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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743040/prenatal-exposure-to-organophosphorus-pesticides-and-childhood-neurodevelopmental-phenotypes
#1
Melissa A Furlong, Amy Herring, Jessie P Buckley, Barbara D Goldman, Julie L Daniels, Lawrence S Engel, Mary S Wolff, Jia Chen, Jim Wetmur, Dana Boyd Barr, Stephanie M Engel
Prenatal exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) has been associated with different neurodevelopmental outcomes across different cohorts. A phenotypic approach may address some of these differences by incorporating information across scales and accounting for the complex correlational structure of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Additionally, Bayesian hierarchical modeling can account for confounding by collinear co-exposures. We use this framework to examine associations between prenatal exposure to OPs and behavior, executive functioning, and IQ assessed at age 6-9 years in a cohort of 404 mother/infant pairs recruited during pregnancy...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741714/abnormal-fronto-parietal-white-matter-organisation-in-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus-branches-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Jacqueline Fitzgerald, Alexander Leemans, Elizabeth Kehoe, Erik O'Hanlon, Louise Gallagher, Jane McGrath
Core features of ASD may be underpinned by disrupted functional and structural neural connectivity. Abnormal fronto-parietal functional connectivity has been widely reported in the literature; this may be underpinned by disrupted microstructural organisation of white matter. The Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF) is a major fronto-parietal white matter tract, the structure of which has been little studied in ASD. The fronto-parietal projections of this tract (SLF I, II and III) are thought to play an important role in a number of cognitive functions including attention and visuospatial processing...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741400/high-prevalence-of-dysgraphia-in-elementary-through-high-school-students-with-adhd-and-autism
#3
Susan D Mayes, Rosanna P Breaux, Susan L Calhoun, Sara S Frye
OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of dysgraphia by age across all grade levels was determined in students with ADHD or autism. METHOD: Referred children with normal intelligence and ADHD-Combined, ADHD-Inattentive, or autism ( N = 1,034) were administered the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). RESULTS: VMI and WISC Coding scores were significantly lower than IQ and the normal mean of 100 for all diagnoses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740814/validation-of-the-cognitively-normal-range-and-below-normal-range-subtypes-in-chronically-hospitalized-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
Shih-Kuang Chiang, Ching-Huan Ni, Chih-Pu Tsai, Keng-Chang Lin
BACKGROUND: Many studies have found a substantial minority of patients whose performance puts them within the normal range of neuropsychological functioning. Recently, a study has seen the delineation of two neurocognitive subtypes of schizophrenia -'cognitively normal range' (CNR) and 'below normal range' (BNR) - based on neurocognitive performance across multiple domains. METHODS: The participants were from two studies that collected neurocognitive, psychopathology and social function data between 2008 and 2015...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739799/lgr5-receptor-promotes-cell-cell-adhesion-in-stem-cells-and-colon-cancer-cells-via-the-iqgap1-rac1-pathway
#5
Kendra S Carmon, Xing Gong, Jing Yi, Ling Wu, Anthony Thomas, Catherine M Moore, Ikuo Masuho, David J Timson, Kirill A Martemyanov, Qingyun J Liu
Leucine rich repeat containing G protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) is a bona fide marker of adult stem cells in several epithelial tissues, most notably in the intestinal crypts and is highly upregulated in many colorectal, hepatocellular, and ovarian cancers. LGR5 activation by R-spondin (RSPO) ligands potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vitro, yet deletion of LGR5 in stem cells has little or no effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling or cell proliferation in vivo. Remarkably, modulation of LGR5 expression has a major impact on the actin cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion in the absence of RSPO stimulation, but the molecular mechanism is unclear...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737203/pain-insensitivity-in-a-child-with-a-de-novo-interstitial-deletion-of-the-long-arm-of-the-chromosome-4-case-report
#6
Marco Cascella, María Rosaria Muzio
Terminal and interstitial deletions of the distal segment of the long arm of chromosome 4 (Cr4q del) are not common genetic disorders. The severity of the phenotype is correlated with the size of the deletion because small deletions have little clinical impact, whereas large deletions are usually associated with multiple congenital anomalies, postnatal growth failure, and moderate to severe intellectual disability. Alteration in pain tolerance has not been included among these features, also in case of large deletions...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736312/resting-state-functional-connectivity-correlates-of-emotional-awareness
#7
Ryan Smith, Anna Alkozei, Jennifer Bao, Courtney Smith, Richard D Lane, William D S Killgore
Multiple neuroimaging studies have now linked emotional awareness (EA), as measured by the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), with activation in regions of neural networks associated with both conceptualization (i.e., default mode network [DMN] regions) and interoception (i.e., salience network [SN] regions) - consistent with the definition of EA as one's ability to appropriately recognize, conceptualize, and articulate the emotions of self and other in fine-grained, differentiated ways. However, no study has yet tested the hypothesis that greater LEAS scores are associated with greater resting state functional connectivity (FC) within these networks...
