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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819258/groundwater-nitrate-response-to-sustainable-nitrogen-management
#1
Birgitte Hansen, Lærke Thorling, Jörg Schullehner, Mette Termansen, Tommy Dalgaard
Throughout the world, nitrogen (N) losses from intensive agricultural production may end up as undesirably high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater with a long-term impact on groundwater quality. This has human and environmental health consequences, due to the use of groundwater as a drinking water resource, and causes eutrophication of groundwater-dependent ecosystems such as wetlands, rivers and near-coastal areas. At national scale, the measured nitrate concentrations and trends in Danish oxic groundwater in the last 70 years correlate well with the annual agricultural N surpluses...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816556/maternal-mortality-in-the-last-triennium-of-the-millennium-development-goal-era-at-the-obafemi-awolowo-university-teaching-hospitals-complex-ile-ife-nigeria
#2
Ibraheem Olayemi Awowole, Olusegun Olalekan Badejoko, Oluwafemi Kuti, Omotade Adebimpe Ijarotimi, Oluwaseun Oludotun Sowemimo, Ifeoluwa Emmanuel Ogunduyile
The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of Nigeria remains high. This retrospective study aims to suggest evidence-based strategies towards achieving the sustainable development goal target 3.1 at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (OAUTHC), Nigeria by providing contemporary data on MMR between October 2012 and September 2015. There were 86 maternal deaths and 5243 live births over the triennium, with annual MMRs of 1744, 1622 and 1512/100,000 live births, respectively. Fifty-six (65.2%) were postpartum deaths, while 44 (51...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814285/quality-of-midwife-provided-intrapartum-care-in-amhara-regional-state-ethiopia
#3
Tegbar Yigzaw, Fantu Abebe, Lalem Belay, Yewulsew Assaye, Equlinet Misganaw, Ashebir Kidane, Desalegn Ademie, Jos van Roosmalen, Jelle Stekelenburg, Young-Mi Kim
BACKGROUND: Despite much progress recently, Ethiopia remains one of the largest contributors to the global burden of maternal and newborn deaths and stillbirths. Ethiopia's plan to meet the sustainable development goals for maternal and child health includes unprecedented emphasis on improving quality of care. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of midwifery care during labor, delivery and immediate postpartum period. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using multiple data collection methods and a 2-stage cluster sampling technique was conducted from January 25 to February 14, 2015 in government health facilities of the Amhara National Regional State of Ethiopia...
August 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813695/risk-based-remediation-of-polluted-sites-a-critical-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Saranya Kuppusamy, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Srinithi Mayilswami, Yong Bok Lee
Sites contaminated with chemical pollutants represent a growing challenge, and remediation of such lands is of international concern. Risk-based land management (RBLM) is an emerging approach that integrates risk assessment practices with more traditional site-specific investigations and remediation activities. Developing countries are yet to adopt RBLM strategies for remediation. RBLM is considered to be practical, scientifically defensible and cost-efficient. However, it is inherently limited by: firstly, the accuracy of risk assessment models used; secondly, ramifications of the fact that they are more likely to leave contamination in place; and thirdly, uncertainties involved and having to consider the total concentrations of all contaminants in soils that overestimate the potential risks from exposure to the contaminants...
