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Nuclear deformation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777038/mechanical-stability-of-the-cell-nucleus-roles-played-by-the-cytoskeleton-in-nuclear-deformation-and-strain-recovery
#1
Xian Wang, Haijiao Liu, Min Zhu, Changhong Cao, Zhensong Xu, Yonit Tsatskis, Kimberly Lau, Chikin Kuok, Tobin Filleter, Helen McNeill, Craig A Simmons, Sevan Hopyan, Yu Sun
Extracellular forces transmitted through the cytoskeleton can deform the cell nucleus. Large nuclear deformation increases the risk of disrupting the nuclear envelope's integrity and causing DNA damage. Mechanical stability of the nucleus defines its capability of maintaining nuclear shape by minimizing nuclear deformation and recovering strain when deformed. Understanding the deformation and recovery behavior of the nucleus requires characterization of nuclear viscoelastic properties. Here, we quantified the decoupled viscoelastic parameters of the cell membrane, cytoskeleton, and the nucleus...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775351/masses-and-%C3%AE-decay-spectroscopy-of-neutron-rich-odd-odd-160-162-eu-nuclei-evidence-for-a-subshell-gap-with-large-deformation-at-n-98
#2
D J Hartley, F G Kondev, R Orford, J A Clark, G Savard, A D Ayangeakaa, S Bottoni, F Buchinger, M T Burkey, M P Carpenter, P Copp, D A Gorelov, K Hicks, C R Hoffman, C Hu, R V F Janssens, J W Klimes, T Lauritsen, J Sethi, D Seweryniak, K S Sharma, H Zhang, S Zhu, Y Zhu
The structure of deformed neutron-rich nuclei in the rare-earth region is of significant interest for both the astrophysics and nuclear structure fields. At present, a complete explanation for the observed peak in the elemental abundances at A∼160 eludes astrophysicists, and models depend on accurate quantities, such as masses, lifetimes, and branching ratios of deformed neutron-rich nuclei in this region. Unusual nuclear structure effects are also observed, such as the unexpectedly low energies of the first 2^{+} levels in some even-even nuclei at N=98...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775348/individual-low-energy-toroidal-dipole-state-in-24-mg
#3
V O Nesterenko, A Repko, J Kvasil, P-G Reinhard
The low-energy dipole excitations in ^{24}Mg are investigated within the Skyrme quasiparticle random phase approximation for axial nuclei. The calculations with the force SLy6 reveal a remarkable feature: the lowest I^{π}K=1^{-}1 excitation (E=7.92  MeV) in ^{24}Mg is a vortical toroidal state (TS) representing a specific vortex-antivortex realization of the well-known spherical Hill's vortex in a strongly deformed axial confinement. This is a striking example of an individual TS which can be much more easily discriminated in experiment than the toroidal dipole resonance embracing many states...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764542/-unfractionated-heparin-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-expressions-of-nitric-oxide-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-renal-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#4
Xin Li, Yingjian Liang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of heparin on the cellular morphology and the expressions of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal microvascular endothelial cells (RMVECs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: The three step gradient screen method was used to primarily culture rat RMVECs, and the 3rd and 4th generation cells with excellent growth were collected. The cells were divided into blank control group, 10 mg/L LPS treatment group and 2...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762854/the-influence-of-palatable-high-energy-diet-in-diet-induced-obesity-pregnant-rats-on-offspring-oxidative-stress-in-liver
#5
J-T Jiang, Y-J Jiang
OBJECTIVE: We established an animal model of diet-induced obesity pregnant rats and their offsprings, and explored the effect of high-energy feeding on oxidative stress in filial rat liver, as well as the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into two groups: control group and palatable high-energy diet (PHED) group. Liver tissues were obtained 12 days after offspring rats were born for further study...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756146/effect-of-geometrical-constraints-on-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-nuclei-in-pluripotency-and-differentiation
#6
Eleonora Grespan, Giovanni G Giobbe, Florent Badique, Karine Anselme, Jürgen Rühe, Nicola Elvassore
Mechanical stimuli and geometrical constraints transmitted across the cytoskeleton to the nucleus affect the nuclear morphology and cell function. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent an effective tool for evaluating transitions in nuclear deformability from the pluripotent to differentiated stage, and for deciphering the underlying mechanisms. We report the first study that investigates the nuclear deformability induced by geometrical constraints of hPSCs both in the pluripotent stage and during early germ layer specification...
