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Biological clock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635334/timing-of-food-intake-during-simulated-night-shift-impacts-glucose-metabolism-a-controlled-study
#1
Crystal L Grant, Alison M Coates, Jillian Dorrian, David J Kennaway, Gary A Wittert, Leonie K Heilbronn, Maja Pajcin, Chris Della Vedova, Charlotte C Gupta, Siobhan Banks
Eating during the night may increase the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes in shift workers. This study examined the impact of either eating or not eating a meal at night on glucose metabolism. Participants underwent four nights of simulated night work (SW1-4, 16:00-10:00 h, <50 lux) with a daytime sleep opportunity each day (10:00-16:00 h, <3 lux). Healthy males were assigned to an eating at night (NE; n = 4, meals; 07:00, 19:00 and 01:30 h) or not eating at night (NEN; n = 7, meals; 07:00 h, 09:30, 16:10 and 19:00 h) condition...
June 21, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619534/cryptochrome-photoreceptors-in-green-algae-unexpected-versatility-of-mechanisms-and-functions
#2
Tilman Kottke, Sabine Oldemeyer, Sandra Wenzel, Yong Zou, Maria Mittag
Green algae have a highly complex and diverse set of cryptochrome photoreceptor candidates including members of the following subfamilies: plant, plant-like, animal-like, DASH and cryptochrome photolyase family 1 (CPF1). While some green algae encode most or all of them, others lack certain members. Here we present an overview about functional analyses of so far investigated cryptochrome photoreceptors from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (plant and animal-like cryptochromes) and Ostreococcus tauri (CPF1) with regard to their biological significance and spectroscopic properties...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619182/evolution-of-circadian-rhythms-from-bacteria-to-human
#3
REVIEW
Utpal Bhadra, Nirav Thakkar, Paromita Das, Manika Pal Bhadra
The human body persists in its rhythm as per its initial time zone, and transition always occur according to solar movements around the earth over 24 h. While traveling across different latitudes and longitudes, at the pace exceeding the earth's movement, the changes in the external cues exceed the level of toleration of the body's biological clock. This poses an alteration in our physiological activities of sleep-wake pattern, mental alertness, organ movement, and eating habits, causing them to temporarily lose the track of time...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617195/light-and-clock-control-of-genes-involved-in-detoxification
#4
G Carmona-Antoñanzas, M Santi, H Migaud, L M Vera
Circadian regulation of hepatic detoxification seems to be amongst the key roles of the biological clock. The liver is the major site for biotransformation, and in mammals, it contains several clock-controlled transcription factors such as proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic leucine zipper proteins (PAR bZIP) and basic-helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family that act as circadian regulators of detoxification genes. This investigation explored the existence of daily and circadian expression of transcription factors involved in detoxification, as well as the temporal profile of a set of their target genes in zebrafish liver...
June 15, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603481/effects-of-dim-light-at-night-on-food-intake-and-body-mass-in-developing-mice
#5
Yasmine M Cissé, Juan Peng, Randy J Nelson
Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1) or 5 weeks (Experiment 2) of age, mice were either maintained in standard light-dark (DARK) cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lux)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600791/orientation-behavior-is-a-good-biomarker-of-trace-metal-contamination-in-parallelomorphus-laevigatus-coleoptera-carabidae
#6
Erminia Conti, Sandro Dattilo, Giovanni Costa, Concetto Puglisi
Behavioral ecotoxicology has become very important in the short time since a change in behavior is very often the first response to environmental altered conditions. We investigated the influence of trace metal intake on the spatial orientation performances of the carabid beetle Parallelomorphus laevigatus, fundamental ability for its survival. The aim of this study was to consider the solar orientation as behavioral biomarker for exposure to trace metal contamination. Therefore, we tested the ability of solar orientation of specimens of this species, fed with shrimps contaminated with three different concentrations of Cu, Zn, or Hg...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596466/-clocks-behavior-and-cognition
#7
Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Motoyasu Honma, Ryuta Kinno, Kenjiro Ono, Mitsuru Kawamura
The nerve center responsible for controlling our circadian rhythm is located in a cluster of cells known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Various physiological functions such as sleep, arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion are regulated in a 24-hour rhythm by this circuit. Somatic cells of other organs have a peripheral clock gene and by synchronizing the rhythm of the central and peripheral clocks, it is possible to live a healthy life. Due to aging and degenerative disease, circadian rhythm gradually collapses...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594845/temperature-amplitude-coupling-for-stable-biological-rhythms-at-different-temperatures
#8
Gen Kurosawa, Atsuko Fujioka, Satoshi Koinuma, Atsushi Mochizuki, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
