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Nuclear deformation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104838/distortion-of-histone-octamer-core-promotes-nucleosome-mobilization-by-a-chromatin-remodeler
#1
Kalyan K Sinha, John D Gross, Geeta J Narlikar
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes play essential biological roles by mobilizing nucleosomal DNA. Yet, how DNA is mobilized despite the steric constraints placed by the histone octamer remains unknown. Using methyl transverse relaxation-optimized nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a 450-kilodalton complex, we show that the chromatin remodeler, SNF2h, distorts the histone octamer. Binding of SNF2h in an activated ATP state changes the dynamics of buried histone residues...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102353/cofilin-regulates-nuclear-architecture-through-a-myosin-ii-dependent-mechanotransduction-module
#2
O'Neil Wiggan, Bryce Schroder, Diego Krapf, James R Bamburg, Jennifer G DeLuca
Structural features of the nucleus including shape, size and deformability impact its function affecting normal cellular processes such as cell differentiation and pathological conditions such as tumor cell migration. Despite the fact that abnormal nuclear morphology has long been a defining characteristic for diseases such as cancer relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control normal nuclear architecture. Mounting evidence suggests close coupling between F-actin cytoskeletal organization and nuclear morphology however, mechanisms regulating this coupling are lacking...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101199/ultrastructural-changes-during-lung-carcinogenesis-modulation-by-curcumin-and-quercetin
#3
Xin Wang, Lei Wang, Hao Zhang, Ke Li, Jiqin You
The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of curcumin and quercetin in modulating ultrastructural changes during lung carcinogenesis. A total of 24 male laka mice were divided into the normal control, benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-treated, BP+curcumin-treated, BP+quercetin- treated, and BP+curcumin+quercetin-treated groups (n=6 per group). Lung carcinogenesis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of BP [100 mg/kg of body weight (b.wt.)]. Curcumin was supplemented to mice at a dose level of 60 mg/kg of b...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094344/estrogen-related-receptor-is-required-for-the-testicular-development-and-for-the-normal-sperm-axoneme-mitochondrial-derivatives-in-drosophila-males
#4
Snigdha Misra, Anuj Kumar Pandey, Snigdha Gupta, Ajay Kumar, Priyanka Khanna, Jai Shankar, Kristipati Ravi Ram
Estrogen related receptors (ERRs), categorized as orphan nuclear receptors, are critical for energy homeostasis and somatic development. However, significance of ERRs in the development of reproductive organs/organelles/cells remain poorly understood, albeit their homology to estrogen receptors. In this context, here, we show that knockdown of ERR in the testes leads to improperly developed testes with mis-regulation of genes (aly, mia, bruce, bam, bgcn, fzo and eya) involved in spermatogenesis, resulting in reduced male fertility...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089517/hypoxia-induces-a-hif-1-dependent-transition-from-collective-to-amoeboid-dissemination-in-epithelial-cancer-cells
#5
Steffi Lehmann, Veronika Te Boekhorst, Julia Odenthal, Roberta Bianchi, Sjoerd van Helvert, Kristian Ikenberg, Olga Ilina, Szymon Stoma, Jael Xandry, Liying Jiang, Reidar Grenman, Markus Rudin, Peter Friedl
Cancer metastases arise from a multi-step process that requires metastasizing tumor cells to adapt to signaling input from varying tissue environments [1]. As an early metastatic event, cancer cell dissemination occurs through different migration programs, including multicellular, collective, and single-cell mesenchymal or amoeboid migration [2-4]. Migration modes can interconvert based on changes in cell adhesion, cytoskeletal mechanotransduction [5], and/or proteolysis [6], most likely under the control of transcriptional programs such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [7, 8]...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060557/control-of-nuclear-organization-by-f-actin-binding-proteins
#6
Karin Pfisterer, Asier Jayo, Maddy Parsons
The regulation of nuclear shape and deformability is a key factor in controlling diverse events from embryonic development to cancer cell metastasis, but the mechanisms governing this process are still unclear. Our recent study demonstrated an unexpected role for the F-actin bundling protein fascin in controlling nuclear plasticity through a direct interaction with Nesprin-2. Nesprin-2 is a component of the LINC complex that is known to couple the F-actin cytoskeleton to the nuclear envelope. We demonstrated that fascin, which is predominantly associated with peripheral F-actin rich filopodia, binds directly to Nesprin-2 at the nuclear envelope in a range of cell types...
