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Chelsey Walden-Schreiner, Sebastian Dario Rossi, Agustina Barros, Catherine Pickering, Yu-Fai Leung
Managing protected areas effectively requires information about patterns of visitor use, but these data are often limited. We explore how geotagged photos on Flickr, a popular photo-sharing social-media site, can generate hotspot maps and distribution models of temporal and spatial patterns of use in two mountain-protected areas of high conservation value. In Aconcagua Provincial Park (Argentina), two routes to the summit of Aconcagua were used in summer, but most visitors stayed close to the main road, using formal and informal walking trails and the Visitor Centre, while in winter, there was very limited visitation...
February 12, 2018: Ambio
Hernán Gaete, Manuel Álvarez, Gabriela Lobos, Eulogio Soto, Carlos Jara-Gutiérrez
The estuaries of the Aconcagua and Maipo Rivers of central Chile are receptors of residues that contain metals from anthropic activities including agriculture, mining and smelters, which have different levels in the two basins. This study postulates that the exposition to metals is different in the two estuaries and that their sediments contain bioavailable chemical agents that produce oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of estuarine sediments on the polychaete Perinereis gualpensis using oxidative stress biomarkers and to determine the metal concentrations in sediments and their accumulation in P...
November 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Joerg Steier, Nic Cade, Ben Walker, John Moxham, Caroline Jolley
Steier, Joerg, Nic Cade, Ben Walker, John Moxham, and Caroline Jolley. Observational study of neural respiratory drive during sleep at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 18:242-248, 2017. AIMS: Ventilation at altitude changes due to altered levels of pO2, pCO2 and the effect on blood pH. Nocturnal ventilation is particularly exposed to these changes. We hypothesized that an increasing neural respiratory drive (NRD) is associated with the severity of sleep-disordered breathing at altitude...
September 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Agustina Barros, Catherine Marina Pickering
When visitors are not constrained to remain on formal trails, informal trail networks can develop and damage plant communities in protected areas. These networks can form in areas with low growing vegetation, where formal trails are limited, where there is limited regulation and where vegetation is slow to recover once disturbed. To demonstrate the extent of impacts from unregulated recreational use, we assessed damage to alpine vegetation by hikers and pack animals in the highest protected area in the southern Hemisphere: Aconcagua Park, in the Andes...
July 2017: Environmental Management
Víctor Delgadillo, José Verdejo, Pedro Mondaca, Gabriela Verdugo, Hernán Gaete, Mark E Hodson, Alexander Neaman
Use of avoidance tests is a quick and cost-effective method of assessing contaminants in soils. One option for assessing earthworm avoidance behavior is a two-section test, which consists of earthworms being given the choice to move between a test soil and a control substrate. For ecological relevance, tested soils should be field-contaminated soils. For practical reasons, artificial soils are commonly used as the control substrate. Interpretation of the test results compromised when the test soil and the artificial substrate differ in their physico-chemical properties other than just contaminants...
June 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Marcos Ryotaro Hara
Three new species of the Chilean Pachylinae genus, Nanophareus Roewer, 1929 are described: N. bicornutus sp. nov. (Valle de Aconcagua, Zapallar, V Región de Valparaíso), N. maipu sp. nov. (La Rinconada, Quebrada de la Plata, Maipu, Región Metropolitana-Santiago), and N. polyhastatus sp. nov. (El Abanico, VIII Región de Bio-Bío). These three new species were included in a cladistic analysis that resulted in two equally most parsimonious trees (238 steps, C.I. = 0.38; R.I. = 0.51), corroborating the monophyly of Nanophareus...
April 20, 2016: Zootaxa
Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Laura Catelli, Jacobo Pardo-Seco, Federico Martinón-Torres, Lutz Roewer, Carlos Vullo, Antonio Salas
In 1985, a frozen mummy was found in Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina). Archaeological studies identified the mummy as a seven-year-old Inca sacrifice victim who lived >500 years ago, at the time of the expansion of the Inca Empire towards the southern cone. The sequence of its entire mitogenome was obtained. After querying a large worldwide database of mitogenomes (>28,000) we found that the Inca haplotype belonged to a branch of haplogroup C1b (C1bi) that has not yet been identified in modern Native Americans...
November 12, 2015: Scientific Reports
Sebastián Fuentes, Guo-Chun Ding, Franco Cárdenas, Kornelia Smalla, Michael Seeger
Aconcagua River basin (Central Chile) harbors diverse economic activities such as agriculture, mining and a crude oil refinery. The aim of this study was to assess environmental drivers of microbial communities in Aconcagua River estuarine soils, which may be influenced by anthropogenic activities taking place upstream and by natural processes such as tides and flood runoffs. Physicochemical parameters were measured in floodplain soils along the estuary. Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Fungi were studied by DGGE fingerprinting of 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal ITS-1 amplified from community DNA...
October 2015: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Maria Constanza Ceruti
This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death...
2015: BioMed Research International
Agustina Barros, Catherine Pickering, Ori Gudes
Nature-based tourism and recreation activities have a range of environmental impacts, but most protected area agencies have limited capacity to assess them. To prioritise where and what impacts to monitor and manage, we conducted a desktop assessment using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) by combining recreation ecology research with data on visitor usage and key environmental features for a popular protected area used for mountaineering and trekking, Aconcagua Provincial Park (2400-6962 m a.s.l.) in the Andes of Argentina...
March 1, 2015: Journal of Environmental Management
Jeffrey Westensee, Ignacio Rogé, Jon D Van Roo, Carlos Pesce, Sam Batzli, D Mark Courtney, Matthew P Lazio
High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012...
