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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823138/the-effect-of-age-genotype-and-sex-on-carcass-traits-meat-quality-and-sensory-attributes-of-geese
#1
Linda Uhlířová, Eva Tůmová, Darina Chodová, Jana Vlčková, Mohamed Ketta, Zdeněk Volek, Věra Skřivanová
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes in two different genotypes of geese according to age and sex. Methods: The experiment was carried out on 160 birds of two genotypes of geese: the Czech Goose (CG) breed and a Eskildsen Schwer (ES) hybrid. One-d-old goslings were divided into four groups according to genotype and sex. Two dates for slaughtering (at 8 and 16 wk of age of goslings) were undertaken. Results: The slaughter weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were affected by all the studied factors, and significant interactions between age, genotype and sex were detected in the slaughter weight (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823127/effects-of-feeding-corn-naturally-contaminated-with-aflatoxin-on-growth-performance-apparent-ileal-digestibility-serum-hormones-levels-and-gene-expression-of-na-k-atpase-in-ducklings
#2
Farzana Abbasi, Jingbo Liu, Hongfu Zhang, Xiaoyun Shen, Xuegang Luo
Objective: A 14-d trial was conducted to determine the effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility, serum hormones levels and gene expression of Na+, K+-ATPase in ducklings. Methods: A total of 704 ducklings were blocked on the basis of sex and body weight, and then allocated randomly to 1 of the following 2 treatments: 1) CON, basal diet and 2) AFB1, diets with 100% of normal corn replaced with AFB1 contaminated corn...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822243/chrysin-induced-sperm-parameters-and-fatty-acid-profile-changes-improve-reproductive-performance-of-roosters
#3
Ali Sami Amin Altawash, Ahmad Zare Shahneh, Hossein Moravej, Mahdi Ansari
Having antioxidant and androgenic effects, Chrysin was orally administrated to roosters and reproductive performance including sperm quality and fatty acid composition, testis index, fertility and hatchability rates as well as blood testosterone concentration were assessed. Twenty eight 40-week-old Ross 308 roosters were individually housed, equally divided into four groups and received different levels of capsulated Chrysin including 0 (Ch0), 25 (Ch25), 50 (Ch50) or 75 (Ch75) mg/bird/day for 12 consecutive weeks...
August 5, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821917/factors-determining-presence-of-passerines-breeding-within-white-stork-ciconia-ciconia-nests
#4
Adam Zbyryt, Dariusz Jakubas, Marcin Tobolka
Nests of White Stork Ciconia ciconia are commonly used by various passerines as nesting sites. In this study, we investigated factors determining presence and number of pairs of species breeding within White Stork nests in an extensive farmland in NE Poland. In 133 (57%) out of 233 White Stork nests, we found at least one breeding pair of passerine bird. These were from three species: House Sparrows Passer domesticus (68% of 133 nests with co-breeding), Tree Sparrows Passer montanus (65%), and Starlings Sturnus vulgaris (30%)...
August 18, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821812/crows-rival-monkeys-in-cognitive-capacity
#5
Dmitry Balakhonov, Jonas Rose
The present study compares the 'bandwidth of cognition' between crows and primates. Working memory is the ability to maintain and manipulate information over short periods of time - a core component of cognition. The capacity of working memory is tightly limited, in humans correlated with individual intelligence and commonly used synonymously with cognitive capacity. Crows have remarkable cognitive skills and while birds and mammals share neural principles of working memory, its capacity has not been tested in crows...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821654/wnt9a-can-influence-cell-fates-and-neural-connectivity-across-the-radial-axis-of-the-developing-cochlea
#6
Vidhya Munnamalai, Ulrike J Sienknecht, R Keith Duncan, M Katie Scott, Ankita Thawani, Kristen N Fantetti, Nadia M Atallah, Deborah J Biesemeier, Kuhn H Song, Kirsten Luethy, Eric Traub, Donna M Fekete
Vertebrate hearing organs manifest cellular asymmetries across the radial axis that underlie afferent versus efferent circuits between the inner ear and the brain. Thus, understanding the molecular control of patterning across this axis has important functional implications. Radial axis patterning begins before the cells become postmitotic, and is likely linked to the onset of asymmetric expression of secreted factors adjacent to the sensory primordium. This study explores one such asymmetrically-expressed gene, Wnt9a, that becomes restricted to the neural edge of the avian auditory organ, the basilar papilla, by embryonic day (E) 5...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821370/comparison-of-different-methods-of-semen-cryopreservation-in-melopsittacus-undulatus
#7
Andrea Dogliero, Mitzy Mauthe von Degerfeld, Ada Rota, Paola Pregel, Giuseppe Quaranta
Melopsittacus undulatus is largely used as a potential model for assisted reproduction in other endangered parrot species. Semen was collected from nineteen healthy adult males, by massage technique, during the breeding season. After preliminary evaluations through CASA analysis, eight birds were selected as semen donors and five ejaculates of each bird were utilized to evaluate the effect of 10% ethylene glycol (EG) addition, in two times, during 40min of equilibration time at 4°C, and to compare two programmable freezing curves (a rapid and a slow temperature descent rate) and freezing on nitrogen vapors...
