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Nuclear deformation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542912/the-nucleus-is-irreversibly-shaped-by-motion-of-cell-boundaries-in-cancer-and-non-cancer-cells
#1
Vincent J Tocco, Yuan Li, Keith G Christopher, James H Matthews, Varun Aggarwal, Lauren Paschall, Hendrik Luesch, Jonathan D Licht, Richard B Dickinson, Tanmay P Lele
Actomyosin stress fibers impinge on the nucleus and can exert compressive forces on it. These compressive forces have been proposed to elongate nuclei in fibroblasts, and lead to abnormally shaped nuclei in cancer cells. In these models, the elongated or flattened nuclear shape is proposed to store elastic energy. However, we found that deformed shapes of nuclei are unchanged even after removal of the cell with micro-dissection, both for smooth, elongated nuclei in fibroblasts and abnormally shaped nuclei in breast cancer cells...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530826/high-speed-atomic-force-microscopy-reveals-loss-of-nuclear-pore-resilience-as-a-dying-code-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#2
Mahmoud Shaaban Mohamed, Akiko Kobayashi, Azuma Taoka, Takahiro Watanabe-Nakayama, Yosuke Kikuchi, Masaharu Hazawa, Toshinari Minamoto, Yoshihiro Fukumori, Noriyuki Kodera, Takayuki Uchihashi, Toshio Ando, Richard W Wong
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the sole turnstile implanted in the nuclear envelope (NE), acting as a central nano-regulator of transport between the cytosol and the nucleus. NPCs consist of ~30 proteins, termed nucleoporins. About one-third of nucleoporins harbour natively unstructured, intrinsically disordered phenylalanine-glycine strings (FG-Nups), which engage in transport selectivity. Because the barriers insert deeply in the NPC, they are nearly inaccessible. Several in vitro barrier models have been proposed; however, the dynamic FG-Nups protein molecules themselves are imperceptible in vivo...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528307/extracellular-atp-is-a-key-modulator-of-alveolar-bone-loss-in-periodontitis
#3
REVIEW
Itzhak Binderman, Nasir Gadban, Avinoam Yaffe
Periodontal diseases are initiated by pathogenic bacterial biofilm activity that induces a host inflammatory cells immune response, degradation of dento gingival fibrous tissue and its detachment from root cementum. It is well accepted, that osteoclastic alveolar bone loss is governed exclusively through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that once degradation of collagen fibers by MMPs occurs, a drop of cellular strains cause immediate release of ATP from marginal gingival fibroblasts, cell deformation and influx of Ca+2...
May 13, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514142/nonmonotonic-self-deformation-of-cell-nuclei-on-topological-surfaces-with-micropillar-array
#4
Xiangnan Liu, Ruili Liu, Yexin Gu, Jiandong Ding
Cells respond to the mechanical signals from their surroundings and integrate physiochemical signals to initiate intricate mechanochemical processes. While many studies indicate that topological features of biomaterials impact cellular behaviors profoundly, little research has focused on the nuclear response to a mechanical force generated by a topological surface. Here, we fabricated a polymeric micropillar array with an appropriate dimension to induce a severe self-deformation of cell nuclei and investigated how the nuclear shape changed over time...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494327/magnetic-field-induced-effects-on-nmr-properties
#5
J Jokisaari, A M Kantola, J Vaara
In principle, all the NMR observables, spin-spin coupling J, nuclear shielding σ and quadrupole coupling q, are magnetic field-dependent. The field dependence may be classified into two categories: direct and indirect (apparent) dependence. The former arises from the magnetic field-induced deformation of the molecular electronic cloud, while the latter stems from a slightly anisotropic orientation distribution of molecules, due to the interaction between the anisotropy of the molecular susceptibility tensor and the external magnetic field...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485113/optomechanical-measurement-of-the-role-of-lamins-in-whole-cell-deformability
#6
Thorsten Kolb, Julia Kraxner, Kai Skodzek, Michael Haug, Dean Crawford, Kendra K Maaß, Katerina E Aifantis, Graeme Whyte
