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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905489/the-mammalian-linc-complex-regulates-genome-transcriptional-responses-to-substrate-rigidity
#1
Samer G Alam, Qiao Zhang, Nripesh Prasad, Yuan Li, Srikar Chamala, Ram Kuchibhotla, Birendra Kc, Varun Aggarwal, Shristi Shrestha, Angela L Jones, Shawn E Levy, Kyle J Roux, Jeffrey A Nickerson, Tanmay P Lele
Mechanical integration of the nucleus with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is established by linkage between the cytoskeleton and the nucleus. This integration is hypothesized to mediate sensing of ECM rigidity, but parsing the function of nucleus-cytoskeleton linkage from other mechanisms has remained a central challenge. Here we took advantage of the fact that the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex is a known molecular linker of the nucleus to the cytoskeleton, and asked how it regulates the sensitivity of genome-wide transcription to substratum rigidity...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889481/mitotic-nuclear-envelope-breakdown-and-spindle-nucleation-are-controlled-by-interphase-contacts-between-centromeres-and-the-nuclear-envelope
#2
Alfonso Fernández-Álvarez, Cécile Bez, Eileen T O'Toole, Mary Morphew, Julia Promisel Cooper
Faithful genome propagation requires coordination between nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown, spindle formation, and chromosomal events. The conserved linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex connects fission yeast centromeres and the centrosome, across the NE, during interphase. During meiosis, LINC connects the centrosome with telomeres rather than centromeres. We previously showed that loss of telomere-LINC contacts compromises meiotic spindle formation. Here, we define the precise events regulated by telomere-LINC contacts and address the analogous possibility that centromeres regulate mitotic spindle formation...
November 22, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858498/sun1-splice-variants-sun1_888-sun1_785-and-predominant-sun1_916-variably-function-in-directional-cell-migration
#3
Yu Nishioka, Hiromasa Imaizumi, Junko Imada, Jun Katahira, Nariaki Matsuura, Miki Hieda
The LINC complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, such as nuclear migration, mechanotransduction and chromatin tethering in the meiotic phase. However, it remains unknown how these functions are regulated in different cell contexts. An inner nuclear membrane component of the LINC complex, SUN1, is ubiquitously expressed. The human SUN1 gene produces over 10 variants by alternative splicing. Although functions of SUN1 are relatively well characterized, functional differences among SUN1 splice variants are poorly characterized...
November 18, 2016: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697922/nuclear-envelope-rupture-is-induced-by-actin-based-nucleus-confinement
#4
Emily M Hatch, Martin W Hetzer
Repeated rounds of nuclear envelope (NE) rupture and repair have been observed in laminopathy and cancer cells and result in intermittent loss of nucleus compartmentalization. Currently, the causes of NE rupture are unclear. Here, we show that NE rupture in cancer cells relies on the assembly of contractile actin bundles that interact with the nucleus via the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. We found that the loss of actin bundles or the LINC complex did not rescue nuclear lamina defects, a previously identified determinant of nuclear membrane stability, but did decrease the number and size of chromatin hernias...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697906/nuclei-migrate-through-constricted-spaces-using-microtubule-motors-and-actin-networks-in-c-elegans-hypodermal-cells
#5
Courtney R Bone, Yu-Tai Chang, Natalie E Cain, Shaun P Murphy, Daniel A Starr
Cellular migrations through constricted spaces are a crucial aspect of many developmental and disease processes including hematopoiesis, inflammation and metastasis. A limiting factor in these events is nuclear deformation. Here, we establish an in vivo model in which nuclei can be visualized while moving through constrictions and use it to elucidate mechanisms for nuclear migration. C. elegans hypodermal P-cell larval nuclei traverse a narrow space that is about 5% their width. This constriction is blocked by fibrous organelles, structures that pass through P cells to connect the muscles to cuticle...
November 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690270/hepatotoxicity-prediction-by-systems-biology-modeling-of-disturbed-metabolic-pathways-using-gene-expression-data
#6
Pablo Carbonell, Oriol Lopez, Alexander Amberg, Manuel Pastor, Ferran Sanz
The present study applies a systems biology approach for the in silico predictive modeling of drug toxicity on the basis of high-quality preclinical drug toxicity data with the aim of increasing the mechanistic understanding of toxic effects of compounds at different levels (pathway, cell, tissue, organ). The model development has been carried out using 77 compounds for which gene expression data are available in the LINCS database for primary human hepatocytes treated with the compounds, as well as rodent in vivo hepatotoxicity information is available in the eTOX database...