Most biological processes accelerate with temperature, for example cell division. In contrast, the circadian rhythm period is robust to temperature fluctuation, termed temperature compensation. Temperature compensation is peculiar because a system-level property (i.e., the circadian period) is stable under varying temperature while individual components of the system (i.e., biochemical reactions) are usually temperature-sensitive. To understand the mechanism for period stability, we measured the time series of circadian clock transcripts in cultured C6 glioma cells...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591634/a-cell-autonomous-mammalian-12%C3%A2-hr-clock-coordinates-metabolic-and-stress-rhythms
#9
Bokai Zhu, Qiang Zhang, Yinghong Pan, Emily M Mace, Brian York, Athanasios C Antoulas, Clifford C Dacso, Bert W O'Malley
Besides circadian rhythms, oscillations cycling with a 12 hr period exist. However, the prevalence, origin, regulation, and function of mammalian 12 hr rhythms remain elusive. Utilizing an unbiased mathematical approach identifying all superimposed oscillations, we uncovered prevalent 12 hr gene expression and metabolic rhythms in mouse liver, coupled with a physiological 12 hr unfolded protein response oscillation. The mammalian 12 hr rhythm is cell autonomous, driven by a dedicated 12 hr pacemaker distinct from the circadian clock, and can be entrained in vitro by metabolic and ER stress cues...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590878/tick-tock-circadian-regulation-of-plant-innate-immunity
#10
Hua Lu, C Robertson McClung, Chong Zhang
Many living organisms on Earth have evolved the ability to integrate environmental and internal signals to determine time and thereafter adjust appropriately their metabolism, physiology, and behavior. The circadian clock is the endogenous timekeeper critical for multiple biological processes in many organisms. A growing body of evidence supports the importance of the circadian clock for plant health. Plants activate timed defense with various strategies to anticipate daily attacks of pathogens and pests and to modulate responses to specific invaders in a time-of-day-dependent manner (gating)...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590035/interindividual-epigenetic-variability-sound-or-noise
#11
REVIEW
J Ramón Tejedor, Mario F Fraga
Interindividual variability is an inherent characteristic of biological systems. Whereas the underlying molecular sources of interindividual variability remain poorly understood, recent work by Ecker et al. (Ecker S, Chen L, Pancaldi V, Bagger FO, et al. 2017. Genome Biol 18: 18.) sheds light on the characterization of this phenomenon in a complex biological scenario. By combining data from the BLUEPRINT Epigenome Project with a novel analytical approach, these authors were able to measure the degree of transcriptional and epigenetic variability across a wide panel of samples and types of immune cell...
June 7, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588130/lateral-gene-transfer-dynamics-in-the-ancient-bacterial-genus-streptomyces
#12
Bradon R McDonald, Cameron R Currie
Lateral gene transfer (LGT) profoundly shapes the evolution of bacterial lineages. LGT across disparate phylogenetic groups and genome content diversity between related organisms suggest a model of bacterial evolution that views LGT as rampant and promiscuous. It has even driven the argument that species concepts and tree-based phylogenetics cannot be applied to bacteria. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are surprisingly rare in the ubiquitous and biomedically important bacterial genus Streptomyces Using a molecular clock, we estimate that the Streptomyces bacteria are ~380 million years old, indicating that this bacterial genus is as ancient as land vertebrates...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585704/the-regulations-and-role-of-circadian-clock-and-melatonin-in-uterine-receptivity-and-pregnancy-an-immunological-perspective
#13
Gene Chi Wai Man, Tao Zhang, Xiaoyan Chen, Jianzhang Wang, Fangrong Wu, Yingyu Liu, Chi Chiu Wang, Ying Cheong, Tin Chiu Li
During normal pregnancy, the mechanism by which the fetus escapes immunological rejection by the maternal womb remains elusive. Given the biological complexities, the immunological mechanism is unlikely to be simply an allograft response in acceptance or rejection of the early pregnancy. Circadian clock responsible for the mammalian circadian rhythm is an endogenously generated rhythm associated with almost all physiological processes including reproduction. There is now growing evidence to suggest that the circadian clocks are intricately linked to the immune system and pregnancy...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585194/circadian-rhythms-in-diet-induced-obesity
#14
Atilla Engin
The biological clocks of the circadian timing system coordinate cellular and physiological processes and synchronizes these with daily cycles, feeding patterns also regulates circadian clocks. The clock genes and adipocytokines show circadian rhythmicity. Dysfunction of these genes are involved in the alteration of these adipokines during the development of obesity. Food availability promotes the stimuli associated with food intake which is a circadian oscillator outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583447/etiology-of-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-patients-with-type-2-inflammatory-diseases
#15
Robert P Schleimer, Sergejs Berdnikovs
Epithelial barriers of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway serve common critical functions, such as maintaining a physical barrier against environmental insults and allergens and providing a tissue interface balancing the communication between the internal and external environments. We now understand that in patients with allergic disease, regardless of tissue location, the homeostatic balance of the epithelial barrier is skewed toward loss of differentiation, reduced junctional integrity, and impaired innate defense...
