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Magnetic resonance imaging

Z Chen, L Cheng, G Feng
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a sporadic condition of inflammatory bone pain that occurs as recurrent flares because of osteomyelitis, which presents in the form of multiple aseptic foci. The estimated prevalence of CRMO is 1-2 per million, affecting mostly children, in the age group of 2 to 17. Main symptoms of CRMO are bone inflammation and pain, which are generally worse at night. Other symptoms seen on radiographs indicate osteolytic lesions surrounded by sclerosis, at later stages of the disease...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Bo Zhu, Jeremiah Z Liu, Stephen F Cauley, Bruce R Rosen, Matthew S Rosen
Image reconstruction is essential for imaging applications across the physical and life sciences, including optical and radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography, positron emission tomography, ultrasound imaging and radio astronomy. During image acquisition, the sensor encodes an intermediate representation of an object in the sensor domain, which is subsequently reconstructed into an image by an inversion of the encoding function. Image reconstruction is challenging because analytic knowledge of the exact inverse transform may not exist a priori, especially in the presence of sensor non-idealities and noise...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Soo Young Yun, Young Jin Heo, Hae Woong Jeong, Jin Wook Baek, Hye Jung Choo, Jung Hwa Seo, Sung Tae Kim, Ji Young Lee, Sung Chul Jin
Background Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) more frequently develops in patients with intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) than extracranial VAD, and is associated with possible poor clinical outcomes. The aim of this study is to compare high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) findings and clinical features of VAD with and without AIS. Methods Twenty-nine lesions from 27 patients (15 male and 12 female patients; age range = 28-73 years) who underwent diffusion MRI and 3T HR-MRI within seven days were included...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Gianvincenzo Sparacia, Francesco Agnello, Angelo Gambino, Martina Sciortino, Massimo Midiri
Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of the 'central vein' sign in white matter lesions on susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance images in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Materials and methods T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images of 19 MS patients and 19 patients affected by CSVD were analysed for the presence and localisation of focal hyperintense white matter lesions. Lesions were subdivided into periventricular or non-periventricular (juxtacortical, subcortical, deep white matter and cerebellar) distributed...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Rodney C Wade, Robert M Lester, Ashraf S Gorgey
The purposes of this study were to cross-validate a previously derived anthropometric estimation equation specific to the spinal cord injury population and determine the ratios of absolute skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) for the quadriceps, hamstrings, and adductor muscle groups based on magnetic resonance imaging. The validation cohort consisted of eleven men with chronic (>1 yr. post injury) spinal cord injury (SCI). Ten individuals were classified as AIS A or B and one participant was classified as an AIS C...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Andan Qian, Xin Wang, Huiru Liu, Jiejie Tao, Jiejie Zhou, Qiong Ye, Jiance Li, Chuang Yang, Jingliang Cheng, Ke Zhao, Meihao Wang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder that has been linked to the dopaminergic system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulation of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on functional brain activity during the resting state in ADHD children using the methods of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in 49 children with ADHD. All participants were classified as either carriers of the DRD4 4-repeat/4-repeat (4R/4R) allele (n = 30) or the DRD4 2-repeat (2R) allele (n = 19)...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Jeffrey Lambe, Olwen C Murphy, Shiv Saidha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the recognition that neurodegeneration represents the principal substrate of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), there has been increased strives towards identifying biomarkers for accurately quantifying and tracking neurodegeneration during the disease course. The retina provides an opportune "window" into the central nervous system (CNS) in MS, with retinal changes in MS reflecting not only local, but also global aspects of neurodegeneration and inflammation operative in the disease...
March 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Jayson Lian, Nicole Levine, Woojin Cho
PURPOSE: To review the current literature on methods of accurate numeration of vertebral segments in patients with Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs). LSTVs are a common congenital anomaly of the L5-S1 junction. While their clinical significance has been debated, unquestionable is the need for their identification prior to spinal surgery. We hypothesize that there are no reliable landmarks by which we can accurately number transitional vertebrae, and thus a full spinal radiograph is required...
March 21, 2018: European Spine Journal
Zhi-Cheng Li, Hongmin Bai, Qiuchang Sun, Qihua Li, Lei Liu, Yan Zou, Yinsheng Chen, Chaofeng Liang, Hairong Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To build a reliable radiomics model from multiregional and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pretreatment prediction of O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promotor methylation status in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). METHODS: In this retrospective multicentre study, 1,705 multiregional radiomics features were automatically extracted from multiparametric MRI. A radiomics model with a minimal set of all-relevant features and a radiomics model with univariately-predictive and non-redundant features were built for MGMT methylation prediction from a primary cohort (133 patients) and tested on an independent validation cohort (60 patients)...
March 21, 2018: European Radiology
Christopher R Broda, Svetlana B Shugh, Rohan B Parikh, YunFei Wang, Tobias R Schlingmann, Cory V Noel
After an arterial switch operation (ASO), serial imaging is necessary to monitor for maladaptive changes. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to 2-D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in assessing post-operative ASO patients. We performed a retrospective review of patients at a single tertiary care center who underwent an ASO and subsequently had a CMR performed from 7/2010 to 7/2016. Those with single ventricle anatomy, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, or previous atrial switch operation were excluded...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Ana Filipa Geraldo, João Pereira, Pedro Nunes, Sofia Reimão, Rita Sousa, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Susana Pinto, Jorge Guedes Campos, Mamede de Carvalho
PURPOSE: This paper aims to analyze the contribution of mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in the detection of microstructural abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to evaluate the degree of agreement between structural and functional changes through concomitant diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and clinical assessment. METHODS: Fourteen patients with ALS and 11 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls were included...
