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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893897/imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-and-white-matter-integrity-in-brains-of-active-and-recently-retired-national-football-league-players
#1
Jennifer M Coughlin, Yuchuan Wang, Il Minn, Nicholas Bienko, Emily B Ambinder, Xin Xu, Matthew E Peters, John W Dougherty, Melin Vranesic, Soo Min Koo, Hye-Hyun Ahn, Merton Lee, Chris Cottrell, Haris I Sair, Akira Sawa, Cynthia A Munro, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert F Dannals, Constantine G Lyketsos, Michael Kassiou, Gwenn Smith, Brian Caffo, Susumu Mori, Tomas R Guilarte, Martin G Pomper
Importance: Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the brain's response to injury and neurodegenerative processes. It has been proposed that prolonged microglial activation occurs after single and repeated traumatic brain injury, possibly through sports-related concussive and subconcussive injuries. Limited in vivo brain imaging studies months to years after individuals experience a single moderate to severe traumatic brain injury suggest widespread persistent microglial activation, but there has been little study of persistent glial cell activity in brains of athletes with sports-related traumatic brain injury...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#2
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829969/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-athletes-involved-with-high-impact-sports
#3
Cyrus Safinia, Eric M Bershad, H Brent Clark, Karen SantaCruz, Naila Alakbarova, Jose I Suarez, Afshin A Divani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease occurring most commonly in athletes and is caused by repeated concussive or subconcussive blows to the head. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the published literature on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in athletes participating in high-impact sports. In particular, we highlight the significance of concussive and subconcussive impacts in multiple sports, elucidate the differences between clinical/pathological features of CTE and related neurodegenerative diseases, and provide an explanation for the variation in clinical presentation between athletes of different sports...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815240/persistent-effects-of-playing-football-and-associated-subconcussive-head-trauma-on-brain-structure-and-function-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
A A Tarnutzer, D Straumann, P Brugger, N Feddermann-Demont
AIM/OBJECTIVE: There is ongoing controversy about persistent neurological deficits in active and former football (soccer) players. We reviewed the literature for associations between football activities (including heading/head injuries) and decline in brain structure/function. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane-CRCT, SportDiscus, Cochrane-DSR=4 (accessed 2 August 2016). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Original studies reporting on football-related persistent effects on brain structure/function...
November 4, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775478/subconcussive-head-impact-exposure-and-white-matter-tract-changes-over-a-single-season-of-youth-football
#5
Naeim Bahrami, Dev Sharma, Scott Rosenthal, Elizabeth M Davenport, Jillian E Urban, Benjamin Wagner, Youngkyoo Jung, Christopher G Vaughan, Gerard A Gioia, Joel D Stitzel, Christopher T Whitlow, Joseph A Maldjian
Purpose To examine the effects of subconcussive impacts resulting from a single season of youth (age range, 8-13 years) football on changes in specific white matter (WM) tracts as detected with diffusion-tensor imaging in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussions. Materials and Methods Head impact data were recorded by using the Head Impact Telemetry system and quantified as the combined-probability risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWECP). Twenty-five male participants were evaluated for seasonal fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in specific WM tracts: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)...
