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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147782/common-functional-variants-of-the-glutamatergic-system-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-with-high-and-low-intellectual-abilities
#1
Andreas G Chiocchetti, Afsheen Yousaf, Hannah S Bour, Denise Haslinger, Regina Waltes, Eftichia Duketis, Tomas Jarczok, Michael Sachse, Monica Biscaldi, Franziska Degenhardt, Stefan Herms, Sven Cichon, Jörg Ackermann, Ina Koch, Sabine M Klauck, Christine M Freitag
The genetic architecture underlying Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been suggested to differ between individuals with lower (IQ ≤ 70; LIQ) and higher intellectual abilities (IQ > 70; HIQ). Among the identified pathomechanisms, the glutamatergic signalling pathway is of specific interest in ASD. We investigated 187 common functional variants of this neurotransmitter system for association with ASD and with symptom severity in two independent samples, a German (German-ALL: N = 583 families) and the Autism Genome Project cohort (AGP-ALL: N = 2001 families), split into HIQ, and LIQ subgroups...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146048/cerebellar-volume-in-autism-literature-meta-analysis-and-analysis-of-the-autism-brain%C3%A2-imaging-data-exchange-cohort
#2
Nicolas Traut, Anita Beggiato, Thomas Bourgeron, Richard Delorme, Laure Rondi-Reig, Anne-Lise Paradis, Roberto Toro
BACKGROUND: The neuroanatomical bases of autism spectrum disorder remain largely unknown. Among the most widely discussed candidate endophenotypes, differences in cerebellar volume have been often reported as statistically significant. METHODS: We aimed at objectifying this possible alteration by performing a systematic meta-analysis of the literature and an analysis of the ABIDE (Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange) cohort. Our meta-analysis sought to determine a combined effect size of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis on different measures of the cerebellar anatomy as well as the effect of possible factors of variability across studies...
October 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146021/symptom-dimensions-and-subgroups-in-childhood-onset-schizophrenia
#3
Kirsten E S Craddock, Xueping Zhou, Siyuan Liu, Peter Gochman, Dwight Dickinson, Judith L Rapoport
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated symptom dimensions and subgroups in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) cohort and their similarities to adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) literature. METHOD: Scores from the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS & SANS) from 125 COS patients were assessed for fit with previously established symptom dimensions from AOS literature using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)...
November 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145913/goal-setting-deficits-at-13-years-in-very-preterm-born-children
#4
Kristina M Haebich, Catherine Willmott, Rachel Ellis, Alice C Burnett, Shannon E Scratch, Leona Pascoe, Megan M Spencer-Smith, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Terrie E Inder, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson, Peter J Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Preterm children demonstrate deficits in executive functions including inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility; however, their goal setting abilities (planning, organization, strategic reasoning) remain unclear. This study compared goal setting abilities between very preterm (VP: <30 weeks/<1250 grams) and term born controls during late childhood. Additionally, early risk factors (neonatal brain abnormalities, medical complications, and sex) were examined in relationship to goal setting outcomes within the VP group...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143763/intellectual-functioning-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Jake Jeong, Kevin P Kennedy, Timothy A Allen
Impaired intellectual functioning is an important risk factor for the emergence of severe mental illness. Unlike many other forms of mental disorder however, the association between bipolar disorder and intellectual deficits is unclear. In this narrative review, we examine the current evidence on intellectual functioning in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder. The results are based on 18 independent, peer-reviewed publications from 1980 to 2017 that met criteria for this study. The findings yielded no consistent evidence of lower or higher intellectual quotient (IQ) in offspring of parents diagnosed with bipolar disorder...
October 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143090/pattern-of-lower-intestinal-ostomies-in-a-low-income-country-case-of-southeast-of-niger-republic
#6
Harissou Adamou, Oumarou Habou, Ibrahim Amadou Magagi, Ousseini Adakal, Amadou Magagi, Maazou Halidou, Rachid Sani
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ostomies are common surgical procedures performed in visceral surgery as part of management for several gastrointestinal diseases. This study aims to report the socio-demographic characteristics, indications and prognosis of intestinal ostomies in low-income country. METHODS: This was a 4-year retrospective study (January 2013 to December 2016) at Zinder National Hospital (Niger). All patients with a digestive ostomy on an ileum or colic segment were included in the study...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142143/dha-supplementation-improves-cognitive-function-via-enhancing-a%C3%AE-mediated-autophagy-in-chinese-elderly-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Yan-Ping Zhang, Yinyin Lou, Jing Hu, Rujuan Miao, Fei Ma
BACKGROUND: Higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake is inversely correlated with relative risk of Alzheimer's disease. The potential benefits of DHA supplementation in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have not been fully examined. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to assess the effect of a 24-month DHA supplementation on cognitive function and amyloid beta (Aβ)-mediated autophagy in elderly subjects with MCI. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Tianjin, China...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140226/childhood-inflammatory-markers-and-intelligence-as-predictors-of-subsequent-persistent-depressive-symptoms-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#8
G M Khandaker, J Stochl, S Zammit, I Goodyer, G Lewis, P B Jones
BACKGROUND: To identify developmental sub-groups of depressive symptoms during the second decade of life, a critical period of brain development, using data from a prospective birth cohort. To test whether childhood intelligence and inflammatory markers are associated with subsequent persistent depressive symptoms. METHODS: IQ, a proxy for neurodevelopment, was measured at age 8 years. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein, typical inflammatory markers, were measured at age 9 years...