September 30, 2016: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644504/exploring-the-evolution-of-the-proteins-of-the-plant-nuclear-envelope
#7
Axel Poulet, Aline V Probst, Katja Graumann, Christophe Tatout, David E Evans
In this study, we explore the plasticity during evolution of proteins of the higher plant nuclear envelope (NE) from the most ancestral plant species to advanced angiosperms. The higher plant NE contains a functional Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex based on conserved Sad1-Unc84 (SUN) domain proteins and plant specific Klarsicht/Anc1/Syne homology (KASH) domain proteins. Recent evidence suggests the presence of a plant lamina underneath the inner membrane and various coiled-coil proteins have been hypothesised to be associated with it including Crowded Nuclei (CRWN; also termed LINC and NMCP), Nuclear Envelope Associated Protein (NEAP) protein families as well as the CRWN binding protein KAKU4...
September 19, 2016: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630107/a-novel-family-of-plant-nuclear-envelope-associated-proteins
#8
Vidya Pawar, Axel Poulet, Gwénaëlle Détourné, Christophe Tatout, Emmanuel Vanrobays, David E Evans, Katja Graumann
This paper describes the characterisation of a new family of higher plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins (NEAPs) that interact with other proteins of the nuclear envelope. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the family consists of three genes expressed ubiquitously (AtNEAP1-3) and a pseudogene (AtNEAP4). NEAPs consist of extensive coiled-coil domains, followed by a nuclear localisation signal and a C-terminal predicted transmembrane domain. Domain deletion mutants confirm the presence of a functional nuclear localisation signal and transmembrane domain...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611693/a-taz1-and-microtubule-dependent-regulatory-relationship-between-telomere-and-centromere-positions-in-bouquet-formation-secures-proper-meiotic-divisions
#9
Kazuhiro Katsumata, Ami Hirayasu, Junpei Miyoshi, Eriko Nishi, Kento Ichikawa, Kazuki Tateho, Airi Wakuda, Hirotada Matsuhara, Ayumu Yamamoto
During meiotic prophase, telomeres cluster, forming the bouquet chromosome arrangement, and facilitate homologous chromosome pairing. In fission yeast, bouquet formation requires switching of telomere and centromere positions. Centromeres are located at the spindle pole body (SPB) during mitotic interphase, and upon entering meiosis, telomeres cluster at the SPB, followed by centromere detachment from the SPB. Telomere clustering depends on the formation of the microtubule-organizing center at telomeres by the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex (LINC), while centromere detachment depends on disassembly of kinetochores, which induces meiotic centromere formation...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591260/lincing-the-eukaryotic-tree-of-life-towards-a-broad-evolutionary-comparison-of-nucleocytoplasmic-bridging-complexes
#10
Iris Meier
The nuclear envelope is much more than a simple barrier between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Nuclear envelope bridging complexes are protein complexes spanning both the inner and outer nuclear envelope membranes, thus directly connecting the cytoplasm with the nucleoplasm. In metazoans, they are involved in connecting the cytoskeleton with the nucleoskeleton, and act as anchoring platforms at the nuclear envelope for the positioning and moving of both nuclei and chromosomes. Recently, nucleocytoplasmic bridging complexes have also been identified in more evolutionarily diverse organisms, including land plants...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548707/transcription-upregulation-via-force-induced-direct-stretching-of-chromatin
#11
Arash Tajik, Yuejin Zhang, Fuxiang Wei, Jian Sun, Qiong Jia, Wenwen Zhou, Rishi Singh, Nimish Khanna, Andrew S Belmont, Ning Wang
Mechanical forces play critical roles in the function of living cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of how forces influence nuclear events remain elusive. Here, we show that chromatin deformation as well as force-induced transcription of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged bacterial-chromosome dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) transgene can be visualized in a living cell by using three-dimensional magnetic twisting cytometry to apply local stresses on the cell surface via an Arg-Gly-Asp-coated magnetic bead...
August 22, 2016: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541860/samp1-a-rangtp-binding-transmembrane-protein-in-the-inner-nuclear-membrane
#12
Balaje Vijayaraghavan, Mohammed Hakim Jafferali, Ricardo A Figueroa, Einar Hallberg
Samp1 is a transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which interacts with the nuclear lamina and the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex in interphase and during mitosis, it localizes to the mitotic spindle. Samp1 was recently found to coprecipitate a protein complex containing Ran, a GTPase with fundamental regulatory functions both in interphase and in mitosis. To investigate the interaction between Samp1 and Ran in further detail, we have designed and expressed recombinant fusion proteins of the Chaetomium thermophilum homolog of Samp1 (Ct...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538255/dorsal-stress-fibers-transverse-actin-arcs-and-perinuclear-actin-fibers-form-an-interconnected-network-that-induces-nuclear-movement-in-polarizing-fibroblasts
#13
Miloslava Maninová, Tomáš Vomastek
In polarized motile cells, stress fibers display specific three dimensional organization. Ventral stress fibers, attached to focal adhesions at both ends, are restricted to the basal side of the cell and non-protruding cell sides. Dorsal fibers, transverse actin arcs and perinuclear actin fibers emanate from protruding cell front toward the nucleus and toward apical side of the cell. Perinuclear cap fibers further extend above the nucleus, associate with nuclear envelope through LINC (Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) complex and terminate in focal adhesions at cell rear...