March 22, 2018: Neuroradiology
João Cruz, Vasco Mascarenhas
Muscle injuries are one of the major problems facing elite athletes, representing a significant source of time lost from competition, with substantial consequences for teams and athletes. There are considerable pressures for a rapid return, but players who return to competition too soon have an increased risk of recurrent muscle injuries, which are associated with longer lay-offs. Imaging plays a key role in achieving the correct diagnosis, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as the method of choice for skeletal muscle imaging...
March 21, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Kerstin Zwirner, Daniela Thorwarth, René M Winter, Stefan Welz, Jakob Weiss, Nina F Schwenzer, Holger Schmidt, Christian la Fougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Daniel Zips, Sergios Gatidis
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of voxel-wise multiparametric characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) using hybrid multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with [18 F]-fluorodesoxyglucose (FDG-PET/MRI) in a radiation treatment planning setup. METHODS: Ten patients with locally advanced HNSCC were examined with a combined FDG-PET/MRI in an irradiation planning setup...
March 21, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Mitul A Mehta, Anne Schmechtig, Vasileia Kotoula, Juliet McColm, Kimberley Jackson, Claire Brittain, Sitra Tauscher-Wisniewski, Bruce J Kinon, Paul D Morrison, Thomas Pollak, Timothy Mant, Steven C R Williams, Adam J Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Aberrant glutamate neurotransmission, and in particular dysfunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and represents a novel therapeutic target. Low-dose administration of the NMDA antagonist ketamine in healthy volunteers elicits a strong blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging signal that can be attenuated by pretreatment with single, therapeutically effective doses of marketed medicines interacting with the glutamate system...
March 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jun Han, Seok-Hyung Won, Jung-Taek Kim, Myung-Hoon Hahn, Ye-Yeon Won
Purpose: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is considered an important cause of early degenerative arthritis development. Although three-dimensional (3D) imaging such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging are considered precise imaging modalities for 3D morphology of FAI, they are associated with several limitations when used in out-patient clinics. The paucity of FAI morphologic data in Koreans makes it difficult to select the most effective radiographical method when screening for general orthopedic problems...
March 2018: Hip & Pelvis
Maria Shoaib, Jacqueline J Kraus, Muhammad T Khan
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is a medical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. Definitive diagnosis is established by history, clinical examination, neuroimaging studies, supportive electroencephalogram (EEG) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. We report a case of HSVE presenting as a stroke mimic in a 76-year-old female with a history of atrial fibrillation on warfarin. She was admitted to our medical intensive care unit with intermittent fever, lethargy, and new onset left-sided hemiparesis...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
Jumpei Ogura, Yasushi Adachi, Koji Yasumoto, Akiharu Okamura, Hirofumi Nonogaki, Kazuyo Kakui, Koji Yamanoi, Koh Suginami, Takashi Koyama, Susumu Ikehara
Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the endometrium is an extremely rare, high-grade malignant tumor. We herein report a case of a rapidly growing LCNEC arising in the endometrium. A 52-year-old woman was referred to Toyooka Hospital (Tooyoka, Japan) due to genital bleeding in February 2016. There had been no abnormalities on a regular gynecological and physical examination 3 months prior to the consultation. Imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and a pelvic examination revealed a tumor sized 16...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Ling Hu, Chao Wang
Intramedullary melanotic schwannomas (IMS) are rare lesions, with only 8 cases reported in the literature to date. We herein describe the case of a 40-year-old male patient with an IMS of the cervical cord, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the ninth reported case of IMS, and review the relevant literature. The patient presented with numbness of the left arm that gradually worsened over a period of 4 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine with gadolinium enhancement revealed an intramedullary lesion at the level of C1-C2...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Jung Woo Lee, Min Wook Joo, Jin-Kyeong Sung, Jae-Hoon Ahn, Yong-Koo Kang
Background: To describe the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings of ganglion cysts with effusion in the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath around the hallux to evaluate their origin. Methods: Patients with recurrent or painful ganglion cysts around the hallux with effusion in the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath who underwent surgical treatment at St. Vincent's Hospital from February 2007 to August 2016 were investigated. Surgical indication was a painful or recurrent mass caused by the cystic lesions...
March 2018: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
Seung-Han Shin, Yong-Suk Lee, Jin-Woo Kang, Dong-Young Noh, Joon-Yong Jung, Yang-Guk Chung
Background: The location of the ulnar styloid process can be confusing because the radius and the hand rotate around the ulna. The purpose of this study was to identify the absolute location of the ulnar styloid process, which is independent of forearm pronation or supination, to use it as a reference for neutral forearm rotation on lateral radiographs of the wrist. Methods: Computed tomography (CT) images of 23 forearms taken with elbow flexion of 70° to 90° were analyzed...
March 2018: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
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