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Marcos Ryotaro Hara
Three new species of the Chilean Pachylinae genus, Nanophareus Roewer, 1929 are described: N. bicornutus sp. nov. (Valle de Aconcagua, Zapallar, V Región de Valparaíso), N. maipu sp. nov. (La Rinconada, Quebrada de la Plata, Maipu, Región Metropolitana-Santiago), and N. polyhastatus sp. nov. (El Abanico, VIII Región de Bio-Bío). These three new species were included in a cladistic analysis that resulted in two equally most parsimonious trees (238 steps, C.I. = 0.38; R.I. = 0.51), corroborating the monophyly of Nanophareus...
2016: Zootaxa
Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Laura Catelli, Jacobo Pardo-Seco, Federico Martinón-Torres, Lutz Roewer, Carlos Vullo, Antonio Salas
In 1985, a frozen mummy was found in Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina). Archaeological studies identified the mummy as a seven-year-old Inca sacrifice victim who lived >500 years ago, at the time of the expansion of the Inca Empire towards the southern cone. The sequence of its entire mitogenome was obtained. After querying a large worldwide database of mitogenomes (>28,000) we found that the Inca haplotype belonged to a branch of haplogroup C1b (C1bi) that has not yet been identified in modern Native Americans...
2015: Scientific Reports
Sebastián Fuentes, Guo-Chun Ding, Franco Cárdenas, Kornelia Smalla, Michael Seeger
Aconcagua River basin (Central Chile) harbors diverse economic activities such as agriculture, mining and a crude oil refinery. The aim of this study was to assess environmental drivers of microbial communities in Aconcagua River estuarine soils, which may be influenced by anthropogenic activities taking place upstream and by natural processes such as tides and flood runoffs. Physicochemical parameters were measured in floodplain soils along the estuary. Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Fungi were studied by DGGE fingerprinting of 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal ITS-1 amplified from community DNA...
October 2015: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Maria Constanza Ceruti
This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death...
2015: BioMed Research International
Agustina Barros, Catherine Pickering, Ori Gudes
Nature-based tourism and recreation activities have a range of environmental impacts, but most protected area agencies have limited capacity to assess them. To prioritise where and what impacts to monitor and manage, we conducted a desktop assessment using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) by combining recreation ecology research with data on visitor usage and key environmental features for a popular protected area used for mountaineering and trekking, Aconcagua Provincial Park (2400-6962 m a.s.l.) in the Andes of Argentina...
March 1, 2015: Journal of Environmental Management
Jeffrey Westensee, Ignacio Rogé, Jon D Van Roo, Carlos Pesce, Sam Batzli, D Mark Courtney, Matthew P Lazio
High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012...
September 2013: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Sven F Seys, Marc Daenen, Ellen Dilissen, Ruud Van Thienen, Dominique M A Bullens, Peter Hespel, Lieven J Dupont
AIMS: Eighteen patients with asthma were evaluated during preparation to climb to extreme altitude in order to study the effects of low fractional inspired oxygen (FiO(2)), prolonged exposure to cold air and high altitude on lung function, asthma control and airway inflammation. METHODS: Spirometry and airway inflammation (fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and induced sputum) were studied under different test conditions: hypoxic (FiO(2)=11%) exercise test, 24-hour cold exposure (-5°C) and before, during and after an expedition that involved climbing the Aconcagua mountain (6965 m)...
October 2013: Thorax
Agustina Barros, Jorge Gonnet, Catherine Pickering
There is limited recreation ecology research in South America, especially studies looking at informal trails. Impacts of informal trails formed by hikers and pack animals on vegetation and soils were assessed for the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere, Aconcagua Provincial Park. The number of braided trails, their width and depth were surveyed at 30 sites along the main access route to Mt Aconcagua (6962 m a.s.l.). Species composition, richness and cover were also measured on control and trail transects...
September 30, 2013: Journal of Environmental Management
C Rowland
The military has a tradition of supporting and promoting scientific expeditions. The past five years have witnessed a series of Defence Medical Service (DMS) expeditions to mountainous areas of the world, which set out with the dual purpose of researching high altitude human physiology and promoting the uptake of adventurous pursuits within the military. Beginning with exercise Medical Sentinel to Aconcagua, Argentina, in 2007, members of the DMS have since conducted two expeditions to the Himalayas (expedition Imja Tse, 2009 and expedition Khumbu Ramble, 2011) before returning to South America, to the Cordillera Real mountain range in Bolivia, on expedition Bolivian Venture, in late May 2012...
2012: Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service
Nicholas Borm, Jon D Van Roo, Carlos Pesce, D Mark Courtney, Sanjeev Malik, Matthew P Lazio
Aconcagua (6962 m) is one of the seven summits and the highest mountain outside of Asia. Climbers of varying experience are drawn to its nontechnical route. Our objective was to detail the prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua. We asked all climbers on the normal route of Aconcagua to complete questionnaires with demographics and prior high altitude experience while acclimatizing at Plaza de Mulas base camp during 9 nonconsecutive days in January 2009. 127 volunteers from 22 countries were enrolled...
2011: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Tsung-Yu Ho, Wei-Fong Kao, Shui-Mei Lee, Po-Kang Lin, Jin-Jong Chen, Jorn-Hon Liu
BACKGROUND: Visual disturbances after high-altitude exposure were first reported in 1969. Manifestations may include retinal hemorrhage, papilledema, and vitreous hemorrhage. METHODS: We observed a group of 6 experienced climbers who ascended Mt Aconcagua to an altitude of 6,962 m in February 2007. Visual acuity study, intraocular pressure study, visual field study, nerve fiber layer analysis, eye Doppler, laboratory studies, fundus photography, and intravenous fluorescein angiography were performed on the climbers before and after their exposures to high altitude...