December 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297660/white-matter-changes-and-confrontation-naming-in-retired-aging-nfl-athletes
#6
Jeremy F Strain, Nyaz Didehbani, Jeffrey Spence, Heather Conover, Elizabeth Bartz, Sethesh Mansinghani, Myrtle K Jeroudi, Neena K Rao, Lindy M Fields, Michael A Kraut, C Munro Cullum, John Hart, Kyle B Womack
Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we assessed the relationship of white matter integrity and performance on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) in a group of retired professional football players and a control group. We examined correlations between fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) with BNT T-scores in an unbiased voxel-wise analysis processed with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). We also analyzed the DTI data by grouping voxels together as white matter tracts and testing each tract's association with BNT T-scores...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281278/quantifying-head-impacts-in-collegiate-lacrosse
#7
Bryson B Reynolds, James Patrie, Erich J Henry, Howard P Goodkin, Donna K Broshek, Max Wintermark, T Jason Druzgal
BACKGROUND: Concussion and repetitive head impact in sports has increased interest and concern for clinicians, scientists, and athletes. Lacrosse is the fastest growing sport in the United States, but the burden of head impact in lacrosse is unknown. PURPOSE: The goal of this pilot study was to quantify head impact associated with practicing and playing collegiate lacrosse while subjects were fitted with wearable accelerometers. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
June 8, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258455/subconcussive-head-trauma-and-near-point-of-convergence
#8
Andrew G Lee, Steven L Galetta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257799/association-of-football-subconcussive-head-impacts-with-ocular-near-point-of-convergence
#9
Keisuke Kawata, Leah H Rubin, Jong Hyun Lee, Thomas Sim, Masahiro Takahagi, Victor Szwanki, Al Bellamy, Kurosh Darvish, Soroush Assari, Jeffrey D Henderer, Ryan Tierney, Dianne Langford
IMPORTANCE: An increased understanding of the relationship between subconcussive head impacts and near point of convergence (NPC) ocular-motor function may be useful in delineating traumatic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether repetitive subconcussive head impacts during preseason football practice cause changes in NPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective, observational study of 29 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players included baseline and preseason practices (1 noncontact and 4 contact), and postseason follow-up and outcome measures were obtained for each time...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184060/the-pathophysiology-of-concussion
#10
REVIEW
Meeryo C Choe
Concussion is a significant issue in medicine and the media today. With growing interest on the long-term effects of sports participation, it is important to understand what occurs in the brain after an impact of any degree. While some of the basic pathophysiology has been elucidated, much is still unknown about what happens in the brain after traumatic brain injury, particularly with milder injuries where no damage can be seen at the structural level on standard neuroimaging. Understanding the chain of events from a cellular level using studies investigating more severe injuries can help to drive research efforts in understanding the symptomatology that is seen in the acute phase after concussion, as well as point to mechanisms that may underlie persistent post-concussive symptoms...
June 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154859/potential-long-term-consequences-of-concussive-and-subconcussive-injury
#11
REVIEW
Bertrand R Huber, Michael L Alosco, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee
Repeated concussive and subconcussive trauma is associated with the later development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative disease associated with clinical symptoms in multiple domains and a unique pattern of pathologic changes. CTE has been linked to boxing and American football; CTE has also been identified in soccer, ice hockey, baseball, rugby, and military service. To date, most large studies of CTE have come from enriched cohorts associated with brain bank donations for traumatic brain injury, although several recent studies re-examining neurodegenerative disease brain banks suggest that CTE is more common than is currently appreciated...
May 2016: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142534/minimizing-head-acceleration-in-soccer-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
Jaclyn B Caccese, Thomas W Kaminski
Physicians and healthcare professionals are often asked for recommendations on how to keep athletes safe during contact sports such as soccer. With an increase in concussion awareness and concern about repetitive subconcussion, many parents and athletes are interested in mitigating head acceleration in soccer, so we conducted a literature review on factors that affect head acceleration in soccer. We searched electronic databases and reference lists to find studies using the keywords 'soccer' OR 'football' AND 'head acceleration'...
May 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047444/effects-of-soccer-heading-on-brain-structure-and-function
#13
REVIEW
Ana Carolina Rodrigues, Rodrigo Pace Lasmar, Paulo Caramelli
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player's unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6-12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042763/abnormalities-in-diffusional-kurtosis-metrics-related-to-head-impact-exposure-in-a-season-of-high-school-varsity-football
#14
Elizabeth M Davenport, Kalyna Apkarian, Christopher T Whitlow, Jillian E Urban, Jens H Jensen, Eliza Szuch, Mark A Espeland, Youngkyoo Jung, Daryl A Rosenbaum, Gerard A Gioia, Alexander K Powers, Joel D Stitzel, Joseph A Maldjian
