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Nuclear deformation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334906/conformational-polymorphism-or-structural-invariance-in-dna-photoinduced-lesions-implications-for-repair-rates
#1
François Dehez, Hugo Gattuso, Emmanuelle Bignon, Christophe Morell, Elise Dumont, Antonio Monari
DNA photolesions constitute a particularly deleterious class of molecular defects responsible for the insurgence of a vast majority of skin malignant tumors. Dimerization of two adjacent thymines or cytosines mostly gives rise to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone 64-PP as the most common defects. We perform all-atom classical simulations, up to 2 μs, of CPD and 64-PP embedded in a 16-bp duplex, which reveal the constrasted behavior of the two lesions. In particular we evidence a very limited structural deformation induced by CPD while 64-PP is characterized by a complex structural polymorphism...
February 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297639/enhanced-directional-migration-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-3d-aligned-collagen-matrices
#2
Arja Ray, Zachary M Slama, Rachel K Morford, Samantha A Madden, Paolo P Provenzano
Directed cell migration by contact guidance in aligned collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical enabler of breast cancer dissemination. The mechanisms of this process are poorly understood, particularly in 3D, in part because of the lack of efficient methods to generate aligned collagen matrices. To address this technological gap, we propose a simple method to align collagen gels using guided cellular compaction. Our method yields highly aligned, acellular collagen constructs with predictable microstructural features, thus providing a controlled microenvironment for in vitro experiments...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287898/consequences-of-a-tight-squeeze-nuclear-envelope-rupture-and-repair
#3
Philipp Isermann, Jan Lammerding
Cell migration through tight spaces can induce substantial deformations of the nucleus and cause nuclear envelope (NE) rupture, resulting in uncontrolled exchange of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. These events can cause DNA damage and, in severe cases, nuclear fragmentation, challenging the integrity of the genomic material. Cells overcome NE ruptures during interphase by repairing the NE using components of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Paralleling the molecular mechanism employed during NE reformation in late mitosis, ESCRT-III subunits and the associated AAA-ATPase VPS4B are recruited to NE rupture sites and help restore NE integrity...
March 13, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276077/quantifying-the-reproducibility-of-lung-ventilation-images-between-4-dimensional-cone-beam-ct-and-4-dimensional-ct
#4
Henry C Woodruff, Chun-Chien Shieh, Fiona Hegi-Johnson, Paul J Keall, John Kipritidis
PURPOSE: Deformable image registration (DIR) based computed tomography ventilation imaging derived from four-dimensional cone-beam CT (CTVI(4)(DCBCT) ) can complement existing 4DCT-based methods (CTVI(4)(DCT) ) to track lung function changes over a course of lung cancer radiation therapy. However the accuracy of CTVI(4)(DCBCT) needs to be assessed since anatomic 4DCBCT has demonstrably poor image quality and small field of view (FOV) compared to treatment planning 4DCT. We perform a direct comparison between short interval CTVI(4)(DCBCT) and CTVI(4)(DCT) pairs to understand the patient specific image quality factors affecting the intermodality CTVI reproducibility in the clinic...
March 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256890/optically-imaged-striped-domains-of-nonequilibrium-electronic-and-nuclear-spins-in-a-fractional-quantum-hall-liquid
#5
John N Moore, Junichiro Hayakawa, Takaaki Mano, Takeshi Noda, Go Yusa
Using photoluminescence microscopy enhanced by magnetic resonance, we visualize in real space both electron and nuclear polarization occurring in nonequilibrium fraction quantum Hall (FQH) liquids. We observe stripelike domain regions comprising FQH excited states which discretely form when the FQH liquid is excited by a source-drain current. These regions are deformable and give rise to bidirectionally polarized nuclear spins as spin-resolved electrons flow across their boundaries.
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251054/surface-curvature-differentially-regulates-stem-cell-migration-and-differentiation-via-altered-attachment-morphology-and-nuclear-deformation
#6
Maike Werner, Sébastien B G Blanquer, Suvi P Haimi, Gabriela Korus, John W C Dunlop, Georg N Duda, Dirk W Grijpma, Ansgar Petersen
Signals from the microenvironment around a cell are known to influence cell behavior. Material properties, such as biochemical composition and substrate stiffness, are today accepted as significant regulators of stem cell fate. The knowledge of how cell behavior is influenced by 3D geometric cues is, however, strongly limited despite its potential relevance for the understanding of tissue regenerative processes and the design of biomaterials. Here, the role of surface curvature on the migratory and differentiation behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has been investigated on 3D surfaces with well-defined geometric features produced by stereolithography...