January 6, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050725/dft-study-on-the-effects-of-catalysis-by-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-in-the-reaction-of-p-nitrophenyl-acetate
#7
Yamei Cheng, Xueye Wang, Weiwei Li, Dan Chang
The reaction of p-nitrophenyl acetate and α-alanine can be improved apparently with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) according to previous research, the interaction mechanism between β-cyclodextrin and p-nitrophenyl acetate is described in this paper. Density functional theory (DFT) method is used throughout the study. According to the energy (the binding energy, the deformation energy) and structural deformation, entry models and reaction process can be pinpointed, viz p-nitrophenyl acetate embed β-CD from the wide rim...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044322/simultaneous-fluoroscopic-and-nuclear-imaging-impact-of-collimator-choice-on-nuclear-image-quality
#8
Sandra van der Velden, Casper Beijst, Max A Viergever, Hugo W A M de Jong
PURPOSE: X-ray-guided oncological interventions could benefit from the availability of simultaneously acquired nuclear images during the procedure. To this end, a real-time, hybrid fluoroscopic and nuclear imaging device, consisting of an X-ray c-arm combined with gamma imaging capability, is currently being developed (Beijst C, Elschot M, Viergever MA, de Jong HW. Radiol. 2015;278:232-238). The setup comprises four gamma cameras placed adjacent to the X-ray tube. The four camera views are used to reconstruct an intermediate three-dimensional image, which is subsequently converted to a virtual nuclear projection image that overlaps with the X-ray image...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042595/expression-purification-and-crystallization-of-the-herpesvirus-nuclear-egress-complex-nec
#9
Janna M Bigalke, Ekaterina E Heldwein
The protocol describes the production and crystallization of the soluble form of the nuclear egress complex (NEC) from Herpes simplex virus 1 and Pseudorabies virus. The NEC is a heterodimer that consists of conserved proteins UL31 and UL34. NEC oligomerization deforms the inner nuclear membrane around the capsid in infected cells, thereby mediating capsid budding into the perinuclear space during nuclear egress. We have successfully developed a protocol for large-scale preparation of highly pure NEC from two different viruses in a prokaryotic expression system, which enabled us to crystallize these viral protein complexes and determine their structures...
July 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035043/measuring-mechanodynamics-in-an-unsupported-epithelial-monolayer-grown-at-an-air-water-interface
#10
Corinne Gullekson, Matthew Walker, James L Harden, Andrew E Pelling
Actomyosin contraction and relaxation in a monolayer is a fundamental biophysical process in development and homeostasis. Current methods used to characterize the mechanodynamics of monolayers often involve cells grown on solid supports such as glass or gels. The results of these studies are fundamentally influenced by these supporting structures. Here we describe a new method for measuring the mechanodynamics of epithelial monolayers by culturing cells at an air-liquid interface. These model monolayers are grown in the absence of any supporting structures, removing cell-substrate effects...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025825/ultrastructural-analysis-of-sequential-cyprinid-herpesvirus-3-morphogenesis-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
S J Monaghan, S M Bergmann, K D Thompson, L Brown, T Herath, J Del-Pozo, A Adams
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is an alloherpesvirus, and it is the aetiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease. Although the complex morphogenic stages of the replication cycle of CyHV-3 were shown to resemble that of other members of the Herpesvirales, detailed analysis of the sequence and timing of these events was not definitively determined. This study describes these features through a time course using cyprinid cell cultures (KF-1 and CCB) infected with CyHV-3 (KHV isolate, H361) and analysed by transmission electron microscopy...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991491/grain-neighbour-effects-on-twin-transmission-in-hexagonal-close-packed-materials
#12
M Arul Kumar, I J Beyerlein, R J McCabe, C N Tomé
Materials with a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure such as Mg, Ti and Zr are being used in the transportation, aerospace and nuclear industry, respectively. Material strength and formability are critical qualities for shaping these materials into parts and a pervasive deformation mechanism that significantly affects their formability is deformation twinning. The interaction between grain boundaries and twins has an important influence on the deformation behaviour and fracture of hcp metals. Here, statistical analysis of large data sets reveals that whether twins transmit across grain boundaries depends not only on crystallography but also strongly on the anisotropy in crystallographic slip...