September 2013: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Sven F Seys, Marc Daenen, Ellen Dilissen, Ruud Van Thienen, Dominique M A Bullens, Peter Hespel, Lieven J Dupont
AIMS: Eighteen patients with asthma were evaluated during preparation to climb to extreme altitude in order to study the effects of low fractional inspired oxygen (FiO(2)), prolonged exposure to cold air and high altitude on lung function, asthma control and airway inflammation. METHODS: Spirometry and airway inflammation (fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and induced sputum) were studied under different test conditions: hypoxic (FiO(2)=11%) exercise test, 24-hour cold exposure (-5°C) and before, during and after an expedition that involved climbing the Aconcagua mountain (6965 m)...
October 2013: Thorax
Agustina Barros, Jorge Gonnet, Catherine Pickering
There is limited recreation ecology research in South America, especially studies looking at informal trails. Impacts of informal trails formed by hikers and pack animals on vegetation and soils were assessed for the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere, Aconcagua Provincial Park. The number of braided trails, their width and depth were surveyed at 30 sites along the main access route to Mt Aconcagua (6962 m a.s.l.). Species composition, richness and cover were also measured on control and trail transects...
September 30, 2013: Journal of Environmental Management
C Rowland
The military has a tradition of supporting and promoting scientific expeditions. The past five years have witnessed a series of Defence Medical Service (DMS) expeditions to mountainous areas of the world, which set out with the dual purpose of researching high altitude human physiology and promoting the uptake of adventurous pursuits within the military. Beginning with exercise Medical Sentinel to Aconcagua, Argentina, in 2007, members of the DMS have since conducted two expeditions to the Himalayas (expedition Imja Tse, 2009 and expedition Khumbu Ramble, 2011) before returning to South America, to the Cordillera Real mountain range in Bolivia, on expedition Bolivian Venture, in late May 2012...
2012: Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service
Nicholas Borm, Jon D Van Roo, Carlos Pesce, D Mark Courtney, Sanjeev Malik, Matthew P Lazio
Aconcagua (6962 m) is one of the seven summits and the highest mountain outside of Asia. Climbers of varying experience are drawn to its nontechnical route. Our objective was to detail the prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua. We asked all climbers on the normal route of Aconcagua to complete questionnaires with demographics and prior high altitude experience while acclimatizing at Plaza de Mulas base camp during 9 nonconsecutive days in January 2009. 127 volunteers from 22 countries were enrolled...
2011: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Tsung-Yu Ho, Wei-Fong Kao, Shui-Mei Lee, Po-Kang Lin, Jin-Jong Chen, Jorn-Hon Liu
BACKGROUND: Visual disturbances after high-altitude exposure were first reported in 1969. Manifestations may include retinal hemorrhage, papilledema, and vitreous hemorrhage. METHODS: We observed a group of 6 experienced climbers who ascended Mt Aconcagua to an altitude of 6,962 m in February 2007. Visual acuity study, intraocular pressure study, visual field study, nerve fiber layer analysis, eye Doppler, laboratory studies, fundus photography, and intravenous fluorescein angiography were performed on the climbers before and after their exposures to high altitude...
September 2011: Retina
Dale R Wagner
The aim of this descriptive case study was to use an ambulatory biosensor system to capture data in real time in a harsh environment and to obtain continuous physiological measurements during an ascent of Argentina's Mt Aconcagua, the highest point in the Western Hemisphere. Between the 5800-m-high camp and the 6962-m summit, a 41-year-old male with previous high-altitude mountaineering experience was measured for minute-by-minute heart rate (60-154 beats/min), respiration rate (2-42 breaths/min), skin temperature (11...
March 2011: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Jon D Van Roo, Matthew P Lazio, Carlos Pesce, Sanjeev Malik, D Mark Courtney
OBJECTIVE: The Lake Louise AMS Self-Report Score (LLSelf) is a commonly used, validated assessment of acute mountain sickness (AMS). We compared LLSelf and visual analog scales (VAS) to quantify AMS on Aconcagua (6962 m). METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study at Plaza de Mulas base camp (4365 m), Aconcagua Provincial Park, Argentina. Volunteers climbing in January 2009 were enrolled at base camp and ascended at their own pace. They completed the LLSelf, an overall VAS [VAS(o)], and 5 individual VAS [VAS(i)] corresponding to the items of the LLSelf when symptoms were maximal...
March 2011: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Matthew P Lazio, Jon D Van Roo, Carlos Pesce, Sanjeev Malik, D Mark Courtney
OBJECTIVE: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a single measurement of functional status in patients with cardiovascular disease. It has not been studied at high altitude. We investigate the screening value of 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and postexercise vital sign (VS) measurements as predictors of successfully reaching the summit or development of acute mountain sickness (AMS) on Aconcagua (6962 m). METHODS: Prospective observational cohort in Aconcagua Provincial Park, Argentina...
December 2010: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Dale R Wagner
Both Mt. Aconcagua (22,841.2 ft/6962 m) and Mt. Everest (29,035.4 ft/ 8850 m) are highly prized summits by mountaineers, yet there are no published studies comparing the physiological adaptations that occur from climbing both peaks. This case study compares the changes in body composition and hematology of a mountaineer who ascended both peaks. The male subject was 41 yr of age during the Aconcagua ascent and 43 yr of age during the Everest ascent, and had a history of ascents above 19,685 ft (6000 m). Baseline body composition measurements and blood draws were done within a few days of departure for both expeditions...
November 2010: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
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