May 14, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751041/potential-of-amino-functionalized-cellulose-as-an-alternative-sorbent-intended-to-remove-anionic-dyes-from-aqueous-solutions
#7
Lucinaldo S Silva, Francisco J L Ferreira, Mateus S Silva, Antônia M G L Citó, Andréia B Meneguin, Rafael M Sábio, Hernane S Barud, Roosevelt D S Bezerra, Josy A Osajima, Edson C Silva Filho
Adsorption has been explored to minimize the pollution, a serious environmental problem. This work relates the preparation of diethylenetriamine-modified cellulose (DetaCel) by reacting phthalic anhydride-modified cellulose (PhCel) with diethylenetriamine (Deta). Materials were characterized by Elemental Analysis and results showed 7.77 ± 0.03% of nitrogen for DetaCel. The main bands observed for DetaCel by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were attributed to CN deformation (1330 cm-1 ) and NH stretching of amide (3400 cm-1 ), while Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of 13 C (13 C{1 H}CP-MAS NMR) showed a signal at 164...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748323/the-rise-collapse-and-compaction-of-mt-mantap-from-the-3-september-2017-north-korean-nuclear-test
#8
Teng Wang, Qibin Shi, Mehdi Nikkhoo, Shengji Wei, Sylvain Barbot, Douglas Dreger, Roland Bürgmann, Mahdi Motagh, Qi-Fu Chen
Surveillance of clandestine nuclear tests relies on a global seismic network, but the potential of spaceborne monitoring has been underexploited. Here, we determined the complete surface displacement field of up to 3.5 m of divergent horizontal motion with 0.5 m of subsidence associated with North Korea's largest underground nuclear test using satellite radar imagery. Combining insight from geodetic and seismological remote sensing, we found that the aftermath of the initial explosive deformation involved subsidence associated with sub-surface collapse and aseismic compaction of the damaged rocks of the test site...
May 10, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734402/effects-of-cryopreservation-on-ultrastructural-morphology-of-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-sperm
#9
Y Zhao, C Yang, X Chen, M Peng, X Chen, D Zeng
BACKGROUND: The structural integrity of a spermatozoon is very important for the processes of fertilization and embryo development. OBJECTIVE: To provide valuable data for developing better cryopreservation techniques for shrimp sperm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we examined the morphological alteration of Litopenaeus vannamei sperm after cryopreservation with different concentrations of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)...
September 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718766/multi-compartment-cell-based-modeling-of-confined-migration-regulation-by-cell-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-factors
#10
Sandeep Kumar, Alakesh Das, Shamik Sen
Though cell and nuclear deformability are expected to influence efficiency of confined migration, their individual and collective influence on migration efficiency remains incompletely understood. In addition to cell intrinsic properties, the relevance of cell extrinsic factors on confined migration, if any, has not been adequately explored. Here, we address these questions using a statistical mechanics-based stochastic modeling approach where cell/nuclear dimensions and their deformability are explicitly taken into consideration...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702364/mechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets-for-bone-damage-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-particular-the-rank-rankl-system
#11
REVIEW
Yoshiya Tanaka, Takeshi Ohira
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory disorder, causes swelling, bone erosion, and joint deformity. Bone erosion in RA-affected joints arises from activation of osteoclasts by inflammatory processes. RA patients may also have primary, disease-related, or glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, caused by a disrupted balance between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) interfere with the processes causing inflammation in the joint but do not sufficiently treat bone erosion and osteoporosis...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690642/autophagic-removal-of-farnesylated-carboxy-terminal-lamin-peptides
#12
Xiang Lu, Karima Djabali
The mammalian nuclear lamina proteins—prelamin A- and B-type lamins—are post-translationally modified by farnesylation, endoproteolysis, and carboxymethylation at a carboxy-terminal CAAX (C, cysteine; a, aliphatic amino acid; X, any amino acid) motif. However, prelamin A processing into mature lamin A is a unique process because it results in the production of farnesylated and carboxymethylated peptides. In cells from patients with Hutchinson⁻Gilford progeria syndrome, the mutant prelamin A protein, progerin, cannot release its prenylated carboxyl-terminal moiety and therefore remains permanently associated with the nuclear envelope (NE), causing severe nuclear alterations and a dysmorphic morphology...
April 23, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663734/new-biological-research-and-understanding-of-papanicolaou-s-test
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Smith, Sophia H George, Erin Kobetz, Xiang-Xi Xu
The development of the Papanicolaou smear test by Dr. George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883-1962) is one of the most significant achievements in screening for disease and cancer prevention in history. The Papanicolaou smear has been used for screening of cervical cancer since the 1950s. The test is technically straightforward and practical and based on a simple scientific observation: malignant cells have an aberrant nuclear morphology that can be distinguished from benign cells. Here, we review the scientific understanding that has been achieved and continues to be made on the causes and consequences of abnormal nuclear morphology, the basis of Dr...