August 18, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530973/the-linc-and-npc-relationship-it-s-complicated
#14
REVIEW
Zeinab Jahed, Mohammad Soheilypour, Mohaddeseh Peyro, Mohammad R K Mofrad
The genetic information of eukaryotic cells is enclosed within a double-layered nuclear envelope, which comprises an inner and outer nuclear membrane. Several transmembrane proteins locate to the nuclear envelope; however, only two integral protein complexes span the nuclear envelope and connect the inside of the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The nuclear pore complex (NPC) acts as a gateway for molecular exchange between the interior of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, whereas so-called LINC complexes physically link the nucleoskeleton and the cytoskeleton...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499815/lincing-defective-nuclear-cytoskeletal-coupling-and-dyt1-dystonia
#15
Cosmo A Saunders, G W Gant Luxton
Mechanical forces generated by nuclear-cytoskeletal coupling through the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex, an evolutionarily conserved molecular bridge in the nuclear envelope (NE), are critical for the execution of wholesale nuclear positioning events in migrating and dividing cells, chromosome dynamics during meiosis, and mechanotransduction. LINC complexes consist of outer (KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology)) and inner (SUN (Sad1, UNC-84)) nuclear membrane proteins. KASH proteins interact with the cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm and SUN proteins in the perinuclear space of the NE...
June 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335609/roles-of-cross-membrane-transport-and-signaling-in-the-maintenance-of-cellular-homeostasis
#16
Inchul Cho, Mark R Jackson, Joe Swift
Organelles allow specialized functions within cells to be localized, contained and independently regulated. This separation is oftentimes achieved by selectively permeable membranes, which enable control of molecular transport, signaling between compartments and containment of stress-inducing factors. Here we consider the role of a number of membrane systems within the cell: the plasma membrane, that of the endoplasmic reticulum, and then focusing on the nucleus, depository for chromatin and regulatory centre of the cell...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27326387/cell-mechanosensitivity-is-enabled-by-the-linc-nuclear-complex
#17
Gunes Uzer, Clinton T Rubin, Janet Rubin
Mechanoresponses in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) guide both differentiation and function. In this review, we focus on advances in0 our understanding of how the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, nuclear envelope and nucleoskeleton, which are connected via LINC (Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) complexes, are emerging as an integrated dynamic signaling platform to regulate MSC mechanobiology. This dynamic interconnectivity affects mechanical signaling and transfer of signals into the nucleus. In this way, nuclear and LINC-mediated cytoskeletal connectivity play a critical role in maintaining mechanical signaling that affects MSC fate by serving as both mechanosensory and mechanoresponsive structures...
March 2016: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307582/nucleus-dependent-sarcomere-assembly-is-mediated-by-the-linc-complex
#18
Alexander L Auld, Eric S Folker
Two defining characteristics of muscle cells are the many precisely positioned nuclei and the linearly arranged sarcomeres, yet the relationship between these two features is not known. We show that nuclear positioning precedes sarcomere formation. Furthermore, ZASP-GFP, a Z-line protein, colocalizes with F-actin in puncta at the cytoplasmic face of nuclei before sarcomere assembly. In embryos with mispositioned nuclei, ZASP-GFP is still recruited to the nuclei before its incorporation into sarcomeres. Furthermore, the first sarcomeres appear in positions close to the nuclei, regardless of nuclear position...
August 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182060/nuclear-migration-events-throughout-development
#19
REVIEW
Courtney R Bone, Daniel A Starr
Moving the nucleus to a specific position within the cell is an important event during many cell and developmental processes. Several different molecular mechanisms exist to position nuclei in various cell types. In this Commentary, we review the recent progress made in elucidating mechanisms of nuclear migration in a variety of important developmental models. Genetic approaches to identify mutations that disrupt nuclear migration in yeast, filamentous fungi, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and plants led to the identification of microtubule motors, as well as Sad1p, UNC-84 (SUN) domain and Klarsicht, ANC-1, Syne homology (KASH) domain proteins (LINC complex) that function to connect nuclei to the cytoskeleton...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147048/wound-healing-assays-to-study-mechanisms-of-nuclear-movement-in-fibroblasts-and-myoblasts
#20
Wakam Chang, Susumu Antoku, Gregg G Gundersen
The rearward positioning of the nucleus is a characteristic feature of most migrating cells. Studies using wounded monolayers of fibroblasts and myoblasts have shown that this positioning is actively established before migration by the coupling of dorsal actin cables to the nuclear envelope through nesprin-2G and SUN2 linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes. During nuclear movement, these LINC complexes cluster along the actin cables to form adhesive structures known as transmembrane actin-associated nuclear (TAN) lines...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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