathi Kizhedath, Simon Wilkinson, Jarka Glassey
Biopharmaceuticals, monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapeutics in particular, have positively impacted millions of lives. MAbs and related therapeutics are highly desirable from a biopharmaceutical perspective as they are highly target specific and well tolerated within the human system. Nevertheless, several mAbs have been discontinued or withdrawn based either on their inability to demonstrate efficacy and/or due to adverse effects. Approved monoclonal antibodies and derived therapeutics have been associated with adverse effects such as immunogenicity, cytokine release syndrome, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, intravascular haemolysis, cardiac arrhythmias, abnormal liver function, gastrointestinal perforation, bronchospasm, intraocular inflammation, urticaria, nephritis, neuropathy, birth defects, fever and cough to name a few...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744021/who-s-adopting-the-smarter-lunchroom-approach-individual-characteristics-of-innovative-food-service-directors
#8
Gnel Gabrielyan, Drew S Hanks, Kathryn Hoy, David R Just, Brian Wansink
School cafeterias and, subsequently, food service directors (FSDs) play a vital role in feeding children in the U.S. This study investigates which FSDs with different characteristics and organizational affiliations are most willing to embrace and implement new programs in their cafeterias. In 2014 we surveyed a representative sample of 8143 school FSDs across the U.S. regarding their knowledge and use of innovative methods that encourage children to select healthy food options. Nearly all of the surveyed FSDs (93%) are aware of behavioral strategies to promote healthier eating in school lunchrooms, and nearly 93% report having made at least one change in their lunchroom...
September 11, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740742/dual-photochemical-bond-cleavage-for-a-diarylethene-based-phototrigger-containing-both-methanolic-and-acetic-sources
#9
Olivier Galangau, Stephanie Delbaere, Nicolas Ratel-Ramond, Gwenael Rapenne, Ruiji Li, Jan Patrick Dela Cruz Calupitan, Takuya Nakashima, Tsuyoshi Kawai
In this manuscript, we present a novel concept for "smarter" photo-labile organic compounds combining not one but two caged functions. As proof of principle, this diarylethene-based compound possesses two inhibited chemical groups (OMe and OAc) and its efficient release in different solvents is reported. In low to medium polar media, both MeOH and AcOH are released, with a slight preferential uncaging of AcOH except in 1,4-dioxane where MeOH is preferentially released. On the contrary, DMSO or DMF render AcOH releasing strongly dominating...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736264/two-training-load-paradoxes-can-we-work-harder-and-smarter-can-physical-preparation-and-medical-be-team-mates
#10
Tim J Gabbett, Rod Whiteley
We have observed that in professional sporting organisations the staff responsible for physical preparation and medical care typically practice in relative isolation and display tension in regards their attitudes toward training load prescription (much more, and much less training respectively). Recent evidence shows that relatively high chronic training loads, when they are appropriately reached, are associated with reduced injury risk and better performance. Understanding this link between performance and training loads removes this tension, but requires a better understanding of the relationship between the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR), and it's association with performance and injury...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723087/strand-specific-transcriptome-sequencing-using-smart-technology
#11
Magnolia Bostick, Nathalie Bolduc, Alisa Lehman, Andrew Farmer
Next-generation sequencing is empowering a deeper understanding of biology by enabling RNA expression analysis over the entire transcriptome with high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range. One powerful application within this field is stranded RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), which is necessary to distinguish overlapping genes and to conduct comprehensive annotation and quantification of long non-coding RNAs. Commonly used methods for generating strand-specific RNA-seq libraries are often complicated by protocols that require several rounds of enzymatic treatments and clean-up steps, making them time-intensive, insensitive, and unsuitable for processing several samples simultaneously...
October 10, 2016: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710782/are-you-smarter-than-a-teenager-maybe-not-when-it-comes-to-reinforcement-learning
#12
Brynne C DiMenichi, Elizabeth Tricomi
Adolescence is a time of tumultuous behavior that may result, in part, from brain circuitry that enhances reward seeking. In this issue of Neuron, Davidow et al. (2016) present a convincing argument that adolescent brain functionality can be adaptive in certain contexts, particularly probabilistic learning environments.