There is mounting evidence that the nuclear envelope, and particularly the lamina, plays a critical role in the mechanical and regulation properties of the cell and changes to the lamina can have implications for the physical properties of the whole cell. In this study we demonstrate that the optical stretcher can measure changes in the time-dependent mechanical properties of living cells with different levels of A-type lamin expression. Results from the optical stretcher shows a decrease in the deformability of cells as the levels of lamin A increases, for cells which grow both adherently and in suspension...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474931/multifaceted-quadruplet-of-low-lying-spin-zero-states-in-66-ni-emergence-of-shape-isomerism-in-light-nuclei
#7
S Leoni, B Fornal, N Mărginean, M Sferrazza, Y Tsunoda, T Otsuka, G Bocchi, F C L Crespi, A Bracco, S Aydin, M Boromiza, D Bucurescu, N Cieplicka-Oryǹczak, C Costache, S Călinescu, N Florea, D G Ghiţă, T Glodariu, A Ionescu, Ł W Iskra, M Krzysiek, R Mărginean, C Mihai, R E Mihai, A Mitu, A Negreţ, C R Niţă, A Olăcel, A Oprea, S Pascu, P Petkov, C Petrone, G Porzio, A Şerban, C Sotty, L Stan, I Ştiru, L Stroe, R Şuvăilă, S Toma, A Turturică, S Ujeniuc, C A Ur
A search for shape isomers in the ^{66}Ni nucleus was performed, following old suggestions of various mean-field models and recent ones, based on state-of-the-art Monte Carlo shell model (MCSM), all considering ^{66}Ni as the lightest nuclear system with shape isomerism. By employing the two-neutron transfer reaction induced by an ^{18}O beam on a ^{64}Ni target, at the sub-Coulomb barrier energy of 39 MeV, all three lowest-excited 0^{+} states in ^{66}Ni were populated and their γ decay was observed by γ-coincidence technique...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452545/microscopic-phase-space-exploration-modeling-of-258-fm-spontaneous-fission
#8
Yusuke Tanimura, Denis Lacroix, Sakir Ayik
We show that the total kinetic energy (TKE) of nuclei after the spontaneous fission of ^{258}Fm can be well reproduced using simple assumptions on the quantum collective phase space explored by the nucleus after passing the fission barrier. Assuming energy conservation and phase-space exploration according to the stochastic mean-field approach, a set of initial densities is generated. Each density is then evolved in time using the nuclear time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing. This approach goes beyond the mean-field theory by allowing spontaneous symmetry breaking as well as a wider dynamical phase-space exploration leading to larger fluctuations in collective space...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445605/high-throughput-cell-mechanical-phenotyping-for-label-free-titration-assays-of-cytoskeletal-modifications
#9
Stefan Golfier, Philipp Rosendahl, Alexander Mietke, Maik Herbig, Jochen Guck, Oliver Otto
The mechanical fingerprint of cells is inherently linked to the structure of the cytoskeleton and can serve as a label free marker for cell homeostasis or pathologic states. How cytoskeletal composition affects the physical response of cells to external loads has been intensively studied with a spectrum of techniques, yet quantitative and statistically powerful investigations in the form of titration assays are hampered by the low throughput of most available methods. In this study, we employ real-time deformability cytometry (RT-DC), a novel microfluidic tool to examine the effects of biochemically modified F-actin and microtubule stability and nuclear chromatin structure on cell deformation in a human leukemia cell line (HL60)...
April 26, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419896/the-use-of-diatoms-in-ecotoxicology-and-bioassessment-insights-advances-and-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Lalit K Pandey, Elizabeth A Bergey, Jie Lyu, Jihae Park, Soyeon Choi, Hojun Lee, Stephen Depuydt, Young-Tae Oh, Sung-Mo Lee, Taejun Han
Diatoms are regularly used for bioassessment and ecotoxicological studies in relation to environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. Traditional taxonomical diatom parameters (cell counts, biovolume estimates, species richness, diversity indices and metrics using sensitive and tolerant diatom species) are regularly used for these studies. In the same context, very less focus was given on new endpoints of diatoms (life-forms, nuclear anomalies, alteration in photosynthetic apparatus shape, motility, lipid bodies, size reduction and deformities), in spite of their numerous merits, such as, their easiness, quickness, cheapness, global acceptation and no especial training in diatom taxonomy...