February 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250940/a-heuristic-approach-to-evaluate-peri-interactions-versus-intermolecular-interactions-in-an-overcrowded-naphthalene
#7
Sounak Sarkar, Tayur N Guru Row
Octachloronaphthalene (OCN), a serious environmental pollutant, has been investigated by charge density analysis to unravel several unexplored factors responsible for steric overcrowding. The topological features of the enigmatic peri interactions contributing to steric overcrowding are qualified and quantified from experimental and theoretical charge-density studies. A new facet in the fundamental understanding of peri interactions is revealed by NCI (non-covalent interaction) analysis. The potential role of these interactions in deforming the molecular geometry and subsequent effect on aromaticity are substantiated from NICS (Nuclear Independent Chemical Shift) and QTAIM (Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules) calculations...
January 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166231/the-role-of-myosin-ii-in-glioma-invasion-a-mathematical-model
#8
Wanho Lee, Sookkyung Lim, Yangjin Kim
Gliomas are malignant tumors that are commonly observed in primary brain cancer. Glioma cells migrate through a dense network of normal cells in microenvironment and spread long distances within brain. In this paper we present a two-dimensional multiscale model in which a glioma cell is surrounded by normal cells and its migration is controlled by cell-mechanical components in the microenvironment via the regulation of myosin II in response to chemoattractants. Our simulation results show that the myosin II plays a key role in the deformation of the cell nucleus as the glioma cell passes through the narrow intercellular space smaller than its nuclear diameter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159839/ribosomal-protein-s3-negatively-regulates-unwinding-activity-of-recq-like-helicase-4-through-their-physical-interaction
#9
Ajay Vitthal Patil, Tao-Shih Hsieh
Human RecQ-like helicase 4 (RECQL4) plays crucial roles in replication initiation and DNA repair; however, the contextual regulation of its unwinding activity is not fully described. Mutations in RECQL4 have been linked to three diseases including Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, which is characterized by osteoskeletal deformities, photosensitivity, and increased osteosarcoma susceptibility. Understanding regulation of RECQL4 helicase activity by interaction partners will allow deciphering its role as an enzyme and a signaling cofactor in different cellular contexts...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152343/transcriptomes-reflect-the-phenotypes-of-undifferentiated-granulocyte-and-macrophage-forms-of-hl-60-s4-cells
#10
David B Mark Welch, Anna Jauch, Jörg Langowski, Ada L Olins, Donald E Olins
In order to understand the chromatin changes underlying differential gene expression during induced differentiation of human leukemic HL-60/S4 cells, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis on quadruplicate cultures of undifferentiated, granulocytic- and macrophage-differentiated cell forms. More than half of mapped genes exhibited altered transcript levels in the differentiated cell forms. In general, more genes showed increased mRNA levels in the granulocytic form and in the macrophage form, than showed decreased levels...
February 2, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145223/light-and-transmission-electron-microscopy-of-cepedea-longa-opalinidae-from-fejervarya-limnocharis
#11
Can Li, Xiao Jin, Ming Li, Guitang Wang, Hong Zou, Wenxiang Li, Shangong Wu
Cepedea longa Bezzenberger, 1904, collected from Fejervarya limnocharis (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae) from Honghu Lake, Hubei Province, China in May-July 2016, is described at both light and transmission electron microscope levels. This is the first electron microscopic study of this species. Cepedea longa possesses a developed fibrillar skeletal system, composed of longitudinal fibrillar bands and transversal fibrils as well as numerous thin microfibrils dispersed in the endoplasm, which may play an important role in morphogenesis and offer some resilience to deformations of the cell...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144670/evaluating-a-novel-dimensional-reduction-approach-for-mechanical-fractionation-of-cells-using-a-tandem-flexible-micro-spring-array-tfmsa
#12
Yin-Ting Yeh, Ramdane A Harouaka, Si-Yang Zheng
We present a novel methodology to establish experimental models for the rational design of cell fractionation based on physical properties of cells. Label-free microfluidic separation of cells based on size is a widely employed technique. However, close observation reveals that cell capture results cannot be explained by cell sizes alone. This is particularly apparent with viable cell fractionation, where cells retain their native deformability. We have developed a principal size cutoff (PSC) model based on the analysis of size distribution and size-based filtration efficiency for cell populations...