June 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578201/correlated-evolutionary-rates-across-genomic-compartments-in-annonaceae
#16
Paul H Hoekstra, Jan J Wieringa, Erik Smets, Rita D Brandão, Jenifer de Carvalho Lopes, Roy H J Erkens, Lars W Chatrou
The molecular clock hypothesis is an important concept in biology. Deviations from a constant rate of nucleotide substitution have been found widely among lineages, genomes, genes and individual sites. Phylogenetic research can accommodate for these differences in applying specific models of evolution. Lineage-specific rate heterogeneity however can generate bi- or multimodal distributions of substitution rates across the branches of a tree and this may mislead phylogenetic inferences with currently available models...
May 31, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560263/dopamine-d2-receptors-and-the-circadian-clock-reciprocally-mediate-antipsychotic-drug-induced-metabolic-disturbances
#17
Zachary Freyberg, Michael J McCarthy
Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed medications, used for numerous psychiatric illnesses. However, antipsychotic drugs cause serious metabolic side effects that can lead to substantial weight gain and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. While individual drugs differ, all antipsychotic drugs may cause these important side effects to varying degrees. Given that the single unifying property shared by these medications is blockade of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, these receptors likely play a role in antipsychotic drug-induced metabolic side effects...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553258/an-overview-of-monthly-rhythms-and-clocks
#18
REVIEW
Florian Raible, Hiroki Takekata, Kristin Tessmar-Raible
Organisms have evolved to cope with geophysical cycles of different period lengths. In this review, we focus on the adaptations of animals to the lunar cycle, specifically, on the occurrence of biological rhythms with monthly (circalunar) or semi-monthly (circasemilunar) period lengths. Systematic experimental investigation, starting in the early twentieth century, has allowed scientists to distinguish between mythological belief and scientific facts concerning the influence of the lunar cycle on animals. These studies revealed that marine animals of various taxa exhibit circalunar or circasemilunar reproductive rhythms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551367/a-multiscale-modelling-approach-for-the-regulation-of-the-cell-cycle-by-the-circadian-clock
#19
Raouf El Cheikh, Samuel Bernard, Nader El Khatib
We present a multiscale mathematical model for the regulation of the cell cycle by the circadian clock. Biologically, the model describes the proliferation of a population of heterogeneous cells connected to each other. The model consists of a high dimensional transport equation structured by molecular contents of the cell cycle-circadian clock coupled oscillator. We propose a computational method for resolution adapted from the concept of particle methods. We study the impact of molecular dynamics on cell proliferation and show an example where discordance of division rhythms between population and single cell levels is observed...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527179/making-time-conservation-of-biological-clocks-from-fungi-to-animals
#20
Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
The capacity for biological timekeeping arose at least three times through evolution, in prokaryotic cyanobacteria, in cells that evolved into higher plants, and within the group of organisms that eventually became the fungi and the animals. Neurospora is a tractable model system for understanding the molecular bases of circadian rhythms in the last of these groups, and is perhaps the most intensively studied circadian cell type. Rhythmic processes described in fungi include growth rate, stress responses, developmental capacity, and sporulation, as well as much of metabolism; fungi use clocks to anticipate daily environmental changes...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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