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Magnetic resonance imaging

Punitha Subramaniam, Jadwiga Rogowska, Jennifer DiMuzio, Melissa Lopez-Larson, Erin McGlade, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of marijuana (MJ) use among adolescents has been on the rise. MJ use has been reported to impact several brain regions, including frontal regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The OFC is involved in emotion regulation and processing and has been associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Therefore, we hypothesized that adolescent MJ users would show disruptions in OFC connectivity compared with healthy adolescents (HC) which would be associated with symptoms of mood and anxiety...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Dennis Chan, Meredith Shafto, Rogier Kievit, Fiona Matthews, Molly Spink, Michael Valenzuela, Rik N Henson
This study tested the hypothesis that mid-life intellectual, physical, and social activities contribute to cognitive reserve (CR). Two hundred five individuals (196 with magnetic resonance imaging) aged 66-88 years from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience ( were studied, with cognitive ability and structural brain health measured as fluid IQ and total gray matter volume, respectively. Mid-life activities (MAs) were measured using the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression found that MAs made a unique contribution to late-life cognitive ability independent of education, occupation, and late-life activities...
July 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Muhammad A Spocter, Ashraf Uddin, Johnny C Ng, Edmund Wong, Victoria X Wang, Cheuk Tang, Bridget Wicinski, Jordan Haas, Kathleen Bitterman, Mary Ann Raghanti, Rachel Dunn, Patrick R Hof, Chet C Sherwood, Jelena Jovanovik, Clare Rusbridge, Paul R Manger
All domesticated mammals exhibit marked reductions in overall brain size, however, it is unknown whether the corpus callosum, an integral white matter fiber pathway for interhemispheric cortical communication, is affected by domestication differentially or strictly in coordination with changes in brain size. To answer this question, we used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to compare the mid-sagittal cross-sectional areas of the corpus callosum in 35 carnivore species, including eight wild canids and 13 domestic dogs...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Soh Youn Suh, Robert A Clark, Joseph L Demer
Purpose: Repetitive strain to the optic nerve (ON) due to tethering in adduction has been recently proposed as an intraocular pressure-independent mechanism of optic neuropathy in primary open-angle glaucoma. Since strabismus may alter adduction, we investigated whether gaze-related ON straightening and associated globe translation differ in horizontal and vertical strabismus. Methods: High-resolution orbital magnetic resonance imaging was obtained in 2-mm thick quasi-coronal planes using surface coils in 25 subjects (49 orbits) with esotropia (ET, 19 ± 3...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Bruce A Berkowitz, Robert H Podolsky, Benjamin Farrell, Hojun Lee, Christopher Trepanier, Ali M Berri, Kristin Dernay, Emma Graffice, Fatema Shafie-Khorassani, Timothy S Kern, Robin Roberts
Purpose: New perspectives are needed to understand decades of contradictory reports on the neuroprotective effects of the Cav1.2 L-type calcium channel blocker d-cis-diltiazem in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) models. Here, we address, in vivo, the following two knowledge gaps regarding d-cis-diltiazem's actions in the murine outer retina: (1) do normal mouse rods contain d-cis-diltiazem-insensitive Cav1.2 L-type calcium channels? (2) Can d-cis-diltiazem modify the normal rod redox environment? Methods: First, transretinal Cav1...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Adrienn Kazsoki, P Eacute Ter Szab Oacute, Attila Domján, Attila Balázs, Tamás Bozó, Miklós Kellermayer, Attila Farkas, Diána Balogh-Weiser, Balázs Pinke, András Darcsi, Szabolcs Béni, János Madarász, Lajos Szente, Romana Zelko
The electrospun nanofiber-based orally dissolving webs are promising candidates for rapid drug release, which is due to the high surface area to volume ratio of the fibers and the high amorphization efficacy of the fiber formation process. Although latter is responsible for the physical and/or chemical instability of these systems. The primary aim of the present study was to elucidate how the addition of polysorbate 80 (PS80) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) influenced the electrospinning process, the properties and behavior of the obtained nanofibers...