July 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736150/prenatal-environmental-chemical-exposures-and-longitudinal-patterns-of-child-neurobehavior
#8
Joseph M Braun, Kimberly Yolton, Shaina L Stacy, Bahar Erar, George D Papandonatos, David C Bellinger, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal chemical exposures may adversely affect neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined the persistence of these associations. We examined whether associations between prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) or polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures persist or resolve as children age. METHODS: We followed 346 mother-child pairs (enrolled 2003-2006) from Cincinnati, OH from pregnancy until children were 8 years old. We measured BPA in urine collected at 16 and 26 weeks gestation and PBDE-47 in serum collected at 16 weeks gestation...
July 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735700/sex-differences-in-the-relationship-between-conduct-disorder-and-cortical-structure-in%C3%A2-adolescents
#9
Areti Smaragdi, Harriet Cornwell, Nicola Toschi, Roberta Riccelli, Karen Gonzalez-Madruga, Amy Wells, Roberta Clanton, Rosalind Baker, Jack Rogers, Nayra Martin-Key, Ignazio Puzzo, Molly Batchelor, Justina Sidlauskaite, Anka Bernhard, Anne Martinelli, Gregor Kohls, Kerstin Konrad, Sarah Baumann, Nora Raschle, Christina Stadler, Christine Freitag, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Stephane De Brito, Graeme Fairchild
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported reduced cortical thickness and surface area and altered gyrification in frontal and temporal regions in adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). Although there is evidence that the clinical phenotype of CD differs between males and females, no studies have examined whether such sex differences extend to cortical and subcortical structure. METHOD: As part of a European multisite study (FemNAT-CD), structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were collected from 48 female and 48 male participants with CD and from 104 sex-, age-, and pubertal-status-matched controls (14-18 years of age)...
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735698/childhood-predictors-of-adult-functional-outcomes-in-the-multimodal-treatment-study-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-mta
#10
Arunima Roy, Lily Hechtman, L Eugene Arnold, James M Swanson, Brooke S G Molina, Margaret H Sibley, Andrea L Howard
OBJECTIVE: Recent results from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; MTA) have demonstrated impairments in several functioning domains in adults with childhood ADHD. The childhood predictors of these adult functional outcomes are not adequately understood. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of childhood demographic, clinical, and family factors on adult functional outcomes in individuals with and without childhood ADHD from the MTA cohort...
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735695/variation-in-the-early-trajectories-of-autism-symptoms-is-related-to-the-development-of-language-cognition-and-behavior-problems
#11
Janne C Visser, Nanda N J Rommelse, Martijn Lappenschaar, Iris J Servatius-Oosterling, Corina U Greven, Jan K Buitelaar
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to model more homogeneous subgroups within autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on early trajectories of core symptoms; and to further characterize these subgroups in terms of trajectories of language, cognition, co-occurring (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-related) traits and clinical outcome diagnosis. METHOD: Children (N = 203) referred for possible ASD at ages 1 to 4 years were assessed at three time points at intervals ranging from 9 months to 3 years...
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735643/disrupted-relationship-between-resting-state-connectivity-and-task-evoked-activity-during-social-perception-in-schizophrenia
#12
Sjoerd J H Ebisch, Vittorio Gallese, Anatolia Salone, Giovanni Martinotti, Giuseppe di Iorio, Dante Mantini, Mauro Gianni Perrucci, Gian Luca Romani, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Georg Northoff
Schizophrenia has been described as a self-disorder, whereas social deficits are key features of the illness. Changes in "resting state" activity of brain networks involved in self-related processing have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, but their meaning for social perception deficits remains poorly understood. Here, we applied a novel approach investigating the relationship between task-evoked neural activity during social perception and functional organization of self-related brain networks during a "resting state"...
July 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735586/cognitive-development-prior-to-onset-of-psychosis
#13
J Mollon, A Reichenberg
Schizophrenia patients commonly exhibit substantial and diffuse cognitive impairment. Evidence suggests that subtle cognitive deficits are already apparent in childhood and adolescence, many years prior to onset of psychosis. While there is almost unequivocal evidence of some degree of cognitive impairment in individuals who later develop schizophrenia, the literature remains inconclusive regarding the exact nature of this impairment and warrants careful review and interpretation. Meta-analytic findings suggest that individuals who later develop schizophrenia, but not related disorders, such as bipolar disorder, exhibit a premorbid IQ deficit of around 8 points...