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effects of cumulative head impacts during a season of high school football produce changes in diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Subjects were recruited from a high school football team and were outfitted with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS) during all practices and games. Biomechanical head impact exposure metrics were calculated, including: total impacts, summed acceleration, and Risk Weighted Cumulative Exposure (RWE)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029716/cumulative-head-impact-exposure-predicts-later-life-depression-apathy-executive-dysfunction-and-cognitive-impairment-in-former-high-school-and-college-football-players
#15
Philip Homes Montenigro, Michael L Alosco, Brett Martin, Daniel H Daneshvar, Jesse Mez, Christine Chaisson, Christopher J Nowinski, Rhoda Au, Ann C McKee, Robert C Cantu, Michael D McClean, Robert A Stern, Yorghos Tripodis
Repetitive head impacts (RHI) refer to the cumulative exposure to concussive and subconcussive events. Although RHI is believed to increase risk for later-life neurological consequences (including chronic traumatic encephalopathy), quantitative analysis of this relationship has not yet been examined due to the lack of validated tools to quantify lifetime RHI exposure. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a metric to quantify cumulative RHI exposure from football, that we term the cumulative head impact index (CHII); 2) to use the CHII to examine the association between RHI exposure and long-term clinical outcomes; and (3) to evaluate its predictive properties relative to other exposure metrics (i...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979930/are-there-subconcussive-neuropsychological-effects-in-youth-sports-an-exploratory-study-of-high-and-low-contact-sports
#16
William T Tsushima, Olga Geling, Monica Arnold, Ross Oshiro
This exploratory study was designed to examine the neuropsychological effects of sports-related head trauma-specifically, repetitive subconcussive impacts or head blows that do not result in a diagnosable concussion. The researchers compared the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test scores of 2 groups of nonconcussed youth athletes (n = 282), grouped according to the frequency of concussions in their respective sports, with the assumption that more subconcussive impacts occur in sports in which there are more reported concussions...
2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26951540/head-impact-exposure-during-a-weekend-youth-soccer-tournament
#17
Sara P D Chrisman, Christine L Mac Donald, Seth Friedman, Jalal Andre, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Sara Drescher, Elizabeth Stein, Matthew Holm, Nicole Evans, Andrew V Poliakov, Randal P Ching, Christina C Schwien, Monica S Vavilala, Frederick P Rivara
Concussion is a known risk in youth soccer, but little is known about subconcussive head impacts. The authors provided a prospective cohort study measuring frequency and magnitude of subconcussive head impacts using accelerometry in a middle school-age soccer tournament, and association between head impacts and changes in (1) symptoms, (2) cognitive testing, and (3) advanced neuroimaging. A total of 17 youth completed the study (41% female, mean 12.6 years). There were 73 head impacts >15g measured (45% headers) and only 2 had a maximum peak linear acceleration >50g No youth reported symptoms consistent with concussion...
July 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913900/myelin-water-fraction-is-transiently-reduced-after-a-single-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-collegiate-hockey-players
#18
Alexander D Wright, Michael Jarrett, Irene Vavasour, Elham Shahinfard, Shannon Kolind, Paul van Donkelaar, Jack Taunton, David Li, Alexander Rauscher
Impact-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are a major public health concern, and remain as one of the most poorly understood injuries in the field of neuroscience. Currently, the diagnosis and management of such injuries are based largely on patient-reported symptoms. An improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of mTBI is urgently needed in order to develop better diagnostic and management protocols. Specifically, dynamic post-injury changes to the myelin sheath in the human brain have not been examined, despite 'compromised white matter integrity' often being described as a consequence of mTBI...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26885560/vestibular-dysfunction-following-sub-concussive-head-impact
#19
Sungjae Hwang, Lei Ma, Keisuke Kawata, Ryan Tierney, John Jeka
Current thinking views mild head impact (i.e., subconcussion) as an under-recognized phenomenon that has the ability to cause significant current and future detrimental neurological effects. However, repeated mild impacts to the head often display no observable behavioral deficits based on standard clinical tests, which may lack sensitivity. The current study investigates the effects of sub-concussive impacts from soccer heading with innovative measures of vestibular function and walking stability in a pre-, 0-2 hour post-, 24 hour post-heading repeated measures design...
February 17, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26810521/ocular-motor-assessment-in-concussion-current-status-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Rachel E Ventura, Laura J Balcer, Steven L Galetta, Janet C Rucker
Mild head injury such as concussions and subconcussive repetitive impact may lead to subtle changes in brain function and it is imperative to find sensitive and reliable tests to detect such changes. Tests involving the visual system, in particular eye movements, can incorporate higher cortical functioning and involve diffuse pathways in the brain, including many areas susceptible to head impact. With concussions, the clinical neuro-ophthalmic exam is important for detecting abnormalities in vergence, saccades, pursuit, and visual fixation...
February 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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