August 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812847/evidence-informed-deliberative-processes-for-universal-health-coverage-broadening-the-scope-comment-on-priority-setting-for-universal-health-coverage-we-need-evidence-informed-deliberative-processes-not-just-more-evidence-on-cost-effectiveness
#5
Unni Gopinathan, Trygve Ottersen
Universal health coverage (UHC) is high on the global health agenda, and priority setting is fundamental to the fair and efficient pursuit of this goal. In a recent editorial, Rob Baltussen and colleagues point to the need to go beyond evidence on cost-effectiveness and call for evidence-informed deliberative processes when setting priorities for UHC. Such processes are crucial at every step on the path to UHC, and hopefully we will see intensified efforts to develop and implement processes of this kind in the coming years...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812838/forced-migration-and-global-responsibility-for-health-comment-on-defining-and-acting-on-global-health-the-case-of-japan-and-the-refugee-crisis
#6
Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Oliver Razum
Forced migration has become a world-wide phenomenon in the past century, affecting increasing numbers of countries and people. It entails important challenges from a global health perspective. Leppold et al have critically discussed the Japanese interpretation of global responsibility for health in the context of forced migration. This commentary complements their analysis by outlining three priority areas of global health responsibility for European Union (EU) countries. We highlight important stages of the migration phases related to forced migration and propose three arguments...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812837/labont%C3%A3-identifies-key-issues-for-health-promoters-in-the-new-world-order-comment-on-health-promotion-in-an-age-of-normative-equity-and-rampant-inequality
#7
Dennis Raphael Raphael
For over 35 years Ronald Labonté has been critically analyzing the state of health promotion in Canada and the world. In 1981, he identified the shortcomings of the groundbreaking Lalonde Report by warning of the seductive appeal of so-called lifestyle approaches to health. Since then, he has left a trail of critical work identifying the barriers to - and opportunities for -health promotion work. More recently, he has shown how the rise of economic globalization and acceptance of neo-liberal ideology has come to threaten the health of those in both developed and developing nations...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812831/multisectoral-actions-for-health-challenges-and-opportunities-in-complex-policy-environments
#8
EDITORIAL
Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Orapan Srisookwatana, Poldej Pinprateep, Tipicha Posayanonda, Walaiporn Patcharanarumol
Multisectoral actions for health, defined as actions undertaken by non-health sectors to protect the health of the population, are essential in the context of inter-linkages between three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. These multisectoral actions can address the social and economic factors that influence the health of a population at the local, national, and global levels. This editorial identifies the challenges, opportunities and capacity development for effective multisectoral actions for health in a complex policy environment...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812808/history-structure-and-agency-in-global-health-governance-comment-on-global-health-governance-challenges-2016-are-we-ready
#9
Stephen Gill, Solomon R Benatar
Ilona Kickbusch's thought provoking editorial is criticized in this commentary, partly because she fails to refer to previous critical work on the global conditions and policies that sustain inequality, poverty, poor health and damage to the biosphere and, as a result, she misreads global power and elides consideration of the fundamental historical structures of political and material power that shape agency in global health governance. We also doubt that global health can be improved through structures and processes of multilateralism that are premised on the continued reproduction of the ecologically myopic and socially unsustainable market civilization model of capitalist development that currently prevails in the world economy...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812807/health-technology-assessment-global-advocacy-and-local-realities-comment-on-priority-setting-for-universal-health-coverage-we-need-evidence-informed-deliberative-processes-not-just-more-evidence-on-cost-effectiveness
#10
Kalipso Chalkidou, Ryan Li, Anthony J Culyer, Amanda Glassman, Karen J Hofman, Yot Teerawattananon
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) can help countries attain and sustain universal health coverage (UHC), as long as it is context-specific and considered within deliberative processes at the country level. Institutionalising robust deliberative processes requires significant time and resources, however, and countries often begin by demanding evidence (including local CEA evidence as well as evidence about local values), whilst striving to strengthen the governance structures and technical capacities with which to generate, consider and act on such evidence...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812178/sludge-quantification-at-water-treatment-plant-and-its-management-scenario
#11
Tarique Ahmad, Kafeel Ahmad, Mehtab Alam
Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811221/is-the-hype-around-the-reproductive-health-claims-of-maca-lepidium-meyenii-walp-justified
#12
REVIEW
Shruti Beharry, Michael Heinrich
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1,300 to 2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too. AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808013/disaggregating-sorghum-yield-reductions-under-warming-scenarios-exposes-narrow-genetic-diversity-in-us-breeding-programs
#13
Jesse Tack, Jane Lingenfelser, S V Krishna Jagadish
Historical adaptation of sorghum production to arid and semiarid conditions has provided promise regarding its sustained productivity under future warming scenarios. Using Kansas field-trial sorghum data collected from 1985 to 2014 and spanning 408 hybrid cultivars, we show that sorghum productivity under increasing warming scenarios breaks down. Through extensive regression modeling, we identify a temperature threshold of 33 °C, beyond which yields start to decline. We show that this decline is robust across both field-trial and on-farm data...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807953/developing-family-practice-to-respond-to-global-health-challenges-the-besrour-papers-a-series-on-the-state-of-family-medicine-in-the-world
#14
REVIEW
Neil Arya, Bruce Dahlman, Christine Gibson, David Ponka, Cynthia Haq, Katherine Rouleau, Stephanie Hansel
OBJECTIVE: To assess family medicine's role in developing strong, coordinated, community-based, integrated health care systems in low-resource settings globally. COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE: A subgroup of the Besrour Centre of the College of Family Physicians of Canada developed connections with selected international colleagues with expertise in international family medicine practice, health systems and capacity building, and teaching to map family medicine globally and give a bird's eye view of family medicine internationally...