November 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139196/education-and-employment-outcomes-of-young-adults-with-a-history-of-developmental-language-disorder
#9
Gina Conti-Ramsden, Kevin Durkin, Umar Toseeb, Nicola Botting, Andrew Pickles
BACKGROUND: Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. AIMS: To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age-matched peer group without DLD...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139172/association-between-structural-brain-network-efficiency-and-intelligence-increases-during-adolescence
#10
Marinka M G Koenis, Rachel M Brouwer, Suzanne C Swagerman, Inge L C van Soelen, Dorret I Boomsma, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol
Adolescence represents an important period during which considerable changes in the brain take place, including increases in integrity of white matter bundles, and increasing efficiency of the structural brain network. A more efficient structural brain network has been associated with higher intelligence. Whether development of structural network efficiency is related to intelligence, and if so to which extent genetic and environmental influences are implicated in their association, is not known. In a longitudinal study, we mapped FA-weighted efficiency of the structural brain network in 310 twins and their older siblings at an average age of 10, 13, and 18 years...
November 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138533/comparison-of-visual-outcomes-after-bilateral-implantation-of-a-diffractive-trifocal-intraocular-lens-and-blended-implantation-of-an-extended-depth-of-focus-intraocular-lens-with-a-diffractive-bifocal-intraocular-lens
#11
André Lins de Medeiros, André Gustavo de Araújo Rolim, Antonio Francisco Pimenta Motta, Bruna Vieira Ventura, César Vilar, Mário Augusto Pereira Dias Chaves, Pedro Carlos Carricondo, Wilson Takashi Hida
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the visual outcomes and subjective visual quality between bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens, Alcon Acrysof IQ(®) PanOptix(®) TNFT00 (group A), and blended implantation of an extended depth of focus lens, J&J Tecnis Symfony(®) ZXR00 with a diffractive bifocal intraocular lens, J&J Vision Tecnis(®) ZMB00 (group B). Methods: This prospective, nonrandomized, consecutive, comparative study included the assessment of 40 eyes in 20 patients implanted with multifocal intraocular lens...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138124/comparison-of-allergen-responses-based-on-the-true-test-and-iq-chamber-system-in-korean-patients
#12
Won Joo Kwon, Joo Yeon Ko, Young Suck Ro, Myung Hwa Kim, Byung Soo Kim, Hye One Kim, Jae Hui Nam, Ga-Young Lee, Mi Youn Park, Sang Wook Son, Jun Mo Yang, Dong Hun Lee, Ai Young Lee, Jun Young Lee, Sung Eun Chang, Hae Young Choi, Eun Joo Park
A comparison between responses to allergens based on the TRUE Test(®)(TT) and IQ(®) Chamber (IQC) in Europeans has been previously reported, however, no such study has been performed in Asians. To compare allergen responses using the TT and IQC (using the Korean standard series) in order to gather more information regarding the positive response rates for each allergen and the clinical value of IQC. Suspected contact dermatitis patients were enrolled and tested with 18 allergens using the TT and IQC. The test was performed in 214 patients...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137029/neural-reorganization-between-injured-cingula-and-the-brainstem-cholinergic-nuclei-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-concussion-a-case-report
#13
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who showed neural reorganization between injured cingula and the brainstem cholinergic nuclei following cerebral concussion. PATIENT CONCERNS: The main concern of the patient is memory impairment. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral concussion. OUTCOMES: When she visited our hospital at 2 years after onset, cognitive function was evaluated using 2 scales; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and the Seoul neuropsychological screening battery: total IQ 97, verbal immediate recall 5...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136542/cognition-and-behaviour-in-children-with-congenital-abdominal-wall-defects
#14
Alice C Burnett, Julia K Gunn, Esther A Hutchinson, Margaret M Moran, Lisa M Kelly, Ursula C Sevil, Peter J Anderson, Rod W Hunt
AIM: To characterise neurodevelopment at age two years and cognition and behaviour at age five years in children born with abdominal wall defects (gastroschisis or exomphalos). STUDY DESIGN: Participants were treated as neonates for gastroschisis or exomphalos and invited for routine clinical follow-up at ages two and five years. Thirty-nine two year-olds and 20 five year-olds with gastroschisis and 20 two year-olds and 10 five year-olds with exomphalos returned for age-appropriate assessments of development (two years) and intellectual functioning (IQ), executive function, and behavioural problems...
