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Intelligence Quotient

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334879/altered-sleep-homeostasis-correlates-with-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy
#1
Melanie Boly, Benjamin Jones, Graham Findlay, Erin Plumley, Armand Mensen, Bruce Hermann, Guilio Tononi, Rama Maganti
In animal studies, both seizures and interictal spikes induce synaptic potentiation. Recent evidence suggests that electroencephalogram slow wave activity during sleep reflects synaptic potentiation during wake, and that its homeostatic decrease during the night is associated with synaptic renormalization and its beneficial effects. Here we asked whether epileptic activity induces plastic changes that can be revealed by high-density electroencephalography recordings during sleep in 15 patients with focal epilepsy and 15 control subjects...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315449/prophylactic-levetiracetam-for-seizure-control-after-cranioplasty-a-multicenter-prospective-controlled-study
#2
Shuli Liang, Ping Ding, Shaohui Zhang, Junchen Zhang, Jiwu Zhang, Yuping Wu
PURPOSE: To study the efficacy and safety of prophylactic levetiracetam (LEV) administration in adults undergoing cranioplasty. METHODS: Two hundred adults undergoing cranioplasty were prospectively enrolled and randomly divided into LEV group (prophylactic LEV for 24 weeks) and control group (no prophylactic anti-epileptic drugs). The patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, occurrence of postoperative seizure, changes in intelligence quotient (IQ), memory quotient (MQ), and activities of daily living (ADL) scores, as well as postoperative hospital stay side effects, were all analyzed at 2-, 24-, and 48-week follow-up visits...
March 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302757/alteration-of-monoamine-receptor-activity-and-glucose-metabolism-in-paediatric-patients-with-anticonvulsant-induced-cognitive-impairment
#3
Yuankai Zhu, Jianhua Feng, Jianfeng Ji, Haifeng Hou, Lin Chen, Shuang Wu, Qing Liu, Qiong Yao, Peizhen Du, Kai Zhang, Qing Chen, Zexin Chen, Hong Zhang, Mei Tian
A landmark study from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) reported that the assessment of cognitive difficulties in children with epilepsy is timely and imperative. Anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment could influence the quality of life more than seizure itself in patients. Although monoaminergic system is involved in the regulation of cognitive process, its role in anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment remains unclear. Methods: To explore in vivo monoamine receptor binding activity in patients with anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment, each patient had PET imaging with both monoamine receptor binding agent, (11)C-N-methylspiperone ((11)C-NMSP), and glucose metabolic agent, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302196/-association-between-intelligence-development-and-facial-expression-recognition-ability-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Ning Pan, Gui-Hua Wu, Ling Zhang, Ya-Fen Zhao, Han Guan, Cai-Juan Xu, Jin Jing, Yu Jin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of intelligence development, facial expression recognition ability, and the association between them in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: A total of 27 ASD children aged 6-16 years (ASD group, full intelligence quotient >70) and age- and gender-matched normally developed children (control group) were enrolled. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition and Chinese Static Facial Expression Photos were used for intelligence evaluation and facial expression recognition test...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295206/molecular-clinical-and-neuropsychological-study-in-31-patients-with-kabuki-syndrome-and-kmt2d-mutations
#5
Natacha Lehman, Anne Claire Mazery, Antoine Visier, Clarisse Baumann, Dominique Lachesnais, Yline Capri, Annick Toutain, Sylvie Odent, Myriam Mikaty, Cyril Goizet, Emmanuelle Taupiac, Marie Line Jacquemont, Elodie Sanchez, Elise Schaefer, Vincent Gatinois, Laurence Faivre, Delphine Minot, Honorine Kayirangwa, Kim-Hanh Le Qang Sang, Nathalie Boddaert, Sophie Bayard, Didier Lacombe, Sébastien Moutton, Isabelle Touitou, Marlène Rio, Jeanne Amiel, Stanislas Lyonnet, Damien Sanlaville, Marie Christine Picot, David Geneviève
Kabuki syndrome (KS - OMIM 147920) is a rare developmental disease characterized by the association of multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. This study aimed to investigate intellectual performance in children with Kabuki syndrome and link the performance to several clinical features and molecular data. We recruited 31 children with KMT2D mutations who were 6 to 16 years old. They all completed the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition. We calculated all indexes: the Full Scale Intellectual Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptive Reasoning Index (PRI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Working Memory Index (WMI)...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293480/the-role-of-genes-intelligence-personality-and-social-engagement-in-cognitive-performance-in-klinefelter-syndrome
#6
Anne Skakkebæk, Philip J Moore, Anders Degn Pedersen, Anders Bojesen, Maria Krarup Kristensen, Jens Fedder, Peter Laurberg, Jens Michael Hertz, John Rosendahl Østergaard, Mikkel Wallentin, Claus Højbjerg Gravholt
INTRODUCTION: The determinants of cognitive deficits among individuals with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are not well understood. This study was conducted to assess the impact of general intelligence, personality, and social engagement on cognitive performance among patients with KS and a group of controls matched for age and years of education. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with KS and 69 controls were assessed in terms of IQ, NEO personality inventory, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scale, and measures of cognitive performance reflecting working memory and executive function...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290265/reduced-optimism-and-a-heightened-neural-response-to-everyday-worries-are-specific-to-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-not-seen-in-social-anxiety
#7
K S Blair, M Otero, C Teng, M Geraci, M Ernst, R J R Blair, D S Pine, C Grillon
BACKGROUND: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are co-morbid and associated with similar neural disruptions during emotion regulation. In contrast, the lack of optimism examined here may be specific to GAD and could prove an important biomarker for that disorder. METHOD: Unmedicated individuals with GAD (n = 18) and age-, intelligence quotient- and gender-matched SAD (n = 18) and healthy (n = 18) comparison individuals were scanned while contemplating likelihoods of high- and low-impact negative (e...
