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Biological clock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331582/inositol-polyphosphates-contribute-to-cellular-circadian-rhythms-implications-for-understanding-lithium-s-molecular-mechanism
#1
Heather Wei, Dominic Landgraf, George Wang, Michael J McCarthy
Most living organisms maintain cell autonomous circadian clocks that synchronize critical biological functions with daily environmental cycles. In mammals, the circadian clock is regulated by inputs from signaling pathways including glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). The drug lithium has actions on GSK3, and also on inositol metabolism. While it is suspected that lithium's inhibition of GSK3 causes rhythm changes, it is not known if inositol polyphosphates can also affect the circadian clock. We examined whether the signaling molecule inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has effects on circadian rhythms...
January 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331507/adropin-an-endocrine-link-between-the-biological-clock-and-cholesterol-homeostasis
#2
Sarbani Ghoshal, Joseph R Stevens, Cyrielle Billon, Clemence Girardet, Sadichha Sitaula, Arthur S Leon, D C Rao, James S Skinner, Tuomo Rankinen, Claude Bouchard, Marinelle V Nuñez, Kimber L Stanhope, Deborah A Howatt, Alan Daugherty, Jinsong Zhang, Matthew Schuelke, Edward P Weiss, Alisha R Coffey, Brian J Bennett, Praveen Sethupathy, Thomas P Burris, Peter J Havel, Andrew A Butler
OBJECTIVE: Identify determinants of plasma adropin concentrations, a secreted peptide translated from the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene linked to metabolic control and vascular function. METHODS: Associations between plasma adropin concentrations, demographics (sex, age, BMI) and circulating biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed in plasma obtained after an overnight fast in humans. The regulation of adropin expression was then assessed in silico, in cultured human cells, and in animal models...
December 30, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325176/dynamic-motif-occupancy-dynamo-analysis-identifies-transcription-factors-and-their-binding-sites-driving-dynamic-biological-processes
#3
Zheng Kuang, Zhicheng Ji, Jef D Boeke, Hongkai Ji
Biological processes are usually associated with genome-wide remodeling of transcription driven by transcription factors (TFs). Identifying key TFs and their spatiotemporal binding patterns are indispensable to understanding how dynamic processes are programmed. However, most methods are designed to predict TF binding sites only. We present a computational method, dynamic motif occupancy analysis (DynaMO), to infer important TFs and their spatiotemporal binding activities in dynamic biological processes using chromatin profiling data from multiple biological conditions such as time-course histone modification ChIP-seq data...
January 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321814/the-epigenetic-clock-and-objectively-measured-sedentary-and-walking-behavior-in-older-adults-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#4
Catharine R Gale, Riccardo E Marioni, Iva Čukić, Sebastien F Chastin, Philippa M Dall, Manon L Dontje, Dawn A Skelton, Ian J Deary
Background: Estimates of biological age derived from DNA-methylation patterns-known as the epigenetic clock-are associated with mortality, physical and cognitive function, and frailty, but little is known about their relationship with sedentary behavior or physical activity. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between two such estimates of biological age and objectively measured sedentary and walking behavior in older people. Methods: Participants were 248 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318499/biological-clock-the-oscillator-of-gene-expression
#5
Qiang Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316898/inhibition-of-p38-mapk-activity-leads-to-cell-type-specific-effects-on-the-molecular-circadian-clock-and-time-dependent-reduction-of-glioma-cell-invasiveness
#6
Charles S Goldsmith, Sam Moon Kim, Nirmala Karunarathna, Nichole Neuendorff, L Gerard Toussaint, David J Earnest, Deborah Bell-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock is the basis for biological time keeping in eukaryotic organisms. The clock mechanism relies on biochemical signaling pathways to detect environmental stimuli and to regulate the expression of clock-controlled genes throughout the body. MAPK signaling pathways function in both circadian input and output pathways in mammals depending on the tissue; however, little is known about the role of p38 MAPK, an established tumor suppressor, in the mammalian circadian system...
January 10, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316442/circadian-clocks-and-upr-new-twists-as-the-story-unfolds
#7
Nikolay B Milev, David Gatfield
Circadian clocks help control the unfolded protein response (UPR). In a recent issue of Nature Cell Biology, Bu et al. (2017) show that the interaction is reciprocal, with miRNA-211 providing a signal from the UPR to the clock component BMAL1, affecting circadian timing, global translational control, and cancer cell survival.