April 16, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663651/engineered-natural-and-synthetic-polymer-surfaces-induce-nuclear-deformation-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#14
Ezgi Antmen, Menekse Ermis, Utkan Demirci, Vasif Hasirci
Cell-substrate interactions involve constant probing of microenvironment by cells. One of the responses of cells to environmental cues is to change the conformation of their cytoplasm and nucleus. We hypothesized that surface chemistry and topography could be engineered to make these differences significant enough. When designing the substrates that would accentuate these differences, we prepared surfaces carrying cell adhesive biological cues arranged in specific patterns. Collagen type I and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were used to represent substrates with biological cues and those without, and these materials were decorated with four square prism micropillars with different dimensions...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659998/the-arginine-methyltransferase-carm1-represses-p300%C3%A2-act%C3%A2-crem%C3%AF-activity-and-is-required-for-spermiogenesis
#15
Jianqiang Bao, Sophie Rousseaux, Jianjun Shen, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Mark T Bedford
CARM1 is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that has been firmly implicated in transcriptional regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CARM1 orchestrates transcriptional regulation are not fully understood, especially in a tissue-specific context. We found that Carm1 is highly expressed in the mouse testis and localizes to the nucleus in spermatids, suggesting an important role for Carm1 in spermiogenesis. Using a germline-specific conditional Carm1 knockout mouse model, we found that it is essential for the late stages of haploid germ cell development...
April 5, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649271/automated-analysis-of-cell-migration-and-nuclear-envelope-rupture-in-confined-environments
#16
Joshua J Elacqua, Alexandra L McGregor, Jan Lammerding
Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted the importance of the cell nucleus in governing migration through confined environments. Microfluidic devices that mimic the narrow interstitial spaces of tissues have emerged as important tools to study cellular dynamics during confined migration, including the consequences of nuclear deformation and nuclear envelope rupture. However, while image acquisition can be automated on motorized microscopes, the analysis of the corresponding time-lapse sequences for nuclear transit through the pores and events such as nuclear envelope rupture currently requires manual analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648779/the-role-of-membrane-curvature-in-nanoscale-topography-induced-intracellular-signaling
#17
Hsin-Ya Lou, Wenting Zhao, Yongpeng Zeng, Bianxiao Cui
Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in developing biosensors and devices with nanoscale and vertical topography. Vertical nanostructures induce spontaneous cell engulfment, which enhances the cell-probe coupling efficiency and the sensitivity of biosensors. Although local membranes in contact with the nanostructures are found to be fully fluidic for lipid and membrane protein diffusions, cells appear to actively sense and respond to the surface topography presented by vertical nanostructures...
April 12, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620655/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-in-camurati-engelmann-disease-a-case-series
#18
Yoon-Myung Kim, Eungu Kang, Jin-Ho Choi, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo, Beom Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Camurati-Engelmann disease is an extremely rare disease characterized by hyperostosis of multiple long bones. This condition is caused by heterozygous mutations in the TGFB1 gene. METHODS: We describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of 4 Korean patients with this rare disease diagnosed at Asan Medical Center in Korea between June 2012 and May 2016, to increase awareness about this condition among general physicians and orthopedists. The presenting features, biochemical findings, radiographic and nuclear imaging findings, molecular analysis, and treatment outcomes of 4 patients were reviewed retrospectively...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619069/-piper-retrofractum-vahl-extract-as-a-ppar-%C3%AE-and-ampk-activator-suppresses-uvb-induced-photoaging-through-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-mmps-inhibition-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts-and-hairless-mice
#19
Jungon Yun, Changhee Kim, Mi-Bo Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang
Photoaging occurs by UVB-irradiation and involves production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to extracellular matrix damage. Piper retrofractum Vahl. is used as a traditional medicine for antiflatulence, expectorant, sedative, and anti-irritant; however, its antiphotoaging effect has not yet been studied. The current study investigated the antiphotoaging effect of standardized Piper retrofractum extract (PRE) on UVB-damaged human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mouse skin...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601096/elevated-nuclear-lamin-a-is-permissive-for-granulocyte-transendothelial-migration-but-not-for-motility-through-collagen-i-barriers
#20
Sandeep Kumar Yadav, Sara W Feigelson, Francesco Roncato, Merav Antman-Passig, Orit Shefi, Jan Lammerding, Ronen Alon
Transendothelial migration (TEM) of lymphocytes and neutrophils is associated with the ability of their deformable nuclei to displace endothelial cytoskeletal barriers. Lamin A is a key intermediate filament component of the nuclear lamina that is downregulated during granulopoiesis. When elevated, lamin A restricts nuclear squeezing through rigid confinements. To determine if the low lamin A expression by leukocyte nuclei is critical for their exceptional squeezing ability through endothelial barriers, we overexpressed this protein in granulocyte-like differentiated HL-60 cells...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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