July 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415605/kifc1-is-essential-for-acrosome-formation-and-nuclear-shaping-during-spermiogenesis-in-the-lobster-procambarus-clarkii
#11
Dan-Dan Ma, Lian Bi, Wan-Xi Yang
In order to study the function of kinesin-14 motor protein KIFC1 during spermatogenesis of Procambarus clarkii, the full length of kifc1 was cloned from testes cDNA using Rapid-Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The deduced KIFC1 protein sequence showed the highest similarity between Procambarus clarkii and Eriocheir senensis (similarity rate as 64%). According to the results of in situ hybridization (ISH), the kifc1 mRNA was gathered in the acrosome location above nucleus in the mid- and late-stage spermatids...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402889/unbiased-high-precision-cell-mechanical-measurements-with-microconstrictions
#12
Janina R Lange, Claus Metzner, Sebastian Richter, Werner Schneider, Monika Spermann, Thorsten Kolb, Graeme Whyte, Ben Fabry
We describe a quantitative, high-precision, high-throughput method for measuring the mechanical properties of cells in suspension with a microfluidic device, and for relating cell mechanical responses to protein expression levels. Using a high-speed (750 fps) charge-coupled device camera, we measure the driving pressure Δp, maximum cell deformation εmax, and entry time tentry of cells in an array of microconstrictions. From these measurements, we estimate population averages of elastic modulus E and fluidity β (the power-law exponent of the cell deformation in response to a step change in pressure)...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338452/differentiation-of-idiopathic-spinal-cord-herniation-from-dorsal-arachnoid-webs-on-mri-and-ct-myelography
#13
Randall Schultz, Andrew Steven, Aaron Wessell, Nancy Fischbein, Charles A Sansur, Dheeraj Gandhi, David Ibrahimi, Prashant Raghavan
OBJECTIVE Dorsal arachnoid webs (DAWs) and spinal cord herniation (SCH) are uncommon abnormalities affecting the thoracic spinal cord that can result in syringomyelia and significant neurological morbidity if left untreated. Differentiating these 2 entities on the basis of clinical presentation and radiological findings remains challenging but is of vital importance in planning a surgical approach. The authors examined the differences between DAWs and idiopathic SCH on MRI and CT myelography to improve diagnostic confidence prior to surgery...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334906/conformational-polymorphism-or-structural-invariance-in-dna-photoinduced-lesions-implications-for-repair-rates
#14
François Dehez, Hugo Gattuso, Emmanuelle Bignon, Christophe Morell, Elise Dumont, Antonio Monari
DNA photolesions constitute a particularly deleterious class of molecular defects responsible for the insurgence of a vast majority of skin malignant tumors. Dimerization of two adjacent thymines or cytosines mostly gives rise to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone 64-PP as the most common defects. We perform all-atom classical simulations, up to 2 μs, of CPD and 64-PP embedded in a 16-bp duplex, which reveal the constrasted behavior of the two lesions. In particular we evidence a very limited structural deformation induced by CPD while 64-PP is characterized by a complex structural polymorphism...