March 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282629/manganese-exposure-and-neurotoxic-effects-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Max Stanley Chartrand, Jan Aaseth
Manganese (Mn) is the fifth most abundant metal on earth. Although it is a well understood essential trace element, in excess, Mn is neurotoxic. Initial toxic symptoms associated with Mn are of psychiatric nature and are clinically defined as locura manganica. Neurological signs of Mn toxicity include dystonia, progressive bradykinesia, and disturbance of gait, slurring, and stuttering of speech with diminished volume. Studies indicate that children who ingested Mn in the drinking water (WMn) at or above a level of 0...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279885/brain-morphometric-analysis-predicts-decline-of-intelligence-quotient-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-preliminary-study
#9
Rong Chen, Jaroslaw Krejza, Michal Arkuszewski, Robert A Zimmerman, Edward H Herskovits, Elias R Melhem
PURPOSE: For children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and at low risk category of stroke, we aim to build a predictive model to differentiate those with decline of intelligence-quotient (IQ) from counterparts without decline, based on structural magnetic-resonance (MR) imaging volumetric analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This preliminary prospective cohort study included 25 children with SCD, homozygous for hemoglobin S, with no history of stroke and transcranial Doppler mean velocities below 170cm/s at baseline...
March 6, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278233/catch-up-growth-in-the-first-two-years-of-life-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-elbw-infants-is-associated-with-lower-body-fat-in-young-adolescence
#10
Anke Raaijmakers, Lotte Jacobs, Maissa Rayyan, Theun Pieter van Tienoven, Els Ortibus, Elena Levtchenko, Jan A Staessen, Karel Allegaert
AIM: To investigate growth patterns and anthropometrics in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) children and link these outcomes to neurocognition and body composition in childhood. METHODS: ELBW children were examined at birth (n = 140), at 9 and 24 months (n≥96) and at approximately 11 years within the framework of the PREMATCH (PREMATurity as predictor children's of Cardiovascular and renal Health) case-control (n = 93-87) study. Regional growth charts were used to convert anthropometrics into Z-scores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276776/brain-injury-with-diabetes-mellitus-evidence-mechanisms-and-treatment-implications
#11
Sherifa A Hamed
Diabetes mellitus is a risk for brain injury. Brain injury is associated with acute and chronic hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycaemic events in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is a cause of cognitive deterioration, low intelligent quotient, neurodegeneration, brain aging, brain atrophy and dementia. Areas covered: The current review highlights the experimental, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological evidence of brain injury induced by diabetes and its associated metabolic derangements...