December 19, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969550/characterizing-flow-pathways-in-a-sandstone-aquifer-tectonic-vs-sedimentary-heterogeneities
#13
G Medici, L J West, N P Mountney
Sandstone aquifers are commonly assumed to represent porous media characterized by a permeable matrix. However, such aquifers may be heavy fractured when rock properties and timing of deformation favour brittle failure and crack opening. In many aquifer types, fractures associated with faults, bedding planes and stratabound joints represent preferential pathways for fluids and contaminants. In this paper, well test and outcrop-scale studies reveal how strongly lithified siliciclastic rocks may be entirely dominated by fracture flow at shallow depths (≤180m), similar to limestone and crystalline aquifers...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936415/hydraulic-fracturing-in-cells-and-tissues-fracking-meets-cell-biology
#14
REVIEW
Marino Arroyo, Xavier Trepat
The animal body is largely made of water. A small fraction of body water is freely flowing in blood and lymph, but most of it is trapped in hydrogels such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the cytoskeleton, and chromatin. Besides providing a medium for biological molecules to diffuse, water trapped in hydrogels plays a fundamental mechanical role. This role is well captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which explains how any deformation applied to a hydrogel causes pressure gradients and water flows, much like compressing a sponge squeezes water out of it...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933661/mutations-in-the-neb-gene-cause-fetal-akinesia-arthrogryposis-multiplex-congenita
#15
Michal Feingold-Zadok, David Chitayat, Karen Chong, Marie Injeyan, Patrick Shannon, Daphne Chapmann, Ron Maymon, Nir Pillar, Orit Reish
OBJECTIVE: We studied a series of patients with fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS)/arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), with nemaline bodies on muscle specimens, that revealed mutations in the NEB gene. METHOD: We pathologically assessed seven cases from three families, who presented with AMC/FADS. Targeted genetic analysis for Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) mutation (in relevant patients) was followed by next generation sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification...
December 9, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925459/quantification-of-type-timing-and-extent-of-cell-body-and-nucleus-deformations-caused-by-the-dimensions-and-hydrophilicity-of-square-prism-micropillars
#16
Onur Hasturk, Abdullah Sivas, Bulent Karasozen, Utkan Demirci, Nesrin Hasirci, Vasif Hasirci
Novel digital analysis strategies are developed for the quantification of changes in the cytoskeletal and nuclear morphologies of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on micropillars. Severe deformations of nucleus and distinct conformational changes of cell body ranging from extensive elongation to branching are visualized and quantified. These deformations are caused mainly by the dimensions and hydrophilicity of the micropillars.
December 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901466/differentiation-alters-stem-cell-nuclear-architecture-mechanics-and-mechano-sensitivity
#17
Su-Jin Heo, Tristan P Driscoll, Stephen D Thorpe, Nandan L Nerurkar, Brendon M Baker, Michael T Yang, Christopher S Chen, David A Lee, Robert L Mauck
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation is mediated by soluble and physical cues. In this study, we investigated differentiation-induced transformations in MSC cellular and nuclear biophysical properties and queried their role in mechanosensation. Our data show that nuclei in differentiated bovine and human MSCs stiffen and become resistant to deformation. This attenuated nuclear deformation was governed by restructuring of Lamin A/C and increased heterochromatin content. This change in nuclear stiffness sensitized MSCs to mechanical-loading-induced calcium signaling and differentiated marker expression...
November 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896349/silver-nanoparticles-a-mechanism-of-action-on-moulds
#18
Katarzyna Pietrzak, Sława Glińska, Magdalena Gapińska, Tomasz Ruman, Adriana Nowak, Egemen Aydin, Beata Gutarowska
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in all branches of industry. However, their mechanisms of action towards moulds have not been studied yet. Thus we conducted this study in which we have used laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToF-MS) analysis to determine metabolomic changes, and microscopic analysis (transmission electron microscopy, fluorescent microscopy) to observe changes in mould cells. The AgNP treatment caused the downregulation of 162 (15 ppm) and 284 (62 ppm), and 19 (15 ppm) and 29 (62 ppm) metabolites of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum, respectively...
December 7, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878682/dft-study-on-the-effects-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-in-synthesis-of-2-phenylbenzimidazole-via-benzaldehyde-and-o-phenylenediamine
#19
Yamei Cheng, Xueye Wang, Weiwei Li, Dan Chang
The conversion of 2-phenylbenzimidazole using o-phenylenediamine and benzaldehyde can be improved significantly under β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The density functional theory (DFT) method was applied to study the whole process. According to energy parameters (binding energy, deformation energy) and structural deformation, entry models and the reaction process can be pinpointed, with o-phenylenediamine embedding β-CD from a wide rim, and then benzaldehyde passing into the inclusion from the narrow rim. Subsequently, natural bonding orbital (NBO), Mulliken charge, frontier orbital, FuKui function and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods were employed to reveal the mechanism of electron transfer...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858225/putative-model-for-heat-shock-protein-70-complexation-with-receptor-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-through-fluorescence-proximity-assays-and-normal-mode-analyses
#20
Marcelo Sartori Grunwald, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun, Cristiane Santos Souza, Luana Heimfarth, Hugo Verli, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
Extracellular heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is recognized by receptors on the plasma membrane, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, CD14, and CD40. This leads to activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enhancement of the phagocytic activity of innate immune cells, and stimulation of antigen-specific responses. However, the specific characteristics of HSP70 binding are still unknown, and all HSP70 receptors have not yet been described. Putative models for HSP70 complexation to the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGEs), considering both ADP- and ATP-bound states of HSP70, were obtained through molecular docking and interaction energy calculations...
November 17, 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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