Read by QxMD icon Read


Anna L Petrosky
Infidelity in socially monogamous birds may be a mechanism of inbreeding avoidance and may be impacted by cooperative breeding. Hajduk et al. (2018) find that relatedness increases extra-pair mating only in mother-son social pairs of Malurus cyaneus, while a greater number of nest helpers consistently increases the proportion of extra-pair offspring. These findings suggest that there may be multiple explanations for extra-pair mating within a single population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
June 19, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Ashley E Bigge, Sheila Purdum, Kathryn Hanford
This study was conducted to determine the effect of high- and low-activity xylanase in a corn and soybean diet on the performance of laying hens. There were 2 phases each with 4 treatment diets: positive control (PC), negative control (NC) with lower metabolizable energy (ME) and nutrient density, and 2 different xylanases supplemented to the NC diet. Phase 1 was 23-43 wk of age and phase 2 was 43-58 wk, for a total duration of 35 wk. The NC diet had a lower ME in phase 2 than phase 1. There were 72 cages with 3 Bovan White Leghorns each...
June 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Aleksandra Drazbo, Katarzyna Ognik, Anita Zaworska, Karolina Ferenc, Jan Jankowski
This study evaluated the effects of including 15% of raw or fermented rapeseed cake (RRC and FRC, respectively) in turkey diets on the growth performance, antioxidant and immune status, and intestinal morphology of birds. Rapeseed cake was fermented using the commercial 6-phytase enzyme preparation, and dried. A total of 1,350 day-old female Hybrid Converter turkeys were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments with 9 replicates per treatment and 50 birds per replicate. All diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and contained various protein sources...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Aimee Elizabeth Kessler, Malia A Santos, Ramona Flatz, Nyambayar Batbayar, Tseveenmyadag Natsagdorj, Dashnyam Batsuur, Fyodor G Bidashko, Natsag Galbadrakh, Oleg Goroshko, Valery V Khrokov, Tuvshin Unenbat, Ivan I Vagner, Muyang Wang, Christopher Irwin Smith
The Great Bustard is the heaviest bird capable of flight and an iconic species of the Eurasian steppe. Populations of both currently recognized subspecies are highly fragmented and critically small in Asia. We used DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the mitochondrial control region to estimate the degree of mitochondrial differentiation and rates of female gene flow between the subspecies. We obtained genetic samples from 51 individuals of Otis tarda dybowskii representing multiple populations, including the first samples from Kazakhstan and Mongolia and samples from near the Altai Mountains, the proposed geographic divide between the subspecies, allowing for better characterization of the boundary between the two subspecies...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Di Lu, Yang An, Simin Feng, Xiaodan Li, Aiping Fan, Zheng Wang, Yanjun Zhao
The complex design of multifunctional nanomedicine is beneficial to overcome the multiple biological barriers of drug delivery, but it also presents additional hurdles to clinical translation (e.g., scaling-up and quality control). To address this dilemma, we employed a simple imidazole-bearing polymer micelle for enhanced cellular uptake, facilitated endosomal escape, and on-demand release of a model drug, SN-38. The micelles were crosslinked by the reversible imidazole/Zn2+ coordination with a drug loading of ca...
June 18, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Evan S Haworth, Michael J Cunningham, Kathleen M Calf Tjorve
Sugarbirds are a family of two socially-monogamous passerine species endemic to southern Africa. Cape and Gurney's Sugarbird ( Promerops cafer and P. gurneyi ) differ in abundance, dispersion across their range and in the degree of sexual dimorphism in tail length, factors that affect breeding systems and potentially genetic diversity. According to recent data, P. gurneyi are in decline and revision of the species' IUCN conservation status to a threatened category may be warranted. It is therefore necessary to understand genetic diversity and risk of inbreeding in this species...
