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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108580/chronic-conditions-and-health-care-needs-of-adolescents-born-at-23-to-25-weeks-gestation
#1
Antti Holsti, Marie Adamsson, Bruno Hägglöf, Aijaz Farooqi, Fredrik Serenius
OBJECTIVE: We examined chronic conditions, functional limitations, and special health care needs in extremely preterm children (EPT; 23-25 weeks' gestation) born between 1992 and 1998 at 2 Swedish tertiary care centers that offered regional and active perinatal care to all live-born EPT infants. METHODS: Of 134 surviving EPT children, 132 (98%) were assessed at 10 to 15 years of age alongside 103 term-born controls. Identification of children with functional limitations and special health care needs was based on a questionnaire administered to parents...
January 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104412/features-of-the-broader-autism-phenotype-in-people-with-epilepsy-support-shared-mechanisms-between-epilepsy-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Annie E Richard, Ingrid E Scheffer, Sarah J Wilson
RICHARD, A.E., I.E. Scheffer and S.J. Wilson. Features of the broader autism phenotype in people with epilepsy support shared mechanisms between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(1) XXX-XXX, 2016.- To inform on mechanisms underlying the comorbidity of epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we conducted meta-analyses to test whether impaired facial emotion recognition (FER) and theory of mind (ToM), key phenotypic traits of ASD, are more common in people with epilepsy (PWE) than controls...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099526/executive-functioning-in-men-with-schizophrenia-and-substance-use-disorders-influence-of-lifetime-suicide-attempts
#3
Ana Adan, Maria Del Mar Capella, Gemma Prat, Diego A Forero, Silvia López-Vera, José Francisco Navarro
BACKGROUND: Lifetime suicide attempts in patients with comorbidity between psychotic disorders and Substance Use Disorder (SUD), known as dual diagnosis, was associated with a worse clinical and cognitive state, poor prognosis and premature death. However, to date no previous study has examined the cognitive performance of these patients considering as independent the presence or absence of lifetime suicide attempts. METHODS: We explore executive functioning differences between suicide attempters and non-attempters in dual schizophrenia (DS) patients and the possible related factors for both executive performance and current suicide risk...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096654/comparison-of-visian-toric-collamer-lens-and-toric-acrylic-intraocular-lens-implantation-for-the-treatment-of-myopia-with-astigmatism
#4
Hatem Ammar, Mohamed Anbar, Marwa M Abdellah
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and outcome of phakic toric implantable collamer lens (TICL) and refractive clear lens extraction with AcrySof Toric intraocular lens (TIOL) implantation for the treatment of myopic astigmatism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study assessed eyes with myopic astigmatism >-1 D and ≤-4 D with a spherical equivalent >10 D or <10 D if the patients were unsuitable for corneal refractive surgery. These eyes were divided into group A, in which Visian Toric ICL™ Phakic TICL was implanted, and group B, which involved clear lens extraction with implantation of an AcrySof IQ toric SN60T3-9™ IOL...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094999/specificity-of-executive-functioning-and-processing-speed-problems-in-common-psychopathology
#5
Joel T Nigg, Jennifer M Jester, Gillian M Stavro, Ka I Ip, Leon I Puttler, Robert A Zucker
OBJECTIVE: Interest continues in neuropsychological measures as cross-disorder intermediate phenotypes in understanding psychopathology. A central question concerns their specificity versus generalizability to particular forms of psychopathology, particularly for executive functioning (EF) and response speed. Three conceptual models examining these relationships were tested to clarify this picture at different levels in the diagnostic hierarchy. METHOD: Participants (total n = 641, age 18-60) yielded complete structured diagnostic interviews and a neuropsychological test battery comprising measures of executive function, processing speed, and IQ...
January 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094851/blood-transfusion-for-preventing-primary-and-secondary-stroke-in-people-with-sickle-cell-disease
#6
REVIEW
Lise J Estcourt, Patricia M Fortin, Sally Hopewell, Marialena Trivella, Winfred C Wang
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood transfusions may reduce the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke by diluting the proportion of sickled cells in the circulation...
