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Intelligence Quotient

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089981/sleep-disturbances-and-neurobehavioral-performance-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#1
Teresa M Ward, Dean W Beebe, Maida Lynn Chen, Carol A Landis, Sarah Ringold, Ken Pike, Carol A Wallace
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent of polysomnographic (PSG) sleep disturbances [obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI), number of wake bouts, arousals, periodic limb movements] and the effect of OAHI on neurobehavioral performance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), JIA without OSA, and controls without OSA, adjusting for intelligence quotient (IQ), pain, medications, daytime sleepiness, and wake bouts. METHODS: Children 6-11 years, 68 with JIA and 67 controls, underwent 1 night of PSG and completed self-reported daytime sleepiness surveys, multiple sleep latency tests for physiological sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance tests the next day...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#2
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067603/protective-personality-traits-high-openness-and-low-neuroticism-linked-to-better-memory-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Victoria M Leavitt, Korhan Buyukturkoglu, Matilde Inglese, James F Sumowski
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common, although few risk/protective factors are known. OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships of personality to memory/non-memory cognition in MS. METHOD: 80 patients completed a cognitive battery and a personality scale measuring the "Big 5" traits: openness, neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness. RESULTS: Memory was most related to openness, with higher openness linked to better memory and lower risk for memory impairment, controlling for age, atrophy, education, and intelligence quotient (IQ)...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057876/academic-performance-in-adolescents-born-after-art-a-nationwide-registry-based-cohort-study
#4
A L Spangmose, S S Malchau, L Schmidt, D Vassard, S Rasmussen, A Loft, J Forman, A Pinborg
STUDY QUESTION: Is academic performance in adolescents aged 15-16 years and conceived after ART, measured as test scores in ninth grade, comparable to that for spontaneously conceived (SC) adolescents? SUMMARY ANSWER: ART singletons had a significantly lower mean test score in the adjusted analysis when compared with SC singletons, yet the differences were small and probably not of clinical relevance. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies have shown similar intelligence quotient (IQ) levels in ART and SC children, but only a few have been on adolescents...
January 5, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054219/intracranial-aspergillosis-in-an-immunocompetent-young-woman
#5
Prasan Kumar Panda, Sunil Kumar Mavidi, Naveet Wig, Ajay Garg, Aasma Nalwa, M C Sharma
Intracranial aspergillosis (ICA) is very rare in the immunocompetent individuals, usually misdiagnosed as a tumor or an abscess. A high index of clinical suspicion is required in patients who present with focal neurological deficits, headache, or seizures. We report the case of a 25-year-old immunocompetent female, who presented with a 15-month history of headache, seizures, left-sided proptosis and ophthalmoplegia, and right hemiparesis. Recovery from the symptoms and decrease in the lesion size seen on the radiological assessment were achieved through two decompressive craniotomies followed by prolonged combined systemic antifungal therapies...
January 4, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052648/neurocognitive-and-psychological-functioning-of-children-with-an-intracranial-germ-cell-tumor
#6
Younghee Park, Eun-Seung Yu, Boram Ha, Hyeon-Jin Park, Jong-Heun Kim, Joo-Young Kim
Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the neurocognitive functioning of children with intracranial germ cell tumor (IGCT) prior to receiving proton beam therapy (PBT), and to identify differential characteristics of their neurocognitive functioning depending on tumor location. As a secondary object of this study, neurocognitive functions were followed up at 1-2 years after PBT to examine early post-treatment changes. Material and Methods: Between 2008 and 2014, 34 children with IGCT treated who received PBT at National Cancer Center, Korea were enrolled in this study...
January 4, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048024/su-f-t-116-predicting-iq-and-the-risk-of-hearing-loss-following-proton-versus-photon-radiotherapy-for-pediatric-brain-tumor-patients
#7
D Fortin, A Ng, D Tsang, M Sharpe, N Laperriere, D Hodgson
PURPOSE: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. METHODS: Patients who had received radical IMRT were randomly selected from our retrospective database: 10 cases each of craniopharyngioma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma, and 20 cases of glioma...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038386/cognitive-functions-in-children-exposed-to-antiepileptic-drugs-in-utero-study-in-georgia
#8
Sofia Kasradze, Nino Gogatishvili, Giorgi Lomidze, Tamar Ediberidze, Marine Lazariashvili, Ketevan Khomeriki, Shorena Mamukadze, Mariam Metreveli, Tamar Gagoshidze, Nino Tatishvili, Torbjörn Tomson
OBJECTIVE: The cognitive teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has gained increasing attention in the last decade. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of AED fetal exposure on the cognitive development of children of mothers with epilepsy from Georgia in a controlled study taking into consideration major confounding factors. METHODS: A prospective cohort group was formed from children and mothers registered in the Georgian National AED-Pregnancy Registry...