2018: PeerJ
Lucia S Triosanti, Michael Haryadi Wibowo, Rini Widayanti
Background and Aim: Newcastle disease (ND) caused by avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) is long known as an acute contagious and infectious disease of various bird species. Prior studies have acknowledged that the virus could cause up to 100% morbidity and mortality as well as reducing eggs production. In theory, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) in ND virus (NDV) is one of the surface glycoproteins that functions during the attachment, assembly, and maturation of the virus. On the fields, Indonesia has been recognized as an endemic country for ND where continuous outbreaks of ND in commercial chicken farms have been reported despite the implementation of periodical vaccination programs...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Jay P McEntee, Joseph A Tobias, Catherine Sheard, J Gordon Burleigh
Organismal traits may evolve either gradually or in rapid pulses, but the relative importance of these modes in the generation of species differences is unclear. Additionally, while pulsed evolution is frequently assumed to be associated with speciation events, few studies have explicitly examined how the tempo of trait divergence varies with respect to different geographical phases of speciation, starting with geographic isolation and ending, in many cases, with spatial overlap (sympatry). Here we address these issues by combining divergence time estimates, trait measurements and geographic range data for 952 avian sister species pairs worldwide to examine the tempo and timing of trait divergence in recent speciation events...
June 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Alex L Pigot, Walter Jetz, Catherine Sheard, Joseph A Tobias
Ecological communities are assembled from the overlapping of species in geographic space, but the mechanisms facilitating or limiting such overlaps are difficult to resolve. Here, we combine phylogenetic, morphological and environmental data to model how multiple processes regulate the origin and maintenance of geographic range overlap across 1,115 pairs of avian sister species globally. We show that coexistence cannot be adequately predicted by either dispersal-assembly (that is, biogeographic) models or niche-assembly models alone...
June 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Daniel Floryan, Tyler Van Buren, Alexander J Smits
Many swimming and flying animals are observed to cruise in a narrow range of Strouhal numbers, where the Strouhal number [Formula: see text] is a dimensionless parameter that relates stroke frequency f, amplitude A, and forward speed U. Dolphins, sharks, bony fish, birds, bats, and insects typically cruise in the range [Formula: see text], which coincides with the Strouhal number range for maximum efficiency as found by experiments on heaving and pitching airfoils. It has therefore been postulated that natural selection has tuned animals to use this range of Strouhal numbers because it confers high efficiency, but the reason why this is so is still unclear...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Catherine E Vrentas, Robert G Schaut, Paola M Boggiatto, Steven C Olsen, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Mahtab Moayeri
The inflammasome serves as a mechanism by which the body senses damage or danger. These multiprotein complexes form in the cytosol of myeloid, epithelial and potentially other cell types to drive caspase-1 cleavage and the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Different types of inflammasomes, centered on (and named after) their cytosolic NLRs, respond to signals from bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as "sterile inflammatory" triggers. Despite the large body of research accumulated on rodent and human inflammasomes over the past 15 years, only recently have studies expanded to consider the role of inflammasomes in veterinary and wildlife species...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Chris A Whitehouse, Shaohua Zhao, Heather Tate
The Campylobacter genus is a large and diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that are known to colonize humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, and shellfish. While it is now recognized that several emerging Campylobacter species can be associated with human disease, two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are responsible for the vast majority of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Infection with C. jejuni, in particular, has also been associated with a number of extragastrointestinal manifestations and autoimmune conditions, most notably Guillain-Barré syndrome...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Xiao-Xiao Wang, Wei Cheng, Zhao Yu, She-Lan Liu, Hai-Yan Mao, En-Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: Human infection of avian influenza virus (AIV) remains a great concern. Although live poultry markets are believed to be associated with human infections, ever more infections have been reported in rural areas with backyard poultry, especially in the fifth epidemic of H7N9. However, limited information is available on backyard poultry infection and surrounding environmental contamination. METHODS: Two surveillance systems and a field survey were used to collect data and samples in Zhejiang Province...
June 19, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Ting Jia, Xi Huang, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Minghai Yang, Changming Zheng, Tianchun Pu, Yanyun Zhang, Lu Dong, Xun Suo, Chenglin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Malaria parasites and related haemosporidian parasites are widespread and may cause severe diseases in birds. These pathogens should be considered in projects aiming breeding of birds for purposes of sustained ex situ conservation. Cranes are the 'flagship species' for health assessment of wetland ecosystems, and the majority of species are endangered. Malaria parasites and other haemosporidians have been reported in cranes, but the host-parasite relationships remain insufficiently understood...