August 9, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821240/avbd1-nucleotide-polymorphisms-peptide-antimicrobial-activities-and-microbial-colonisation-of-the-broiler-chicken-gut
#8
Kevin Cadwell, Sherko S Niranji, Vanessa L Armstrong, Catherine A Mowbray, Richard Bailey, Kellie A Watson, Judith Hall
BACKGROUND: The importance of poultry as a global source of protein underpins the chicken genome and associated SNP data as key tools in selecting and breeding healthy robust birds with improved disease resistance. SNPs affecting host peptides involved in the innate defences tend to be rare, but three non-synonymous SNPs in the avian β-defensin (AvBD1) gene encoding the variant peptides NYH, SSY and NYY were identified that segregated specifically to three lines of commercial broiler chickens Line X (LX), Line Y(LY) and Line Z...
August 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820139/risk-for-low-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus-on-poultry-farms-the-netherlands-2007-2013
#9
Ruth Bouwstra, Jose L Gonzales, Sjaak de Wit, Julia Stahl, Ron A M Fouchier, Armin R W Elbers
Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007-2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors: distance from poultry farms to clay soil, waterways, and wild waterfowl areas. Outdoor-layer, turkey (meat and breeder), and duck (meat and breeder) farms had a significantly higher risk for LPAIV introduction than did indoor-layer farms...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819131/impulsiveness-does-not-prevent-cooperation-from-emerging-but-reduces-its-occurrence-an-experiment-with-zebra-finches
#10
Camille Chia, Frédérique Dubois
Reciprocal altruism, the most probable mechanism for cooperation among unrelated individuals, can be modelled as a Prisoner's Dilemma. This game predicts that cooperation should evolve whenever the players, who expect to interact repeatedly, make choices contingent to their partner's behaviour. Experimental evidence, however, indicates that reciprocity is rare among animals. One reason for this would be that animals are very impulsive compared to humans. Several studies have reported that temporal discounting (that is, strong preferences for immediate benefits) has indeed a negative impact on the occurrence of cooperation...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819054/role-of-gnih-in-photoperiodic-regulation-of-seasonal-reproduction-in-the-eurasian-tree-sparrow
#11
Anand S Dixit, Namram S Singh, Sanborlang Byrsat
Seasonal reproductive cycles of most birds are regulated by photoperiod via neuroendocrine control. GnIH in hypothalamus has been reported to act as neuroendocrine integrator of photoperiodic cues. In this study, both captive and field investigations were carried out to understand the effects of photoperiod and seasonality on GnIH expression in subtropical tree sparrows. Monthly observations on GnIH mRNA and peptide expressions in wild birds over a year revealed significant increase in GnIH mRNA level and number of GnIH-ir neurons during the nonbreeding season when compared to their expressions in the breeding season...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816628/outbreak-and-cocirculation-of-three-different-usutu-virus-strains-in-eastern-germany
#12
Michael Sieg, Volker Schmidt, Ute Ziegler, Markus Keller, Dirk Höper, Kristin Heenemann, Antje Rückner, Hermann Nieper, Aemero Muluneh, Martin H Groschup, Thomas W Vahlenkamp
Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus accounting for large-scale deaths in resident bird populations. In this study, we show the introduction of USUV to Eastern Germany resulting in massive death of birds, particularly blackbirds (Turdus merula). We found that three diverse USUV lineages ("Europe 3," "Africa 2," and "Africa 3-like") circulated simultaneously. Moreover, we detected USUV in Culex pipiens in a region where no dead birds were reported, strengthening the need for mosquito monitoring to uncover the spread of arboviruses...
August 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815912/assembly-and-rna-free-annotation-of-highly-heterozygous-genomes-the-case-of-the-thick-billed-murre-uria-lomvia
#13
Anna Tigano, Timothy B Sackton, Vicki L Friesen
Thanks to a dramatic reduction in sequencing costs followed by a rapid development of bioinformatics tools, genome assembly and annotation have become accessible to many researchers in recent years. Among tetrapods, birds have genomes that display many features that facilitate their assembly and annotation, such as small genome size, low number of repeats, and highly conserved genomic structure. However, we found that high genomic heterozygosity could have a great impact on the quality of the genome assembly of the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), an arctic colonial seabird...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815716/characterization-of-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-wild-and-captive-birds-in-the-winter-season-of-2016-2017-in-northern-japan
#14
Takahiro Hiono, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Keita Matsuno, Atsushi Haga, Ritsuko Iwata, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Mizuho Suzuki, Yuto Kikutani, Hiroshi Kida, Manabu Onuma, Yoshihiro Sakoda
On November 15, 2016, a suspected case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a dead black swan was reported from a zoo in Akita prefecture, northern Japan, and an HPAI virus (HPAIV) belonging to the H5N6 subtype was isolated from specimens taken from the bird. After the initial report, 230 cases of HPAI caused by H5N6 viruses were reported from wild birds, captive birds, and domestic poultry farms throughout the country during the winter season. In the present study, we further characterized 66 H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from northern Japan...