December 27, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033309/marijuana-use-among-10th-grade-students-washington-2014
#9
Anar Shah, Mandy Stahre
Some studies have suggested that long-term, regular use of marijuana starting in adolescence might impair brain development and lower intelligence quotient (1,2). Since 2012, purchase of recreational or retail marijuana has become legal for persons aged ≥21 years in the District of Columbia, Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, raising concern about increased marijuana access by youths. The law taxing and regulating recreational or retail marijuana was approved by Washington voters in 2012 and the first retail licenses were issued in July 2014; medical marijuana use has been legal since 1998...
December 30, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031078/autism-spectrum-traits-and-visual-processing-in-young-adults-with-very-low-birth-weight-the-helsinki-study-of-very-low-birth-weight-adults
#10
E Wolford, A-K Pesonen, K Heinonen, M Lahti, R Pyhälä, J Lahti, P Hovi, S Strang-Karlsson, J G Eriksson, S Andersson, A-L Järvenpää, E Kajantie, K Räikkönen
Visual processing problems may be one underlying factor for cognitive impairments related to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We examined associations between ASD-traits (Autism-Spectrum Quotient) and visual processing performance (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test; Block Design task of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III) in young adults (mean age=25.0, s.d.=2.1 years) born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) (n=101) or at term (n=104). A higher level of ASD-traits was associated with slower global visual processing speed among the preterm VLBW, but not among the term-born group (P<0...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030441/does-permissive-hypoxaemia-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-cause-long-term-neurological-impairment-a-study-in-patients-with-h1n1-induced-severe-respiratory-failure
#11
Bernhard Holzgraefe, Christin Andersson, Håkan Kalzén, Viktor von Bahr, Mikael Mosskin, Elna-Marie Larsson, Kenneth Palmér, Björn Frenckner, Anders Larsson
BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Life Support Organisation accepts permissive hypoxaemia in adult patients during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The neurological long-term outcome of this approach has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of brain lesions and cognitive dysfunction in survivors from the Influenza A/H1N1 2009 pandemic treated with permissive hypoxaemia during ECMO for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
February 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012522/comparison-of-intelligence-quotients-of-first-and-second-generation-deaf-children-with-cochlear-implants
#12
K Amraei, S Amirsalari, M Ajalloueyan
Hearing impairment is a common type of sensory loss in children. Studies indicate that children with hearing impairment are deficient in social, cognitive and communication skills. This study compared the intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants. This research is causal-comparative. All 15 deaf children investigated had deaf parents and were selected from Baqiyatallah Cochlear Implant Center. The 15 children with cochlear implants were paired with similar children with hearing parents using purposive sampling...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012515/the-utility-of-early-developmental-assessments-on-understanding-later-nonverbal-iq-in-children-who-are-deaf-or-hard-of-hearing
#13
Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Susan Wiley, Jannel Phillips, Mekibib Altaye, Daniel I Choo
OBJECTIVE: In children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), it is helpful to have meaningful early measures of development in order to provide effective interventions and offer benchmarks that help recognize varied developmental trajectories. The main objective of this study was to compare results of an early developmental assessment prior to 3 years of age to later nonverbal IQ assessed between 3 and 6 years of age in children who are DHH. METHODS: This study included children 3-6 years of age with bilateral permanent hearing who were enrolled in a prospective cohort study on developmental outcomes...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005457/modelling-difficulties-in-abstract-thinking-in-psychosis-the-importance-of-socio-developmental-background
#14
A O Berg, I Melle, V Zuber, C Simonsen, M Nerhus, T Ueland, O A Andreassen, K Sundet, A Vaskinn
INTRODUCTION: Abstract thinking is important in modern understanding of neurocognitive abilities, and a symptom of thought disorder in psychosis. In patients with psychosis, we assessed if socio-developmental background influences abstract thinking, and the association with executive functioning and clinical psychosis symptoms. METHODS: Participants (n = 174) had a diagnosis of psychotic or bipolar disorder, were 17-65 years, intelligence quotient (IQ) > 70, fluent in a Scandinavian language, and their full primary education in Norway...