July 19, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Yu Wang, Chao Gu, Yongjun Huo, Weiwei Han, Jinfen Yu, Chengzong Ding, Xiuyu Zhao, Yunfang Meng, Chuanting Li
To explore the feasibility of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the diagnosis of anal fistula and evaluating its activity.Thirty-four patients with perianal fistulas were examined with DTI on a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before undergoing surgery. Based on the surgery requirement and preoperative examinations, the lesions fell into 2 groups: the positive inflammation activity (PIA) group and the negative inflammation activity (NIA) group. Each lesion was divided into 3 regions of interest (ROIs) (i...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Crîngu Antoniu Ionescu, Dan Calin, Dan Navolan, Alexandra Matei, Mihai Dimitriu, Catalin Herghelegiu, Liana Ples
RATIONALE: Holoprosencephaly is a structural malformation of the brain that results from the complete or incomplete noncleavage of the forebrain of the embryo into 2 hemispheres. We report a severe case of alobar holoprosencephaly diagnosed at 38 weeks, associated with cebocephaly, microcephaly, and craniosynostosis. PATIENT CONCERN: The main knowledge added by this case is the late ultrasound diagnosis and chromosomal analysis that revealed a very rare abnormality (45X/46,XX/47,XX) with mosaicism at chromosome 18...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gwan Hee Han, Min-A Kim
RATIONALE: Spontaneous and repeated hepatic ruptures caused by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome are uncommon but life-threatening conditions that rarely occur early in the second trimester of pregnancy. PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe a patient who experienced spontaneous hepatic ruptures in the absence of hypertension during the early second trimesters of both her first and second pregnancies. DIAGNOSES: A 34-year-old multiparous woman without hypertension was admitted at 21 weeks' gestation because of a spontaneous hepatic rupture with hemoperitoneum...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Farid Yudoyono, Pyung Goo Cho, Sang Hyuk Park, Bong Ju Moon, Seong Yi, Yoon Ha, Keung Nyun Kim, Do Heum Yoon, Dong Ah Shin
To investigate factors associated with surgical outcomes of cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). This retrospective study included patients (662 males and 251 females; mean age 55.8 years) with symptomatic OPLL. All patients had been diagnosed with OPLL based on cervical magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. Demographic, surgical outcome was measured using visual analog scale (VAS) and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scale scores. The results of our study indicated radicular pain was more common in segmental and circumscribe OPLL subtypes (P < 0...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xinyu Hu, Shijiao Cheng, Yuehui Yin, Lin Ning, Liquan Xiang, Yinpin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Supplemental oxygen has been commonly used in the cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, recent evidence suggests that high-concentration oxygen supplementation and hyperbaric oxygen in ACS patients are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to systematically review the role of supplemental oxygen therapy in normoxemic patients with ACS. METHODS: A search for randomized controlled trials before November 2017 in biomedical databases was performed, and a total of 6 eligible studies with 7508 participants were identified...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Julia Wertheim, Marco Ragni
It is a core cognitive ability of humans to represent and reason about relational information, such as "the train station is north of the hotel" or "Charles is richer than Jim." However, the neural processes underlying the ability to draw conclusions about relations are still not sufficiently understood. Central open questions are as follows: (1) What are the neural correlates of relational reasoning? (2) Where can deductive and inductive reasoning be localized? (3) What is the impact of different informational types on cerebral activity? For that, we conducted a meta-analysis of 47 neuroimaging studies...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Daniele Bruschetta, Giuseppe Anastasi, Veronica Andronaco, Filippo Cascio, Giuseppina Rizzo, Debora Di Mauro, Lilla Bonanno, Viviana Izzo, Diego Buda, Giovanna Vermiglio, Salvatore Bertino, Giorgio Cacciola, Alessia Bramanti, Demetrio Milardi
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a non-invasive MR technique widely employed to study muscle anatomy. DTI parameters have been use to investigate changes in microstructures dependent on demographic factors or transient condition such as exercise. The present study is aimed at investigating the diffusion parameters changes of the human calf muscles after a 3-months strength training protocol. METHODS: Ten young men were trained for improving size and strength of the medial (GCM), lateral gastrocnemius (GCL) and soleus (SL) three times a week, with at least 24 hours between training sessions, for a period of three months...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Hélène Lajous, Raphaël Riva, Bénédicte Lelièvre, Clément Tétaud, Sylvie Avril, François Hindré, Frank Boury, Christine Jérôme, Philippe Lecomte, Emmanuel Garcion
Glioblastoma is the most frequent and aggressive primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system with a gloomy prognosis. Platinum derivatives and one among them, cisplatin, exhibited promising results when locally administered into the brain of glioblastoma bearing rats. Nanovectorization of anticancer agents through polymeric nanoparticles may even promote drug accumulation within cells, thus concentrating the drug efficiently at its target. Anchorage of gadolinium complexes on the corona of such smart drug delivery systems could further allow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) monitoring of the nanoplatform biodistribution in the damaged parenchyma and its therapeutic benefit...