April 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297639/enhanced-directional-migration-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-3d-aligned-collagen-matrices
#15
Arja Ray, Zachary M Slama, Rachel K Morford, Samantha A Madden, Paolo P Provenzano
Directed cell migration by contact guidance in aligned collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical enabler of breast cancer dissemination. The mechanisms of this process are poorly understood, particularly in 3D, in part because of the lack of efficient methods to generate aligned collagen matrices. To address this technological gap, we propose a simple method to align collagen gels using guided cellular compaction. Our method yields highly aligned, acellular collagen constructs with predictable microstructural features, thus providing a controlled microenvironment for in vitro experiments...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287898/consequences-of-a-tight-squeeze-nuclear-envelope-rupture-and-repair
#16
Philipp Isermann, Jan Lammerding
Cell migration through tight spaces can induce substantial deformations of the nucleus and cause nuclear envelope (NE) rupture, resulting in uncontrolled exchange of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. These events can cause DNA damage and, in severe cases, nuclear fragmentation, challenging the integrity of the genomic material. Cells overcome NE ruptures during interphase by repairing the NE using components of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Paralleling the molecular mechanism used during NE reformation in late mitosis, ESCRT-III subunits and the associated AAA-ATPase VPS4B are recruited to NE rupture sites and help restore NE integrity...
March 13, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276077/quantifying-the-reproducibility-of-lung-ventilation-images-between-4-dimensional-cone-beam-ct-and-4-dimensional-ct
#17
Henry C Woodruff, Chun-Chien Shieh, Fiona Hegi-Johnson, Paul J Keall, John Kipritidis
PURPOSE: Computed tomography ventilation imaging derived from four-dimensional cone beam CT (CTVI(4DCBCT) ) can complement existing 4DCT-based methods (CTVI(4)(DCT) ) to track lung function changes over a course of lung cancer radiation therapy. However, the accuracy of CTVI(4)(DCBCT) needs to be assessed since anatomic 4DCBCT has demonstrably poor image quality and small field of view (FOV) compared to treatment planning 4DCT. We perform a direct comparison between short interval CTVI(4)(DCBCT) and CTVI(4)(DCT) pairs to understand the patient specific image quality factors affecting the intermodality CTVI reproducibility in the clinic...
March 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256890/optically-imaged-striped-domains-of-nonequilibrium-electronic-and-nuclear-spins-in-a-fractional-quantum-hall-liquid
#18
John N Moore, Junichiro Hayakawa, Takaaki Mano, Takeshi Noda, Go Yusa
Using photoluminescence microscopy enhanced by magnetic resonance, we visualize in real space both electron and nuclear polarization occurring in nonequilibrium fraction quantum Hall (FQH) liquids. We observe stripelike domain regions comprising FQH excited states which discretely form when the FQH liquid is excited by a source-drain current. These regions are deformable and give rise to bidirectionally polarized nuclear spins as spin-resolved electrons flow across their boundaries.
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251054/surface-curvature-differentially-regulates-stem-cell-migration-and-differentiation-via-altered-attachment-morphology-and-nuclear-deformation
#19
Maike Werner, Sébastien B G Blanquer, Suvi P Haimi, Gabriela Korus, John W C Dunlop, Georg N Duda, Dirk W Grijpma, Ansgar Petersen
Signals from the microenvironment around a cell are known to influence cell behavior. Material properties, such as biochemical composition and substrate stiffness, are today accepted as significant regulators of stem cell fate. The knowledge of how cell behavior is influenced by 3D geometric cues is, however, strongly limited despite its potential relevance for the understanding of tissue regenerative processes and the design of biomaterials. Here, the role of surface curvature on the migratory and differentiation behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has been investigated on 3D surfaces with well-defined geometric features produced by stereolithography...
February 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250940/a-heuristic-approach-to-evaluate-peri-interactions-versus-intermolecular-interactions-in-an-overcrowded-naphthalene
#20
Sounak Sarkar, Tayur N Guru Row
Octachloronaphthalene (OCN), a serious environmental pollutant, has been investigated by charge density analysis to unravel several unexplored factors responsible for steric overcrowding. The topological features of the enigmatic peri interactions contributing to steric overcrowding are qualified and quantified from experimental and theoretical charge-density studies. A new facet in the fundamental understanding of peri interactions is revealed by NCI (non-covalent interaction) analysis. The potential role of these interactions in deforming the molecular geometry and subsequent effect on aromaticity are substantiated from NICS (Nuclear Independent Chemical Shift) and QTAIM (Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules) calculations...
January 1, 2017: IUCrJ
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