January 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090797/dimensions-of-attention-associated-with-the-microstructure-of-corona-radiata-white-matter
#7
Elise A Stave, Michael D De Bellis, Steven R Hooper, Donald P Woolley, Suk Ki Chang, Steven D Chen
Mirsky proposed a model of attention that included these dimensions: focus/execute, sustain, stabilize, encode, and shift. The neural correlates of these dimensions were investigated within corona radiata subregions in healthy youth. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments were conducted in 79 healthy, right-handed youth aged 4-17 years. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were analyzed using standardized parcellation methods. Partial Pearson correlations between neuropsychological standardized scores, representing these attention dimensions, and diffusion tensor imaging measures of corona radiata subregions were calculated after adjusting for gender and IQ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090246/bayesian-covariate-selection-in-mixed-effects-models-for-longitudinal-shape-analysis
#8
Prasanna Muralidharan, James Fishbaugh, Eun Young Kim, Hans J Johnson, Jane S Paulsen, Guido Gerig, P Thomas Fletcher
The goal of longitudinal shape analysis is to understand how anatomical shape changes over time, in response to biological processes, including growth, aging, or disease. In many imaging studies, it is also critical to understand how these shape changes are affected by other factors, such as sex, disease diagnosis, IQ, etc. Current approaches to longitudinal shape analysis have focused on modeling age-related shape changes, but have not included the ability to handle covariates. In this paper, we present a novel Bayesian mixed-effects shape model that incorporates simultaneous relationships between longitudinal shape data and multiple predictors or covariates to the model...
April 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089981/sleep-disturbances-and-neurobehavioral-performance-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#9
Teresa M Ward, Dean W Beebe, Maida Lynn Chen, Carol A Landis, Sarah Ringold, Ken Pike, Carol A Wallace
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent of polysomnographic (PSG) sleep disturbances [obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI), number of wake bouts, arousals, periodic limb movements] and the effect of OAHI on neurobehavioral performance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), JIA without OSA, and controls without OSA, adjusting for intelligence quotient (IQ), pain, medications, daytime sleepiness, and wake bouts. METHODS: Children 6-11 years, 68 with JIA and 67 controls, underwent 1 night of PSG and completed self-reported daytime sleepiness surveys, multiple sleep latency tests for physiological sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance tests the next day...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089893/proteomic-characterization-of-the-interactions-between-fish-serum-proteins-and-waterborne-bacteria-reveals-the-suppression-of-anti-oxidative-defense-as-a-serum-mediated-antimicrobial-mechanism
#10
Miao Dong, Yimin Liang, Rajkumar Ramalingam, Sze Wing Tang, Wei Shen, Rui Ye, Singaram Gopalakrishnan, Doris Wai Ting Au, Yun Wah Lam
Fish blood is one of the crucial tissues of innate immune system, but the full repertoire of fish serum components involved in antibacterial defense is not fully identified. In this study, we demonstrated that turbot serum, but not the heat-inactivated control, significantly reduced the number of Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda). By conjugating serum proteins with fluorescent dyes, we showed that E. tarda were coated with multiple fish proteins. In order to identify these proteins, we used E. tarda to capture turbot serum proteins and subjected the samples to shotgun proteomic analysis...
January 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089585/the-impact-of-intelligence-on-memory-and-executive-functions-of-children-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-methodological-concerns-with-clinical-relevance
#11
Patricia Rzezak, Catarina A Guimarães, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
PURPOSE: Patients with TLE are prone to have lower IQ scores than healthy controls. Nevertheless, the impact of IQ differences is not usually considered in studies that compared the cognitive functioning of children with and without epilepsy. This study aimed to determine the effect of using IQ as a covariate on memory and attentional/executive functions of children with TLE. METHODS: Thirty-eight children and adolescents with TLE and 28 healthy controls paired as to age, gender, and sociodemographic factors were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery for memory and executive functions...
December 29, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089431/adults-with-developmental-dyslexia-show-selective-impairments-in-time-based-and-self-initiated-prospective-memory-self-report-and-clinical-evidence
#12
James H Smith-Spark, Adam P Zięcik, Christopher Sterling
BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM; memory for delayed intentions) would seem to be impaired in dyslexia but evidence is currently limited in scope. AIMS: There is a need, therefore, firstly, to explore PM under controlled conditions using a broader range of PM tasks than used previously and, secondly, to determine whether objectively measured and self-reported PM problems can be found in the same individuals with dyslexia. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The responses of 30 adults with dyslexia were compared with those of 30 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia on a self-report and a clinical measure of PM...