October 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710011/cystic-fibrosis-the-dawn-of-a-new-therapeutic-era
#13
Sonya L Heltshe, Jonathan Cogen, Kathleen J Ramos, Christopher H Goss
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life shortening monogenetic disorder involving the lung affecting over 70,000 people worldwide. It has now been over 25 years since the identification of the disease-causing gene defect [the gene producing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR)]. Since this discovery, dramatic advances have occurred both in the basic science underpinning our understanding of the clinical presentation of CF, and in clinical outcomes noted by improvement in lung function and survival...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708776/implementing-smarter-lunchrooms-makeovers-in-new-york-state-middle-schools-an-initial-process-evaluation
#14
Laura N Thomas, Tisa F Hill, Alisha Gaines, Jamie S Dollahite
BACKGROUND: This paper presents design and findings from the process evaluation of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the effectiveness of Smarter Lunchrooms Movement (SLM) interventions to encourage consumption of either fruit, vegetables, or unflavored milk in middle school cafeterias (grades 6-8, typically children ages 10-14 years). Using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework adapted for environmental interventions, the process evaluation monitored fidelity to SLM protocol, determined barriers and facilitators influencing fidelity, and identified the training and support needs of implementers...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697566/hospice-value-based-purchasing-program-a-model-design
#15
Bryan P Nowak
With the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) the US Government committed to a transition in payment policy for healthcare services linking reimbursement to improved health outcomes rather than the volume of services provided. To accomplish this goal the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is designing and implementing new payment models intended to improve the quality of healthcare while reducing its cost. Collectively these novel payment models and programs have been characterized under the moniker of Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) and while many of these models retain a fundamental fee-for-service (FFS) structure they are seen as essential tools in the evolution away from volume based healthcare financing towards a health system that provides "better care, smarter spending, and healthier people"...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692727/can-tavr-make-me-smarter
#16
Philippe Généreux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684625/informatics-as-a-strategic-priority-and-collaborative-processes-to-build-a-smarter-forward-looking-health-department
#17
Kay Lovelace, Gulzar H Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612574/effects-of-physical-activity-on-schoolchildren-s-academic-performance-the-active-smarter-kids-ask-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Geir K Resaland, Eivind Aadland, Vegard Fusche Moe, Katrine N Aadland, Turid Skrede, Mette Stavnsbo, Laura Suominen, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Øyvind Glosvik, John R Andersen, Olav M Kvalheim, Gunn Engelsrud, Lars B Andersen, Ingar M Holme, Yngvar Ommundsen, Susi Kriemler, Willem van Mechelen, Heather A McKay, Ulf Ekelund, Sigmund A Anderssen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a seven-month, school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial on academic performance in 10-year-old children. METHODS: In total, 1129 fifth-grade children from 57 elementary schools in Sogn og Fjordane County, Norway, were cluster-randomized by school either to the intervention group or to the control group. The children in the 28 intervention schools participated in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015 consisting of three components: 1) 90min/week of physically active educational lessons mainly carried out in the school playground; 2) 5min/day of physical activity breaks during classroom lessons; 3) 10min/day physical activity homework...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610359/evaluating-research-impact-the-development-of-a-research-for-impact-tool
#19
Komla Tsey, Kenny Lawson, Irina Kinchin, Roxanne Bainbridge, Janya McCalman, Felecia Watkin, Yvonne Cadet-James, Allison Rossetto
INTRODUCTION: This paper examines the process of developing a Research for Impact Tool in the contexts of general fiscal constraint, increased competition for funding, perennial concerns about the over-researching of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander issues without demonstrable benefits as well as conceptual and methodological difficulties of evaluating research impact. The aim is to highlight the challenges and opportunities involved in evaluating research impact to serve as resource for potential users of the research for impact tool and others interested in assessing the impact of research...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598622/sequential-multiple-assignment-randomization-trials-with-enrichment-design
#20
Ying Liu, Yuanjia Wang, Donglin Zeng
Sequential multiple assignment randomization trial (SMART) is a powerful design to study Dynamic Treatment Regimes (DTRs) and allows causal comparisons of DTRs. To handle practical challenges of SMART, we propose a SMART with Enrichment (SMARTER) design, which performs stage-wise enrichment for SMART. SMARTER can improve design efficiency, shorten the recruitment period, and partially reduce trial duration to make SMART more practical with limited time and resource. Specifically, at each subsequent stage of a SMART, we enrich the study sample with new patients who have received previous stages' treatments in a naturalistic fashion without randomization, and only randomize them among the current stage treatment options...
September 6, 2016: Biometrics
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