December 22, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000998/the-role-of-objective-cognitive-dysfunction-in-subjective-cognitive-complaints-after-stroke
#15
M W A van Rijsbergen, R E Mark, W J Kop, P L M de Kort, M M Sitskoorn
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Objective cognitive performance (OCP) is often impaired in patients post-stroke but the consequences of OCP for patient-reported subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) are poorly understood. We performed a detailed analysis on the association between post-stroke OCP and SCC. METHODS: Assessments of OCP and SCC were obtained in 208 patients 3 months after stroke. OCP was evaluated using conventional and ecologically valid neuropsychological tests...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000353/physical-and-cognitive-fitness-in-young-adulthood-and-risk-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-at-an-early-age
#16
E Longinetti, D Mariosa, H Larsson, C Almqvist, P Lichtenstein, W Ye, F Fang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a clinical impression that patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have a higher level of physical fitness and lower body mass index (BMI) than average. However, there is a lack of literature examining the relationship between cognitive fitness and ALS risk. In this study we explored the associations of both physical and cognitive fitness with future risk of ALS. METHODS: Data on physical fitness, BMI, intelligence quotient (IQ) and stress resilience were collected from 1 838 376 Swedish men aged 17-20 years at conscription during 1968-2010...
January 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984215/psychosocial-evaluation-for-first-hand-allotransplantation-in-taiwan
#17
Nien-Mu Chiu, Yur-Ren Kuo, Yu Lee, Chien-Chang Chen
Hand transplantation has raised ethical and psychological concerns. Few studies have focused on reasons for not selecting candidates on waiting lists. To describe the psychosocial evaluation of referred prospective hand transplant candidates, we investigated candidate suitability by using 22-month follow-up data regarding the first hand transplant recipient in Taiwan. Pretransplant psychosocial assessments comprised an interview with 2 psychiatrists, a social worker, and a psychologist, followed by intelligence quotient scoring with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire...
December 14, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955624/a-case-report-becker-muscular-dystrophy-presenting-with-epilepsy-and-dysgnosia-induced-by-duplication-mutation-of-dystrophin-gene
#18
Jing Miao, Jia-Chun Feng, Dan Zhu, Xue-Fan Yu
BACKGROUND: Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), a genetic disorder of X-linked recessive inheritance, typically presents with gradually progressive muscle weakness. The condition is caused by mutations of Dystrophin gene located at Xp21.2. Epilepsy is an infrequent manifestation of BMD, while cases of BMD with dysgnosia are extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 9-year-old boy with BMD, who presented with epilepsy and dysgnosia. Serum creatine kinase level was markedly elevated (3665 U/L)...
December 12, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932233/schizophrenia-risk-alleles-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Lucy Riglin, Stephan Collishaw, Alexander Richards, Ajay K Thapar, Barbara Maughan, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia typically onsets after puberty but is often preceded by observable childhood neurodevelopmental impairments. Whether these childhood antecedents index genetic liability is unknown. We used polygenic risk scores derived from a patient discovery sample as indicators of the genetic liability of schizophrenia. Our aim was to identify the early childhood manifestations of this liability in a UK population-based cohort. METHODS: The study sample was the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective population-based cohort study of 14701 children...
January 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929612/effects-of-cumulative-herpesviridae-and-toxoplasma-gondii-infections-on-cognitive-function-in-healthy-bipolar-and-schizophrenia-subjects
#20
Nora Hamdani, Claire Daban-Huard, Ophelia Godin, Hakim Laouamri, Stéphane Jamain, Dodji Attiba, Marine Delavest, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Josselin Houenou, Jean-Romain Richard, Robert H Yolken, Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy, Ryad Tamouza, Marion Leboyer, Faith B Dickerson
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with cognitive impairment leading to social disruption. While previous studies have focused on the effect of individual infectious exposure, namely, Herpesviridae viruses or Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii), on cognitive functioning, the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of multiple infections on cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and in healthy controls. METHODS: Seropositivity to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and T gondii was related to cognitive status among 423 participants (recruited between 2008 and 2014; 138 patients with bipolar disorder, 105 patients with schizophrenia [DSM-IV criteria], and 180 healthy controls) for episodic verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test), working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition), and premorbid intelligence quotient (National Adult Reading Test)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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