June 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jean Artois, Carla Ippoliti, Annamaria Conte, Madhur S Dhingra, Pastor Alfonso, Abdelgawad El Tahawy, Ahmed Elbestawy, Hany F Ellakany, Marius Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The Avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus is endemic in poultry in Egypt. The winter of 2014/2015 was particularly worrying as new clusters of HPAI A (H5N1) virus emerged, leading to an important number of AI A (H5N1) outbreaks in poultry farms and sporadic human cases. To date, few studies have investigated the distribution of HPAI A (H5N1) outbreaks in Egypt in relation to protective / risk factors at the farm level, a gap we intend to fill. The aim of the study was to analyse passive surveillance data that were based on observation of sudden and high mortality of poultry or drop in duck or chicken egg production, as a basis to better understand and discuss the risk of HPAI A (H5N1) presence at the farm level in large parts of the Nile Delta...
June 18, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Julia K Bird, Philip C Calder, Manfred Eggersdorfer
Decreases in global cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in recent decades can be partly attributed to cholesterol reduction through statin use. n -3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are recommended by some authorities for primary and secondary CVD prevention, and for triglyceride reduction. The residual risk of CVD that remains after statin therapy may potentially be reduced by n -3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the effects of concomitant use of statins and n -3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are not well understood...
June 15, 2018: Nutrients
Denise Braga Gomes de Faria, Mateus Flores Montalvão, Thales Quintão Chagas, A P C Araújo, J M de Souza, B O Mendes, A S L Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
Abamectin (ABA) toxicity in fish, amphibian and mammals was already proven, but its effect on birds is almost unknown. Thus, the aim of our study is to assess the impact of exposure to water with ABA for 40 days at predicted environmentally relevant concentrations on the behavior of female Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The three following experimental groups (n = 10 each) were set: "control", quails exposed to drinking water, without ABA, "EC1x" and "EC1000x" (0...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elina Koivisto, Andrea Santangeli, Pertti Koivisto, Tapio Korkolainen, Timo Vuorisalo, Ilpo K Hanski, Iida Loivamaa, Sanna Koivisto
The most common rodent control method worldwide is anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs), which cause death by internal bleeding. ARs can transfer to non-target predators via secondary exposure, i.e. by consuming contaminated rodents. Here we quantify the prevalence of seven AR substances in the liver tissues of altogether 17 mammalian or avian predator or scavenger species in Finland. In addition, we identify the environmental and biological factors potentially linked to secondary AR poisoning. No previous AR screenings have been conducted in the country, despite the widespread use of ARs and their potential impacts on the high levels of the ecosystem food chain...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Eric P Raffin, Kristina L Penniston, Jodi A Antonelli, Davis P Viprakasit, Timothy D Averch, Vincent G Bird, Ben H Chew, Sri Sivalingam, Roger L Sur, Stephen Y Nakada, Vernon M Pais
INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether benefits of medical management of urolithiasis outweigh potential side effects of utilized medications including potassium citrate (Kcit) and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the relationship between Kcit or thiazides and overall stone-related health related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from stone forming enrollees in the North American Stone Quality of Life Consortium, we used the Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life questionnaire (WISQOL) to compare HRQOL between patients treated and not treated with Kcit or thiazide type diuretics...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Urology
Tulaci Bhakti, Fernando Goulart, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo, Yasmine Antonini
Consequences of habitat fragmentation for species occurrence are amongst the most important issues in landscape and conservation ecology. Empirical and theoretical studies have demonstrated that the total amount of habitat, patch size and connectivity have nonlinear effects on species survival on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, population models need to incorporate multiple scales, which can be extremely valuable to prioritizing conservation efforts in these changing landscapes. We tested how the amount and configuration of habitat affect understory bird species occurrence using fine to broad-scale habitat features...
2018: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"