July 19, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Arpita Roy, Arghajit Pyne, Pallabi Pal, Santanu Dhara, Nilmoni Sarkar
We have introduced new niosome formulations using sucrose monolaurate, vitamin E and n -octanol as independent additives. Detailed characterization techniques including turbidity, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, ξ potential, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements have been introduced to monitor the morphological transition of the carbohydrate-based micellar assembly into niosomal aggregates. Moreover, microheterogeneity of these niosomal aggregates has been investigated through different fluorescence spectroscopic techniques using a hydrophobic probe molecule coumarin 153 (C153)...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Hanci Zhang, Lauren N Heckelman, Charles E Spritzer, Kwadwo A Owusu-Akyaw, John T Martin, Dean C Taylor, C T Moorman, Grant E Garrigues, Louis E DeFrate
Background: The human shoulder joint is the most mobile joint in the body. While in vivo shoulder kinematics under minimally loaded conditions have been studied, it is unclear how glenohumeral cartilage responds to high-demand loaded exercise. Hypothesis: A high-demand upper extremity exercise, push-ups, will induce compressive strain in the glenohumeral articular cartilage, which can be measured with validated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based techniques. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study...
July 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Omur Gulsum Deniz, Suleyman Kaplan, Mustafa Bekir Selçuk, Murat Terzi, Gamze Altun, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Kerim Aslan, Devra Davis
The increasing use of mobile phones may have a number of physiological and psychological effects on human health. Many animal and human studies have reported various effects on the central nervous system and cognitive performance from of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by mobile phones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of mobile phones on the morphology of the human brain and on cognitive performance using stereological and spectroscopic methods and neurocognitive tests...
October 2017: Journal of microscopy and ultrastructure
Atsushi Saito, Takashi Sasaki, Tomoo Inoue, Ayumi Narisawa, Takashi Inoue, Shinsuke Suzuki, Masayuki Ezura, Hiroshi Uenohara
Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant tumor of neural crest origin arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity. There are some reports of local recurrence or continuous extension along the olfactory epithelium to the central nervous system, but non-contiguous distant meningeal metastasis without local recurrence at the primary site is rare. We report a case of non-contiguous meningeal recurrence of olfactory neuroblastoma presenting as a giant frontal mass. A 66-year-old woman was admitted with a left nasal intranasal localized tumor without cranial extension and gross total removal was achieved...
July 2018: NMC Case Report Journal
Jie Zhang, Yanshuai Tu, Qingyang Li, Richard J Caselli, Paul M Thompson, Jieping Ye, Yalin Wang
Cortical thickness estimation performed in-vivo via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an effective measure of brain atrophy in preclinical individuals at high risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the high dimensionality of individual cortical thickness data coupled with small population samples make it challenging to perform cortical thickness feature selection for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Thus far, there are very few methods that can accurately predict future clinical scores using longitudinal cortical thickness measures...
April 2018: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
Nicolas Seranio, Kassa Darge, Douglas A Canning, Susan J Back
Imaging plays a pivotal role in evaluating the urogenital anatomy in children with ambiguous genitalia. Contrast enhanced genitosonography (CEGS) represents a low-cost and radiation-free alternative to the traditional techniques of fluoroscopic genitography and magnetic resonance imaging. We report a case of a child with ambiguous genitalia whose urogenital sinus anomaly is clearly demonstrated using CEGS and the postprocessing technique of image inversion. This case report shows the utility of CEGS in this patient population and the enhanced conspicuity with image inversion...
June 2018: Radiology Case Reports
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