September 2011: Retina
Dale R Wagner
The aim of this descriptive case study was to use an ambulatory biosensor system to capture data in real time in a harsh environment and to obtain continuous physiological measurements during an ascent of Argentina's Mt Aconcagua, the highest point in the Western Hemisphere. Between the 5800-m-high camp and the 6962-m summit, a 41-year-old male with previous high-altitude mountaineering experience was measured for minute-by-minute heart rate (60-154 beats/min), respiration rate (2-42 breaths/min), skin temperature (11...
March 2011: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Jon D Van Roo, Matthew P Lazio, Carlos Pesce, Sanjeev Malik, D Mark Courtney
OBJECTIVE: The Lake Louise AMS Self-Report Score (LLSelf) is a commonly used, validated assessment of acute mountain sickness (AMS). We compared LLSelf and visual analog scales (VAS) to quantify AMS on Aconcagua (6962 m). METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study at Plaza de Mulas base camp (4365 m), Aconcagua Provincial Park, Argentina. Volunteers climbing in January 2009 were enrolled at base camp and ascended at their own pace. They completed the LLSelf, an overall VAS [VAS(o)], and 5 individual VAS [VAS(i)] corresponding to the items of the LLSelf when symptoms were maximal...
March 2011: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Matthew P Lazio, Jon D Van Roo, Carlos Pesce, Sanjeev Malik, D Mark Courtney
OBJECTIVE: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a single measurement of functional status in patients with cardiovascular disease. It has not been studied at high altitude. We investigate the screening value of 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and postexercise vital sign (VS) measurements as predictors of successfully reaching the summit or development of acute mountain sickness (AMS) on Aconcagua (6962 m). METHODS: Prospective observational cohort in Aconcagua Provincial Park, Argentina...
December 2010: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Dale R Wagner
Both Mt. Aconcagua (22,841.2 ft/6962 m) and Mt. Everest (29,035.4 ft/ 8850 m) are highly prized summits by mountaineers, yet there are no published studies comparing the physiological adaptations that occur from climbing both peaks. This case study compares the changes in body composition and hematology of a mountaineer who ascended both peaks. The male subject was 41 yr of age during the Aconcagua ascent and 43 yr of age during the Everest ascent, and had a history of ascents above 19,685 ft (6000 m). Baseline body composition measurements and blood draws were done within a few days of departure for both expeditions...
November 2010: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
T J Hooper, D Z H Levett, A J Mellor, M P W Grocott
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) is increasing. In a military context our current operational areas include mountainous regions with the implications of AMS including loss of operational tempo and logistical overstretch. Oxygen saturation and heart rate variability have in some studies been predictive of AMS while in others not. No single factor has been demonstrated consistently to be predictive of developing AMS. METHODS: During an expedition to climb Mt Aconcagua (6959m) we explored the relationship between cardiorespiratory variables and AMS...
2010: Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service
Gonzalo Alvarez, Pablo Cox, Mauricio Pairoa, Maritza García, Iris Delgado, Pablo M Lavados
BACKGROUND: An epidemiological surveillance project was set up in Central Chile to detect cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and its incidence. METHODS: Community-based prospective surveillance project carried out between 1 July 2000 and 30 June 2003, in the Aconcagua Valley in Central Chile. The authors ascertained all possible cases using multiple overlapping sources. Incidence rates were age-sex-adjusted. RESULTS: The authors identified 33 first-ever cases; 19 were women...
July 2010: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Jaime Pizarro, Pablo M Vergara, José A Rodríguez, Alejandra M Valenzuela
Rivers of central-northern Chile are exposed to pollution from different sources, including mining activities, natural orogenic process, volcanic activity, and geology. In order to determine the contribution of mining to river pollution, the spatio-temporal dynamics of chemical species dissolved in 12 rivers of central-northern Chile was assessed. Of all the rivers studied, the Elqui showed the highest historical mean concentrations of As, Cu and Pb. The Aconcagua had the highest concentration of Hg and a large Cr concentration, while the Rapel showed elevated concentrations of Cu and Mo...
September 15, 2010: Journal of Hazardous Materials
S T de Vries, P Komdeur, S Aalbersberg, G C van Enst, A Breeman, A W J van 't Hof
Background. To evaluate the safety and effects of high altitude on exercise level and heart rate in patients with coronary artery disease compared with healthy controls.Methods. Eight patients with a history of an acute myocardial infarction (ejection fraction >5%) with a low-risk score were compared with seven healthy subjects during the Dutch Heart Expedition at the Aconcagua in Argentina in March 2007. All subjects underwent a maximum exercise test with a cycle ergometer at sea level and base camp, after ten days of acclimatisation, at an altitude of 4200 m...
March 2010: Netherlands Heart Journal
Adrian Garófoli, Paula Montoya, Carlos Elías, Roberto Benzo
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a group of non-specific symptoms, seen in subjects that ascend from low to high altitude too quickly, without allowing sufficient time to acclimatize. Usually it is self-limiting, but the severe forms (pulmonary and cerebral edema) can be fatal. Exaggerated hypoxemia at rest is related to later development of AMS but its predictive value is limited. Since exercise at altitude induces greater hypoxemia and symptoms, we postulated the predictive value of a simple exercise test to prognosticate severe AMS...
2010: Medicina
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