January 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316294/the-effects-of-sun-compass-error-on-spatial-search-by-clark-s-nutcrackers
#8
Debbie M Kelly, Ken Cheng, Russell Balda, Alan C Kamil
Animals employ compasses during navigation, but little attention has been paid to how accuracy is maintained in the face of compass error, inevitable in biological systems. The use of multiple landmarks may minimize the effect of compass error. We allowed Clark's nutcrackers to cache seeds in an outdoor aviary with either one or four landmarks present, and subsequently subjected them to small clock-shifts mimicking the effects of compass error. As predicted, results showed a significant decrease in search accuracy following the clock-shift when one landmark was present but not when four landmarks were present...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305511/a-cytoplasmic-antiholin-is-embedded-in-frame-with-the-holin-in-a-lactobacillus-fermentum-bacteriophage
#9
Tingting Guo, Yongping Xin, Chenchen Zhang, Jian Kong
In double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, infection cycles are ended by host cell lysis through the action of phage-encoded endolysins and holins. The precise timing of lysis is regulated by the holin inhibitors, named antiholins. Sequence analysis has revealed that holins with a single transmembrane domain (TMD) are prevalent in Lactobacillus bacteriophages. A temperate bacteriophage of Lbfermentum, ϕPYB5, has a two-component lysis cassette containing endolysin Lyb5 and holin Hyb5. The hyb5 gene is 465-bp long, encoding 154 amino acid residues with an N-terminal TMD and a large cytoplasmic C-terminal domain...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301134/suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-subordinate-brain-oscillators-clock-gene-desynchronization-by-neuroinflammation
#10
Leila Maria Guissoni Campos, Rogerio Leone Buchaim, Nathani Cristina da Silva, Caio Sergio Galina Spilla, Alessandre Hataka, Luciana Pinato
OBJECTIVE: The clock genes Period (per) 1 and 2 are essential components in the generation and adjustment of biological circadian rhythms by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Both genes are also rhythmically present in extrahypothalamic areas such as the hippocampus and cerebellum, considered subordinate oscillators. Several pathological conditions alter rhythmic biological phenomena, but the mechanisms behind these changes involving the clock genes are not well defined. The current study investigated changes in PER1 and PER2 immunoreactivity in the SCN, hippocampus, and cerebellum in a neuroinflammation model...
January 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300726/regulation-of-circadian-clock-transcriptional-output-by-clock-bmal1
#11
Alexandra J Trott, Jerome S Menet
The mammalian circadian clock relies on the transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1 to coordinate the rhythmic expression of 15% of the transcriptome and control the daily regulation of biological functions. The recent characterization of CLOCK:BMAL1 cistrome revealed that although CLOCK:BMAL1 binds synchronously to all of its target genes, its transcriptional output is highly heterogeneous. By performing a meta-analysis of several independent genome-wide datasets, we found that the binding of other transcription factors at CLOCK:BMAL1 enhancers likely contribute to the heterogeneity of CLOCK:BMAL1 transcriptional output...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299241/r-k-like-trade-off-and-voltinism-discreteness-the-implication-to-allochronic-speciation-in-the-fall-webworm-hyphantria-cunea-complex-arctiidae
#12
Fan Yang, Eriko Kawabata, Muhammad Tufail, John J Brown, Makio Takeda
North America has distinct types of Hyphantria moths (Arctiidae) characterized by red (RD)- and black (BL)-headed larvae, of which the taxonomic status is unresolved. Genetic divergence of 26 populations, based on 710 bp of the mtCOI sequence, showed two phylogenetic lineages, which could not be connected in the haplotype network with 95% confidence. The two lineages are separated by 3.1% sequence divergence and should be considered for full species status. The estimated split occurred 1.2-1.6 million years ago...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298348/computational-exploration-of-cis-regulatory-modules-in-rhythmic-expression-data-using-the-exploration-of-distinctive-cres-and-crms-edcc-and-crm-network-generator-cng-programs
#13
Pavlos Stephanos Bekiaris, Tobias Tekath, Dorothee Staiger, Selahattin Danisman
Understanding the effect of cis-regulatory elements (CRE) and clusters of CREs, which are called cis-regulatory modules (CRM), in eukaryotic gene expression is a challenge of computational biology. We developed two programs that allow simple, fast and reliable analysis of candidate CREs and CRMs that may affect specific gene expression and that determine positional features between individual CREs within a CRM. The first program, "Exploration of Distinctive CREs and CRMs" (EDCC), correlates candidate CREs and CRMs with specific gene expression patterns...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296896/maintenance-of-telomere-length-in-aml
#14
REVIEW
Peter M Lansdorp
The importance of telomere length to human health, aging, and cancer continues to be underappreciated. This review examines some basics of telomere biology and relates how telomere function, telomerase activity, and mutations in TERC or TERT are involved in bone marrow failure, leukemias, and other cancers. Given the challenge to obtain accurate data on telomerase activity and telomere length in specific cell types, the situation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains puzzling. In most cancers, telomerase levels are increased after cells have encountered a "telomere crisis," which is typically associated with poor prognosis...
