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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109540/what-will-donald-trump-s-presidency-mean-for-health-a-scorecard
#1
Martin McKee, Scott L Greer, David Stuckler
US Presidents make their mark on health, for better or worse. Donald Trump campaigned on a populist platform to "make America great again". While the actual policies his administration will pursue-and the priority he will place on each of them-remain in many ways uncertain, both his statements and his nominations for key government posts suggest that his presidency could have profound implications for health. His proposal to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act with a "better reform", his stance on reproductive rights, and his approaches to other areas, such as science policy and climate change, coupled with his stated intention to put "America first" are creating anxiety and uncertainty about America's domestic health policies and its global leadership role in areas such as security and development...
January 18, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109269/an-appraisal-of-the-neglected-tropical-diseases-control-program-in-cameroon-the-case-of-the-national-program-against-onchocerciasis
#2
Tsi Njim, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes. Current global estimates suggest that it accounts for 1135.7 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per 100,000 population. The disease is endemic in many African countries including Cameroon, probably suggesting that the current health policies are inadequate to achieve eradication of the disease. We aimed to appraise the current Onchocerciasis control program in Cameroon in the context of existing literature...
January 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107583/chronic-hepatitis-c-and-chronic-kidney-disease-advances-limitations-and-unchartered-territories
#3
Manuel Mendizabal, K Rajender Reddy
Over the past few years, treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have evolved dramatically. The current approved interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have been shown to be safe and effective with sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of >90% in most patients. Unique issues yet remain such as the challenges in patients with impaired renal function or decompensated cirrhosis. Patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher prevalence of HCV infection compared with the general population...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104100/pathophysiologic-mechanisms-in-heart-failure-role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#4
Steve Antoine, Gaurang Vaidya, Haider Imam, Daniel Villarreal
The syndrome of heart failure involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms and is associated with extremely high-morbidity, mortality and economic costs. This growing global epidemic has diverse etiologies and is fundamentally characterized by dyshomeostasis between heart and kidneys, leading to development and progression of the cardiorenal syndrome. Excessive and sustained sympathoexcitation has emerged as a single prominent factor involved in the structural and functional dysfunction of multiple organ systems during this disease...
January 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103778/the-role-of-the-world-health-organization-in-eliminating-iodine-deficiency-worldwide
#5
Paulina Karwowska, Joao Breda
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency has been one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in the world, causing many health disorders, particularly in pregnant women and children. Despite increased salt iodization in some countries and regions, the process has lacked global coordination and sustainability, two prerequisites for reaching the aim of eliminating iodine deficiency. This goal can be reached only by evidence-based, effectively monitored joint and committed actions of all countries...
January 18, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098132/-materiality-analysis-of-health-plans-based-on-stakeholder-engagement-and-the-issues-included-at-iso-26000-2010
#6
Miguel Angel Moyano Santiago, Juana María Rivera Lirio
OBJECTIVE: Health plans of the Spanish autonomous communities can incorporate sustainable development criteria in its development. There have been no analysis or proposals about development and indicators. The goal is to add a contribution to help build better health plans aimed at sustainable development and help to manage economic, social and environmental impacts of health systems criteria. METHODS: We used a variation of the RAND/UCLA or modified Delphi technique method...