November 11, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134669/unique-contribution-of-ecuadorian-kindergartners-spontaneous-focusing-on-numerosity-to-their-early-numerical-abilities
#15
Joke Torbeyns, Gina Bojorque, Jo Van Hoof, Daniël Van Nijlen, Lieven Verschaffel
Recent evidence indicates that young children's spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) uniquely contributes to their early numerical abilities. This study complements previous findings by validating the relation between young children's SFON and their early numerical abilities in a developing country, namely Ecuador. We analysed 355 Ecuadorian 5- to 6-year-olds' SFON in relation to their early numerical abilities at the start of kindergarten, controlling for children's socio-demographic (socio-economic status, age) and general cognitive (working memory, intelligence) characteristics...
November 14, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132079/absence-of-delay-in-spontaneous-use-of-gestures-in-spoken-narratives-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Miranda Kit-Yi Wong, Wing-Chee So
BACKGROUND: Gestures are spontaneous hand movements produced when speaking. Despite gestures being of communicative significance, little is known about the gestural production in spoken narratives in six- to 12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). AIMS: The present study examined whether six- to 12-year-old children with ASD have a delay in gestural production in a spoken narrative task, in comparison to their typically-developing (TD) peers. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Six- to-12-year-old children with ASD (N=14) and their age- and IQ-matched TD peers (N=12) narrated a story, which could elicit spontaneous speech and gestures...
November 10, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131081/overexpression-of-the-transmembrane-protein-iqgap3-is-associated-with-poor-survival-of-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#17
Naohide Oue, Yuji Yamamoto, Takashi Oshima, Ryuichi Asai, Akira Ishikawa, Naohiro Uraoka, Naoya Sakamoto, Kazuhiro Sentani, Wataru Yasui
OBJECTIVE: Spheroid colony formation is a useful method of cancer stem cell (CSC) characterization. We previously showed that the IQ motif containing the GTPase-activating protein 3 gene (IQGAP3) is upregulated in spheroid body-forming gastric cancer (GC) cells compared with parental cells. We investigated IQGAP3 expression in GC. METHODS: IQGAP3 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 165 GC cases. RNA interference was used to inhibit IQGAP3 expression in GC cell lines...
November 1, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129507/the-use-of-polygenic-risk-scores-to-identify-phenotypes-associated-with-genetic-risk-of-schizophrenia-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Sumit Mistry, Judith R Harrison, Daniel J Smith, Valentina Escott-Price, Stanley Zammit
Studying the phenotypic manifestations of increased genetic liability for schizophrenia can increase our understanding of this disorder. Specifically, information from alleles identified in genome-wide association studies can be collapsed into a polygenic risk score (PRS) to explore how genetic risk is manifest within different samples. In this systematic review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of studies examining associations between schizophrenia PRS (SZ-PRS) and several phenotypic measures. We searched EMBASE, Medline and PsycINFO (from August 2009-14th March 2016) plus references of included studies, following PRISMA guidelines...
November 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128471/development-of-verbal-short-term-memory-and-working-memory-in-children-with-epilepsy-developmental-delay-and-impact-of-time-related-variables-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Loretta van Iterson, Peter F de Jong
While short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) are understood as being crucial for learning, and children with epilepsy often experience learning difficulties, little is known about the age-related development of memory span tasks in children with epilepsy. Short-term memory and WM, operationalized as digit span forwards (DSF) or digit span backwards (DSB), respectively, were studied. Participants were 314 children with epilepsy and 327 typically developing children in ages between 5 and 15years and full scale intelligence quotient (FS-IQ)≥75...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128194/treatment-of-electrical-status-epilepticus-in-sleep-clinical-and-eeg-characteristics-and-response-to-147-treatments-in-47-patients
#20
Bart van den Munckhof, Christian Alderweireld, Susanne Davelaar, Heleen C van Teeseling, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Kees P J Braun, Floor E Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome is characterized by near-continuous sleep-induced epileptiform activity and acquired cognitive deficits. Treatment is assumed mandatory to improve cognitive outcome. We aimed to compare EEG characteristics, subjective evaluation and objective neuropsychological assessment as measures to evaluate treatment efficacy, and to analyze possible predictors. METHODS: We retrospectively included patients with ESES syndrome treated in our center...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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