August 16, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815565/generation-of-animal-form-by-the-chordin-tolloid-bmp-gradient-100%C3%A2-years-after-d-arcy-thompson
#15
Edward M De Robertis, Yuki Moriyama, Gabriele Colozza
The classic book "On Growth and Form" by naturalist D'Arcy Thompson was published 100 years ago. To celebrate this landmark, we present experiments in the Xenopus embryo that provide a framework for understanding how simple, quantitative transformations of a morphogen gradient might have affected evolution and morphological diversity of organisms. D'Arcy Thompson proposed that different morphologies might be generated by modifying physical parameters in an underlying system of Cartesian coordinates that pre-existed in Nature and arose during evolutionary history...
August 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814978/evolutionary-history-of-the-mariner-element-galluhop-in-avian-genomes
#16
Natasha Avila Bertocchi, Fabiano Pimentel Torres, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Ricardo José Gunski, Gabriel Luz Wallau
BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) are highly abundant genomic parasites in eukaryote genomes. Although several genomes have been screened for TEs, so far very limited information is available regarding avian TEs and their evolutionary histories. Taking advantage of the rich genomic data available for birds, we characterized the evolutionary history of the galluhop element, originally described in Gallus gallus, through the use of several bioinformatic analyses. RESULTS: galluhop homologous sequences were found in 6 of 72 genomes analyzed: 5 species of Galliformes (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Coturnix japonica, Colinus virginianus, Lyrurus tetrix) and one Buceritiformes (Buceros rhinoceros)...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814908/pulmonary-cryptococcosis-presenting-with-lung-mass-report-of-7-cases-and-review-of-literature
#17
Kanet Kanjanapradit, Zdravko Kosjerina, Wiwatana Tanomkiat, Warangkana Keeratichananont, Siripen Panthuwong
Pulmonary cryptococcosis is commonly found in immunocompromised patients. This microorganism rarely infects immunocompetent individuals, and when it does, it causes mild symptoms. The radiological findings of this disease may involve an intrapulmonary mass that mimics lung tumor. The objective of this study was to review the clinicopathological information, radiological findings, and treatment of patients who presented with intrapulmonary mass due to cryptococcosis. This study collected data from 7 patients who were treated at Songklanagarind Hospital, Songkhla, Thailand, between 2009 and 2014...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814657/differential-sperm-storage-by-female-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#18
Nicola Hemmings, Tim Birkhead
When females mate promiscuously, female sperm storage provides scope to bias the fertilization success towards particular males via the non-random acceptance and utilization of sperm. The difficulties observing post-copulatory processes within the female reproductive tract mean that the mechanisms underlying cryptic female choice remain poorly understood. Here, we use zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, selected for divergent sperm lengths, combined with a novel technique for isolating and extracting sperm from avian sperm storage tubules (SSTs), to test the hypothesis that sperm from separate ejaculates are stored differentially by female birds...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814612/effects-of-a-social-cue-on-reproductive-development-and-pre-alternate-molt-in-seasonally-breeding-migrant-and-resident-female-songbirds-zonotrichia-leucophrys
#19
Helen E Chmura, Simone L Meddle, John C Wingfield, Thomas P Hahn
To time reproduction optimally, birds have evolved diverse mechanisms by which they respond to environmental changes that help them anticipate and prepare for the breeding season. While residents initiate reproductive preparation and breed in the same geographic location, migrant birds simultaneously prepare for breeding and migration far from their breeding grounds. As a result, it is hypothesized that migrant and resident birds use environmental cues differently to prepare to breed and that there is adaptive specialization in mechanisms regulating reproductive preparation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814611/homing-pigeons-columba-livia-modulate-wingbeat-characteristics-as-a-function-of-route-familiarity
#20
Lucy A Taylor, Steven J Portugal, Dora Biro
Mechanisms of avian navigation have received considerable attention, but whether different navigational strategies are accompanied by different flight characteristics is unknown. Managing energy expenditure is critical for survival; therefore, understanding how flight characteristics, and hence energy allocation, potentially change with birds' familiarity with a navigational task could provide key insights into the costs of orientation. We addressed this question by examining changes in the wingbeat characteristics and airspeed of homing pigeons (Columba livia) as they learned a homing task...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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