January 18, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096504/opportunity-for-marine-fisheries-reform-in-china
#7
Ling Cao, Yong Chen, Shuanglin Dong, Arthur Hanson, Bo Huang, Duncan Leadbitter, David C Little, Ellen K Pikitch, Yongsong Qiu, Yvonne Sadovy de Mitcheson, Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Meryl Williams, Guifang Xue, Yimin Ye, Wenbo Zhang, Yingqi Zhou, Ping Zhuang, Rosamond L Naylor
China's 13th Five-Year Plan, launched in March 2016, provides a sound policy platform for the protection of marine ecosystems and the restoration of capture fisheries within China's exclusive economic zone. What distinguishes China among many other countries striving for marine fisheries reform is its size-accounting for almost one-fifth of global catch volume-and the unique cultural context of its economic and resource management. In this paper, we trace the history of Chinese government priorities, policies, and outcomes related to marine fisheries since the 1978 Economic Reform, and examine how the current leadership's agenda for "ecological civilization" could successfully transform marine resource management in the coming years...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096391/network-based-integration-of-systems-genetics-data-reveals-pathways-associated-with-lignocellulosic-biomass-accumulation-and-processing
#8
Eshchar Mizrachi, Lieven Verbeke, Nanette Christie, Ana C Fierro, Shawn D Mansfield, Mark F Davis, Erica Gjersing, Gerald A Tuskan, Marc Van Montagu, Yves Van de Peer, Kathleen Marchal, Alexander A Myburg
As a consequence of their remarkable adaptability, fast growth, and superior wood properties, eucalypt tree plantations have emerged as key renewable feedstocks (over 20 million ha globally) for the production of pulp, paper, bioenergy, and other lignocellulosic products. However, most biomass properties such as growth, wood density, and wood chemistry are complex traits that are hard to improve in long-lived perennials. Systems genetics, a process of harnessing multiple levels of component trait information (e...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095770/the-unique-genomic-landscape-surrounding-the-epsps-gene-in-glyphosate-resistant-amaranthus-palmeri-a-repetitive-path-to-resistance
#9
William T Molin, Alice A Wright, Amy Lawton-Rauh, Christopher A Saski
BACKGROUND: The expanding number and global distributions of herbicide resistant weedy species threaten food, fuel, fiber and bioproduct sustainability and agroecosystem longevity. Amongst the most competitive weeds, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats has rapidly evolved resistance to glyphosate primarily through massive amplification and insertion of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene across the genome. Increased EPSPS gene copy numbers results in higher titers of the EPSPS enzyme, the target of glyphosate, and confers resistance to glyphosate treatment...
January 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095408/patient-safety-incidents-involving-sick-children-in-primary-care-in-england-and-wales-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#10
Philippa Rees, Adrian Edwards, Colin Powell, Peter Hibbert, Huw Williams, Meredith Makeham, Ben Carter, Donna Luff, Gareth Parry, Anthony Avery, Aziz Sheikh, Liam Donaldson, Andrew Carson-Stevens
BACKGROUND: The UK performs poorly relative to other economically developed countries on numerous indicators of care quality for children. The contribution of iatrogenic harm to these outcomes is unclear. As primary care is the first point of healthcare contact for most children, we sought to investigate the safety of care provided to children in this setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a mixed methods investigation of reports of primary care patient safety incidents involving sick children from England and Wales' National Reporting and Learning System between 1 January 2005 and 1 December 2013...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094525/photocatalytic-color-switching-of-transition-metal-hexacyanometalate-nanoparticles-for-high-performance-light-printable-rewritable-paper
#11
Wenshou Wang, Ji Feng, Yifan Ye, Fenglei Lyu, Yi-Sheng Liu, Jinghua Guo, Yadong Yin
Developing efficient photoreversible color switching systems for constructing rewritable paper is of significant practical interest owing to the potential environmental benefits including forest conservation, pollution reduction, and resource sustainability. Here we report that the color change associated with the redox chemistry of nanoparticles of Prussian blue and its analogues could be integrated with the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles to construct a class of new photoreversible color switching systems, which can be conveniently utilized for fabricating ink-free, light printable rewritable paper with various working colors...
January 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092712/-global-bioethics-and-biocultural-ethics
#12
Ricardo Rozzi
The biocultural ethic recovers an understanding of the vital links between the life habits of the coinhabitants (humans and other-than-human) that share a habitat. The ″3Hs″ formal framework of the biocultural ethics provides a conceptual and methodological tool to understand and to better manage complex eco-social or biocultural systems in heterogeneous regions of the planet. From the global bioethics originally proposed by V.R. Potter, the integration of theory and praxis promoted by Alfredo Pradenas in the Bioethics Society of Chile, and the conceptual framework of biocultural ethics (including traditions of philosophical thought, scientific and Amerindians), I develop a comparative analysis of: 1...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092709/the-centrality-of-philosophical-anthropology-to-a-future-environmental-ethics
#13
Arran Gare
While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091679/sustainability-of-renewable-fuel-infrastructure-a-screening-lca-case-study-of-anticorrosive-graphene-oxide-epoxy-liners-in-steel-tanks-for-the-storage-of-biodiesel-and-its-blends
#14
Govinda Chilkoor, Venkata K K Upadhyayula, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, Nikhil Koratkar, Mats Tysklind
Biodiesel is a widely used fuel that meets the renewable fuel standards developed under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. However, biodiesel is known to pose a series of abiotic and biotic corrosion risks to storage tanks. A typical practice (incumbent system) used to protect the tanks from these risks include (i) coating the interior surface of the tank with a solvent-free epoxy (SFE) liner, and (ii) adding a biocide to the tank. Herein, we present a screening-level life-cycle assessment study to compare the environmental performance of a graphene oxide (GO)-epoxy (GOE) liner with the incumbent system...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089404/the-schhs-hip-fracture-clinical-network-experience-improving-care-and-outcomes-through-an-interprofessional-approach
#15
Gillian Puckeridge, Morné Terblanche, Debbie Massey
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are a major global health care issue, with the 1.26 million estimated cases in 1990 predicted to increase to 4.5 million by 2050. Varying models of care have been developed to improve outcomes following fragility hip fractures. Most of these care models embrace an interprofessional approach to care. Specialist orthopedic nurses play an important role in the management of fragility hip fracture patients and their contribution to the interprofessional health care team is an important predictor of patient outcomes...