February 1, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125935/atraumatic-spine-distraction-induces-metabolic-distress-in-spinal-motor-neurons
#13
Jennifer E S Bell, Jennifer L Seifert, Eileen N Shimizu, Daniel J Sucato, Mario I Romero-Ortega
Corrective forces during spine deformity surgery, including distraction, impart significant stresses to the spinal cord that may result in permanent injury. Intraoperative neuromonitoring is commonly used by surgeons to recognize possible damage to the spinal cord in cases of evident traumatic or vascular damage to the spinal cord. However, mild insult to the spinal cord that does not result in obvious trauma or electrophysiological changes present a major clinical challenge as the mechanisms of this type of spinal cord injury (SCI) remain largely unknown, and thus preventive strategies are lacking...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120913/mechanisms-and-functions-of-nuclear-envelope-remodelling
#14
REVIEW
Rosemarie Ungricht, Ulrike Kutay
As a compartment border, the nuclear envelope (NE) needs to serve as both a protective membrane shell for the genome and a versatile communication interface between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Despite its important structural role in sheltering the genome, the NE is a dynamic and highly adaptable boundary that changes composition during differentiation, deforms in response to mechanical challenges, can be repaired upon rupture and even rapidly disassembles and reforms during open mitosis. NE remodelling is fundamentally involved in cell growth, division and differentiation, and if perturbed can lead to devastating diseases such as muscular dystrophies or premature ageing...
January 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116393/a-microfluidic-device-for-characterizing-nuclear-deformations
#15
Andrew C Hodgson, Christophe M Verstreken, Cynthia L Fisher, Ulrich F Keyser, Stefano Pagliara, Kevin J Chalut
Cell nuclei experience and respond to a wide range of forces, both in vivo and in vitro. In order to characterize the nuclear response to physical stress, we developed a microfluidic chip and used it to apply mechanical stress to live cells and measure their nuclear deformability. The device design is optimized for the detection of both nucleus and cytoplasm, which can then be conveniently quantified using a custom-written Matlab program. We measured nuclear sizes and strains of embryonic stem cells, for which we observed negative Poisson ratios in the nuclei...
January 24, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113464/discriminant-incoherent-component-analysis
#16
Christos Georgakis, Yannis Panagakis, Maja Pantic
Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and action unit activations. In this paper, the Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract lowcomplexity components corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e...
March 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104838/distortion-of-histone-octamer-core-promotes-nucleosome-mobilization-by-a-chromatin-remodeler
#17
Kalyan K Sinha, John D Gross, Geeta J Narlikar
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes play essential biological roles by mobilizing nucleosomal DNA. Yet, how DNA is mobilized despite the steric constraints placed by the histone octamer remains unknown. Using methyl transverse relaxation-optimized nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a 450-kilodalton complex, we show that the chromatin remodeler, SNF2h, distorts the histone octamer. Binding of SNF2h in an activated ATP state changes the dynamics of buried histone residues...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102353/cofilin-regulates-nuclear-architecture-through-a-myosin-ii-dependent-mechanotransduction-module
#18
O'Neil Wiggan, Bryce Schroder, Diego Krapf, James R Bamburg, Jennifer G DeLuca
Structural features of the nucleus including shape, size and deformability impact its function affecting normal cellular processes such as cell differentiation and pathological conditions such as tumor cell migration. Despite the fact that abnormal nuclear morphology has long been a defining characteristic for diseases such as cancer relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control normal nuclear architecture. Mounting evidence suggests close coupling between F-actin cytoskeletal organization and nuclear morphology however, mechanisms regulating this coupling are lacking...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101199/ultrastructural-changes-during-lung-carcinogenesis-modulation-by-curcumin-and-quercetin
#19
Xin Wang, Lei Wang, Hao Zhang, Ke Li, Jiqin You
The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of curcumin and quercetin in modulating ultrastructural changes during lung carcinogenesis. A total of 24 male laka mice were divided into the normal control, benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-treated, BP+curcumin-treated, BP+quercetin- treated, and BP+curcumin+quercetin-treated groups (n=6 per group). Lung carcinogenesis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of BP [100 mg/kg of body weight (b.wt.)]. Curcumin was supplemented to mice at a dose level of 60 mg/kg of b...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094344/estrogen-related-receptor-is-required-for-the-testicular-development-and-for-the-normal-sperm-axoneme-mitochondrial-derivatives-in-drosophila-males
#20
Snigdha Misra, Anuj Kumar Pandey, Snigdha Gupta, Ajay Kumar, Priyanka Khanna, Jai Shankar, Kristipati Ravi Ram
Estrogen related receptors (ERRs), categorized as orphan nuclear receptors, are critical for energy homeostasis and somatic development. However, significance of ERRs in the development of reproductive organs/organelles/cells remain poorly understood, albeit their homology to estrogen receptors. In this context, here, we show that knockdown of ERR in the testes leads to improperly developed testes with mis-regulation of genes (aly, mia, bruce, bam, bgcn, fzo and eya) involved in spermatogenesis, resulting in reduced male fertility...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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