February 22, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275361/relationship-between-divergent-thinking-and-intelligence-an-empirical-study-of-the-threshold-hypothesis-with-chinese-children
#12
Baoguo Shi, Lijing Wang, Jiahui Yang, Mengpin Zhang, Li Xu
The threshold hypothesis is a classical and notable explanation for the relationship between creativity and intelligence. However, few empirical examinations of this theory exist, and the results are inconsistent. To test this hypothesis, this study investigated the relationship between divergent thinking (DT) and intelligence with a sample of 568 Chinese children aged between 11 and 13 years old using testing and questionnaire methods. The study focused on the breakpoint of intelligence and the moderation effect of openness on the relationship between intelligence and DT...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275343/the-three-models-of-emotional-intelligence-and-performance-in-a-hot-and-cool-go-no-go-task-in-undergraduate-students
#13
María J Gutiérrez-Cobo, Rosario Cabello, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand and regulate emotions, appears to be helpful in the performance of "hot" (i.e., emotionally laden) cognitive tasks when using performance-based ability models, but not when using self-report EI models. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between EI (as measured through a performance-based ability test, a self-report mixed test and a self-report ability test) and cognitive control ability during the performance of hot and "cool" (i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270753/assessing-relevance-of-external-cognitive-measures
#14
REVIEW
Osvaldo Cairó
The arrival of modern brain imaging technologies has provided new opportunities for examining the biological essence of human intelligence as well as the relationship between brain size and cognition. Thanks to these advances, we can now state that the relationship between brain size and intelligence has never been well understood. This view is supported by findings showing that cognition is correlated more with brain tissues than sheer brain size. The complexity of cellular and molecular organization of neural connections actually determines the computational capacity of the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270343/comprehensive-neuropsychological-evaluation-of-children-and-adolescents-with-sickle-cell-anemia-a-hospital-based-sample
#15
Samantha Nunes, Nayara Argollo, Marivania Mota, Camilo Vieira, Eduardo Pondé de Sena
BACKGROUND: Individuals with sickle cell anemia may suffer symptomatic or silent cerebral infarcts leading to neurocognitive complications. This study investigated the cognitive and intellectual performance of children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia. METHODS: The socioeconomic status, clinical aspects and behavioral profile of 15 young individuals with sickle cell anemia were evaluated. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment Test, and the Child Behavior Checklist were applied...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256697/-discriminatory-power-of-executive-functions-and-of-theory-of-mind-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-rationale-for-intervention
#16
A Miranda-Casas, C Berenguer-Forner, B Rosello-Miranda, I Baixauli-Fortea, R Rosello-Miranda, C Colomer-Diago
INTRODUCTION: Executive functions and theory of mind (ToM) deficits are present in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying the magnitude of the association between executive functions and ToM is important for understanding the disorder. AIMS: This study adopts a naturalistic evaluation approach to analyze the executive functions versus ToM ability to discriminate between children with ADHD and typically developing children and to identify the degree of association between deficits in the components of executive functions (behavioral regulation and metacognitive) and ToM...
February 24, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256687/-reliability-and-stability-in-the-diagnosis-of-high-intellectual-capacity
#17
S Sastre-Riba, A Castello-Tarrida
INTRODUCTION: From a differential perspective it is essential to identify high intellectual capacity (HIC) as a valuable personal and social resource. A valid, stable and reliable metric approach is needed that prevents both false positives and non-detection, thus facilitating the planning and implementation of educational intervention programmes that enable the individual to express his or her personal well-being and potential. AIM: To explore the reliability and stability of the metric approach to HIC at different times of measurement...
February 24, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251825/maternal-dietary-patterns-during-pregnancy-and-intelligence-quotients-in-the-offspring-at-8%C3%A2-years-of-age-findings-from-the-alspac-cohort
#18
Ana Amélia Freitas-Vilela, Rebecca M Pearson, Pauline Emmett, Jon Heron, Andrew D A C Smith, Alan Emond, Joseph R Hibbeln, Maria Beatriz Trindade Castro, Gilberto Kac
Dietary intake during pregnancy may influence child neurodevelopment and cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the associations between dietary patterns obtained in pregnancy and intelligence quotients (IQ) among offspring at 8 years of age. Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed a food frequency questionnaire at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 12,195). Dietary patterns were obtained by cluster analysis. Three clusters best described women's diets during pregnancy: "fruit and vegetables," "meat and potatoes," and "white bread and coffee...
March 2, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250563/specific-learning-disabilities-and-psychiatric-comorbidities-in-school-children-in-south-india
#19
Shailaja Bandla, Gowri Devi Mandadi, Anand Bhogaraju
BACKGROUND: Specific learning disabilities (SLDs) are an important cause of academic underachievement in children and are also associated with comorbidities like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which further have an impact on the child's education. AIMS: To estimate the prevalence and psychosocial profile and psychiatric comorbidities in children with SLD in two settings, i.e., on special (remedial) education and schools and to compare the findings with normal children...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219251/childhood-intelligence-and-early-tooth-wear-patterns
#20
Tuomo Heikkinen, Jaana Rusanen, Koshi Sato, Paula Pesonen, Virpi Harila, Lassi Alvesalo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the relationships between early dental wear patterns and preschool IQ (Intelligence Quotient, by Stanford-Binet) of the child to illuminate the historic relationship of mental queries and bruxism. METHODS: The dental study participants were 864 Euro-American preschool and school children whose IQs were tested for school maturity purposes at the age of 4 years, followed by dental data in a cross-sectional manner at the mean age of 7...
February 20, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
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