December 18, 2016: International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078980/bioremediation-of-toxic-heavy-metals-a-patent-review
#16
Neelam Verma, Rajni Sharma
BACKGROUND: The global industrialization is fulfilling the demands of modern population at the cost of environmental exposure to various contaminants including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect water and soil quality. Moreover these enter into the food chain and exhibit their lethal effects on the human health even when present at slightly higher concentration than required for normal metabolism. To the worst of their part, the heavy metals may become carcinogenic. Henceforth, the efficient removal of heavy metals is the demand of sustainable development...
January 11, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078747/granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis-as-an-adjuvant-therapy-to-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-drugs-for-ulcerative-colitis
#17
Iago Rodríguez-Lago, Laura Gómez-Irwin, Encarnación Fernández, Rebeca Higuera, José Luis Cabriada
Biologic anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs have demonstrated their efficacy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, some patients will not respond to this therapy or will develop loss of response. Leukapheresis is the main non-pharmacological therapy for some immune-mediated diseases. The aim of our study was to describe our experience with this therapy in ulcerative colitis patients after loss of response to anti-TNF treatment. Leukapheresis was indicated in four patients with left-sided or extensive colitis because of partial response to biological therapy or secondary loss of response to it...
January 11, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077095/geographic-information-system-for-improving-maternal-and-newborn-health-recommendations-for-policy-and-programs
#18
Yordanos B Molla, Barbara Rawlins, Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Marc Cunningham, Juan Eugenio Hernández Ávila, Corrine Warren Ruktanonchai, Kavita Singh, Sylvia Alford, Mira Thompson, Vikas Dwivedi, Allisyn C Moran, Zoe Matthews
This correspondence argues and offers recommendations for how Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to maternal and newborn health data could potentially be used as part of the broader efforts for ending preventable maternal and newborn mortality. These recommendations were generated from a technical consultation on reporting and mapping maternal deaths that was held in Washington, DC from January 12 to 13, 2015 and hosted by the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) global Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP)...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070316/consumers-preferences-for-fresh-yam-a-focus-group-study
#19
Carla Barlagne, Denis Cornet, Jean-Marc Blazy, Jean-Louis Diman, Harry Ozier-Lafontaine
In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. The yam production sector is, however, now challenged by the satisfaction of evolving consumers' preferences. Since little is known about consumers' preferences regarding yams' characteristics, product quality, and the drivers of yam purchase, six focus group discussions were conducted (for a total of 31 participants). Among the purchasing criteria, price was considered more important than the others...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069957/global-scenarios-of-urban-density-and-its-impacts-on-building-energy-use-through-2050
#20
Burak Güneralp, Yuyu Zhou, Diana Ürge-Vorsatz, Mukesh Gupta, Sha Yu, Pralit L Patel, Michail Fragkias, Xiaoma Li, Karen C Seto
Although the scale of impending urbanization is well-acknowledged, we have a limited understanding of how urban forms will change and what their impact will be on building energy use. Using both top-down and bottom-up approaches and scenarios, we examine building energy use for heating and cooling. Globally, the energy use for heating and cooling by the middle of the century will be between 45 and 59 exajoules per year (corresponding to an increase of 7-40% since 2010). Most of this variability is due to the uncertainty in future urban densities of rapidly growing cities in Asia and particularly China...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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