January 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089351/longitudinal-association-between-hippocampus-atrophy-and-episodic-memory-decline
#13
Tetiana Gorbach, Sara Pudas, Anders Lundquist, Greger Orädd, Maria Josefsson, Alireza Salami, Xavier de Luna, Lars Nyberg
There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions...
December 11, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088702/the-social-nature-of-overimitation-insights-from-autism-and-williams-syndrome
#14
Giacomo Vivanti, Darren R Hocking, Peter Fanning, Cheryl Dissanayake
When imitating novel actions, typically developing preschoolers often copy components of the demonstration that are unrelated to the modeled action's goal, a phenomenon known as 'overimitation'. According to the social motivation account, overimitation fulfills social affiliation motives (i.e., the imitator's drive to experience social connectedness with the demonstrator and the social context). Conversely, according to the social-cognitive account, overimitation reflects overattribution of causal relevance (i...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088056/the-evolving-relationship-between-premorbid-intelligence-and-serious-depression-across-the-lifespan-a-longitudinal-study-of-43-540-swedish-men
#15
Emil Lager, Bo Melin, Tomas Hemmingsson, Alma Sörberg Wallin
BACKGROUND: An association between higher intelligence and lower probability of serious depression has previously been established. Yet, to our knowledge, no large prospective study has examined the relationship across the lifespan. METHODS: A cohort of 49,321 Swedish men was followed from conscription in 1969-70 (age 18-20) through to 2008. Odds ratios (OR) for first time hospitalisation for depression (FTHD) were calculated in relation to intelligence for distinct time periods across the lifespan, while controlling for established risk factors for depression...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080100/metabolic-control-and-academic-achievement-over-time-among-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#16
Joel B Winnick, Cynthia A Berg, Deborah J Wiebe, Barbara A Schaefer, Pui-Wa Lei, Jonathan E Butner
The relation between metabolic control (HbA1c) and achievement (grade point average [GPA]) was examined over a period of 2.5 years (every 6 months) employing a dynamical systems approach that allowed for the examination of whether HbA1c was associated with change in subsequent GPA and vice versa. Metabolic control tends to deteriorate (i.e., with higher HbA1c reflecting poorer metabolic control) during adolescence. It was hypothesized that these higher levels of HbA1c would limit subsequent increases in GPA...
January 12, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079875/early-postnatal-illness-severity-scores-predict-neurodevelopmental-impairments-at-10-years-of-age-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#17
J W Logan, O Dammann, E N Allred, C Dammann, K Beam, R M Joseph, T M O'Shea, A Leviton, K C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: A neonatal illness severity score, The Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II (SNAP-II), predicts neurodevelopmental impairments at two years of age among children born extremely preterm. We sought to evaluate to what extent SNAP-II is predictive of cognitive and other neurodevelopmental impairments at 10 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort of 874 children born before 28 weeks of gestation, we prospectively collected clinical, physiologic and laboratory data to calculate SNAP-II for each infant...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#18
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079611/it-is-just-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder%C3%A2-or-is-it
#19
Dana C Won, Christian Guilleminault, Peter J Koltai, Stacey D Quo, Martin T Stein, Irene M Loe
Carly is a 5-year-old girl who presents for an interdisciplinary evaluation due to behaviors at school and home suggestive of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent report of preschool teacher concerns was consistent with ADHD. Psychological testing showed verbal, visual-spatial, and fluid reasoning IQ scores in the average range; processing speed and working memory were below average. Carly's behavior improved when her mother left the room, and she was attentive during testing with a psychologist...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079435/bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-of-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-at-presentation
#20
Marie Lundberg, Pia Nikander, Katja Tuomainen, Helena Orell-Kotikangas, Antti Mäkitie
CONCLUSION: Finnish head and neck cancer (HNC) patients show signs of severe malnutrition already at presentation, measured by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). BIA may be a practical method to detect malnutrition, analyze body composition, and to identify high-risk patients in this population. OBJECTIVES: BIA is a validated method for evaluating body composition and detecting malnutrition. Low phase angle (PA) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity...
January 12, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
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