August 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807856/low-levels-of-genetic-diversity-associated-with-evidence-of-negative-selection-on-the-babesia-bovis-apical-membrane-antigen-1-from-parasite-populations-in-thailand
#15
Amarin Rittipornlertrak, Boondarika Nambooppha, Pacharathon Simking, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Yang-Tsung Chung, Nattawooti Sthitmatee
Babesia bovis, a parasite infecting cattle and buffalo, continues to spread throughout the developing world. The babesial vaccine was developed to be a sustainable alternative treatment to control the parasite. However, genetic diversity is a major obstacle for designing and developing a safe and effective vaccine. The apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) is considered to be a potential vaccine candidate antigen among immunogenic genes of B. bovis. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of B. bovis AMA-1 (BbAMA-1), three B...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806555/environmental-and-socio-economic-sustainability-appraisal-of-contaminated-land-remediation-strategies-a-case-study-at-a-mega-site-in-china
#16
Yinan Song, Deyi Hou, Junli Zhang, David O'Connor, Guanghe Li, Qingbao Gu, Shupeng Li, Peng Liu
Green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has become a global trend in the contaminated land remediation field. Growing numbers of countries have adopted GSR procedures published in regulatory and/or technical guidance. China is fast becoming one of the largest remediation markets in the world, and is beginning to engage with GSR. Among other efforts, a taskforce is currently developing the first Chinese technical standard on GSR. This paper presents the context positioning and development of a sustainable remediation assessment indicator set for China...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806549/liming-impacts-on-soils-crops-and-biodiversity-in-the-uk-a-review
#17
REVIEW
J E Holland, A E Bennett, A C Newton, P J White, B M McKenzie, T S George, R J Pakeman, J S Bailey, D A Fornara, R C Hayes
Fertile soil is fundamental to our ability to achieve food security, but problems with soil degradation (such as acidification) are exacerbated by poor management. Consequently, there is a need to better understand management approaches that deliver multiple ecosystem services from agricultural land. There is global interest in sustainable soil management including the re-evaluation of existing management practices. Liming is a long established practice to ameliorate acidic soils and many liming-induced changes are well understood...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805172/the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-and-sustainable-development-goals-mapping-the-way-forward
#18
N Kajee, E Sobngwi, A Macnab, A S Daar
In this paper, meant to stimulate debate, we argue that there is considerable benefit in approaching together the implementation of two seemingly separate recent developments. First, on the global development agenda, we have the United Nations General Assembly's 2015 finalized list of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Several of the SDGs are related to health. Second, the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) has garnered enough compelling evidence demonstrating that early exposures in life affect not only future health, but that the effects of that exposure can be transmitted across generations - necessitating that we begin to focus on prevention...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803714/building-capacity-for-active-surveillance-of-vaccine-adverse-events-in-the-americas-a-hospital-based-multi-country-network
#19
Pamela Bravo-Alcántara, Silvia Pérez-Vilar, Helvert Felipe Molina-León, Miriam Sturkenboom, Steven Black, Patrick L F Zuber, Christine Maure, Jose Luis Castro
New vaccines designed to prevent diseases endemic in low and middle-income countries are being introduced without prior utilization in countries with robust vaccine pharmacovigilance systems. Our aim was to build capacity for active surveillance of vaccine adverse events in the Americas. We describe the implementation of a proof-of-concept study for the feasibility of an international collaborative hospital-based active surveillance system for vaccine safety. The study was developed and implemented in 15 sentinel sites located in seven countries of the region of the Americas, under the umbrella of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Vaccine Safety Initiative...
August 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802707/boosting-innate-immunity-to-sustainably-control-diseases-in-crops
#20
REVIEW
Valerie Nicaise
Viruses cause epidemics in all major crops, threatening global food security. The development of efficient and durable resistance able to withstand viral attacks represents a major challenge for agronomy, and relies greatly on the understanding of the molecular dialogue between viral pathogens and their hosts. Research over the last decades provided substantial advances in the field of plant-virus interactions. Remarkably, the advent of studies of plant innate immunity has recently offered new strategies exploitable in the field...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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