July 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735268/early-surgery-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-children-born-extremely-preterm
#14
Rodney W Hunt, Leah M Hickey, Alice C Burnett, Peter J Anderson, Jeanie Ling Yoong Cheong, Lex W Doyle, Rodney W Hunt
OBJECTIVES: To (1) compare the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 8 years of age of children born extremely preterm (EP) who underwent surgical procedures during the course of their initial hospital admission with those who did not and (2) compare the outcomes across eras, from 1991 to 2005. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort studies conducted over three different eras (1991-1992, 1997 and 2005). Surviving EP children, who required surgical intervention during the primary hospitalisation, were assessed for general intelligence (IQ) and neurosensory status at 8 years of age...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734254/childhood-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-pbde-exposure-and-neurobehavior-in-children-at-8-years
#15
Ann M Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Changchun Xie, Glenys M Webster, Andreas Sjödin, Joseph M Braun, Kim N Dietrich, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure has been associated with decrements in IQ and increased attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder related behaviors in children; however, data are limited for the role of postnatal exposures. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between a series of childhood PBDE concentrations and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and externalizing problems at 8 years. METHODS: We used data from 208 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734235/characterization-of-cognitive-performance-and-evaluation-of-quality-of-life-among-patients-with-htlv-1
#16
Liliana Raulino Goncalves, Leopoldo Nelson Fernandes Barbosa, Paula Machado Ribeiro Magalhaes, Pedro Augusto Sampaio Rocha-Filho
OBJECTIVE: To characterize cognitive alterations among patients with HTLV-1, ascertain what is associated with these alterations and evaluate these patients' quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Patients infected by HTLV-1 who were seen at the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital from March 2014 to June 2015 were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Color Trails Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF36) were used...
July 12, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734078/associations-between-adolescent-cannabis-use-and-neuropsychological-decline-a-longitudinal-co-twin-control-study
#17
Madeline H Meier, Avshalom Caspi, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Renate Houts, Louise Arseneault, Terrie E Moffitt
AIMS: This study tested whether adolescents who used cannabis or met criteria for cannabis dependence showed neuropsychological impairment prior to cannabis initiation and neuropsychological decline from before to after cannabis initiation. DESIGN: A longitudinal co-twin control study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 1,989 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of twins born in England and Wales from 1994-1995...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732825/heterogeneity-of-lung-disease-associated-with-nk2-homeobox-1-mutations
#18
Elodie Nattes, Stephanie Lejeune, Ania Carsin, Raphael Borie, Isabelle Gibertini, Juan Balinotti, Nadia Nathan, Sylvain Marchand-Adam, Caroline Thumerelle, Brigitte Fauroux, Emmanuelle Bosdure, Veronique Houdouin, Celine Delestrain, MaleK Louha, Remy Couderc, Alix De Becdelievre, Pascale Fanen, Benoit Funalot, Bruno Crestani, Antoine Deschildre, Jean-Christophe Dubus, Ralph Epaud
We retrospectively studied the clinical presentation, treatment modalities and outcome in 16 patients with heterozygous NKX2-1 mutation associated with chronic lung disease. Twelve different NKX2-1 mutations, including 4 novel mutations, were identified in the 16 patients. Nine patients presented with brain-lung-thyroid syndrome, 3 had neurological and lung symptoms and 4 had only pulmonary symptoms. Ten patients had neonatal respiratory distress, and 6 of them developed infiltrative lung disease (ILD). The other patients were diagnosed with ILD in childhood (n = 3) or in adulthood (n = 3)...
August 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731964/the-relationship-between-environmental-sound-awareness-and-speech-recognition-skills-in-experienced-cochlear-implant-users
#19
Michael S Harris, Lauren Boyce, David B Pisoni, Valeriy Shafiro, Aaron C Moberly
HYPOTHESIS: 1) Environmental sound awareness (ESA) and speech recognition skills in experienced, adult cochlear implant (CI) users will be highly correlated, and, 2) ESA skills of CI users will be significantly lower than those of age-matched adults with normal hearing. BACKGROUND: Enhancement of ESA is often discussed with patients with sensorineural hearing loss as a potential benefit of implantation and, in some cases, ESA may be a major motivating factor. Despite its ecological validity and patients' expectations, ESA remains largely a presumed skill...
July 20, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731870/the-association-of-cognitive-reserve-in-chronic-phase-functional-and-neuropsychological-outcomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Jacob B Leary, Grace Y Kim, Catherine L Bradley, Uzma Z Hussain, Maryanne Sacco, Martha Bernad, John Collins, John Dsurney, Leighton Chan
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of cognitive reserve (CR) factors (estimated premorbid intelligence quotient [IQ], years of education, and occupational attainment) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity with functional and neuropsychological outcomes 1 to 5 years following TBI. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with mild (N = 58), moderate (N = 25), or severe (N = 17) TBI. MAIN MEASURES: Cognitive reserve factors (estimated premorbid IQ, years of education, and occupational attainment); neuropsychological test battery; Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended; Short Form-36 Health Survey...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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