November 28, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286421/flexible-measurement-of-bioluminescent-reporters-using-an-automated-longitudinal-luciferase-imaging-gas-and-temperature-optimized-recorder-alligator
#15
Priya Crosby, Nathaniel P Hoyle, John S O'Neill
Luciferase-based reporters of cellular gene expression are in widespread use for both longitudinal and end-point assays of biological activity. In circadian rhythms research, for example, clock gene fusions with firefly luciferase give rise to robust rhythms in cellular bioluminescence that persist over many days. Technical limitations associated with photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or conventional microscopy-based methods for bioluminescence quantification have typically demanded that cells and tissues be maintained under quite non-physiological conditions during recording, with a trade-off between sensitivity and throughput...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282866/body-clocks-time-for-the-nobel-prize
#16
EDITORIAL
Charna Dibner, Ueli Schibler
Already in 1729 Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan, a French astronomer, noticed that the mimosa plants in his backyard opened and closed their leaves at similar times during the day. Intriguingly, these daily cycles of leaf movements persisted in plants kept in nearly constant darkness, and de Mairan thus concluded that they must be driven by endogenous clocks rather than environmental light-dark cycles. In the meantime self-sustained circadian oscillators have been found in nearly all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to mammals...
December 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282130/what-does-not-kill-it-makes-it-weaker-effects-of-sub-lethal-concentrations-of-ivermectin-on-the-locomotor-activity-of-anopheles-aquasalis
#17
Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Gustavo Bueno da Silva Rivas, Kevin Kobylinski, Yudi Tatiana Pinilla, Paulo Filemon Paolluci Pimenta, José Bento Pereira Lima, Rafaela Vieira Bruno, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health concern. Vector control measures based solely on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have demonstrated not to be feasible for malaria elimination. It has been shown that ivermectin affects several aspects of Anopheles species biology. Along the Latin American seacoast, Anopheles aquasalis Curry plays an important role in malaria transmission. The observation of mosquitoes locomotor activity under laboratory conditions can reveal details of their daily activity rhythms, which is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock that seems to be influenced by external signals, such as light and temperature...
December 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277155/wnt-takes-two-to-tango-molecular-links-between-the-circadian-clock-and-the-cell-cycle-in-adult-stem-cells
#18
Toru Matsu-Ura, Sean R Moore, Christian I Hong
Like two dancers, the circadian clock and cell cycle are biological oscillators engaged in bidirectional communication, resulting in circadian clock-gated cell division cycles in species ranging from cyanobacteria to mammals. The identified mechanisms for this phenomenon have expanded beyond intracellular molecular coupling components to include intercellular connections. However, detailed molecular mechanisms, dynamics, and physiological functions of the circadian clock and cell cycle as coupled oscillators remain largely unknown...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260645/clock-gene-period-in-the-chagas-disease-vector-triatoma-infestans-hemiptera-reduviidae
#19
María M Stroppa, Ignacio Gimenez, Beatriz A García
To contribute to a better understanding of the molecular bases of the circadian biological rhythms in Chagas disease vectors, in this work we identified functional domains in the sequences of the clock protein PERIOD (PER) in Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans and analyzed the expression of the PER gene at mRNA level in T. infestans. The PER protein sequences comparison among these species and those from other insects revealed that the most similar regions are the PAS domains and the most variable is the COOH-terminal...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250165/evaluating-the-associations-between-human-circadian-rhythms-and-dysregulated-genes-in-liver-cancer-cells
#20
Andrea Polo, Sakshi Singh, Anna Crispo, Marilina Russo, Aldo Giudice, Maurizio Montella, Giovanni Colonna, Susan Costantini
Network analysis is a useful approach in cancer biology as it provides information regarding the genes and proteins. In our previous study, a network analysis was performed on dysregulated genes in HepG2 cells, a hepatoblastoma cell line that lacks the viral infection, compared with normal hepatocytes, identifying the presence of 26 HUB genes. The present study aimed to identify whether these previously identified HUB genes participate in the network that controls the human circadian rhythms. The results of the present study demonstrated that 20/26 HUB genes were associated with the metabolic processes that control human circadian rhythms, which supports the hypothesis that a number of cancer types are dependent from circadian cycles...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
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