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Nuclear deformation

O A Smolyanskaya, I J Schelkanova, M S Kulya, E L Odlyanitskiy, I S Goryachev, A N Tcypkin, Ya V Grachev, Ya G Toropova, V V Tuchin
The optical clearing method has been widely used for different spectral ranges where it provides tissue transparency. In this work, we observed the enhanced penetration of the terahertz waves inside biological samples (skin, kidney, and cornea) treated with glycerol solutions inducing changes of optical and dielectric properties. It was supported by the observed trend of free-to-bound water ratio measured by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method. The terahertz clearing efficiency was found to be less for diabetic samples than for normal ones...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Vikas H Malojirao, V Vigneshwaran, Prabhu Thirusangu, Riaz Mahmood, B T Prabhakar
Aim Deformity in the cellular homeostatic event associated with cell survival and apoptosis are committing factors for carcinogenesis. Interventions of these events by pharmacologically active agent gain predominance in cancer treatment. In current investigation Solanidine, a steroidal alkaloid was evaluated on tumorigenesis by targeting death signal using multiple tumor cells and model systems. MAIN METHODS: Anti-proliferative effect was evaluated using cytotoxic studies. Prolonged cytotoxic effect of Solanidine was examined by colony formation assay...
March 7, 2018: Life Sciences
R Olivera, L N Moro, R Jordan, N Pallarols, A Guglielminetti, C Luzzani, S G Miriuka, G Vichera
Introduction: Cell plasticity is crucial in cloning to allow an efficient nuclear reprogramming and healthy offspring. Hence, cells with high plasticity, such as multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), may be a promising alternative for horse cloning. In this study, we evaluated the use of bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) as nuclear donors in horse cloning, and we compared the in vitro and in vivo embryo development with respect to fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Zona-free nuclear transfer was performed using BM-MSCs (MSC group, n=3432) or adult fibroblasts (AF group, n=4527)...
2018: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
Wanwan Jia, Weijun Wu, Di Yang, Chenxi Xiao, Zhenghua Su, Zheng Huang, Zhongzheng Li, Ming Qin, Mengwei Huang, Siyu Liu, Fen Long, Xinhua Liu, Yi Zhun Zhu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated disease with the characteristics of progressive joint destruction, deformity, and disability. Epigenetic changes have been implicated in the development of some autoimmune disorders, resulting in an alteration of gene transcription. Here, we investigated how Jumonji C family of histone demethylases (JMJD3) regulated the proliferation and activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs), which are involved in RA joint destruction and pathologic process. The JMJD3 expression and proliferation markers in RA-FLS were higher than those in healthy-FLS and were upregulated in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced FLS...
February 26, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Brenda J Green, Magdalini Panagiotakopoulou, Francesca Michela Pramotton, Georgios Stefopoulos, Shana O Kelley, Dimos Poulikakos, Aldo Ferrari
Invasion of dense tissues by cancer cells involves the interplay between the penetration resistance offered by interstitial pores and the deformability of cells. Metastatic cancer cells find optimal paths of minimal resistance through an adaptive path-finding process, which leads to successful dissemination. The physical limit of nuclear deformation is related to the minimal cross section of pores that can be successfully penetrated. However, this single biophysical parameter does not fully describe the architectural complexity of tissues featuring pores of variable area and shape...
February 26, 2018: Nano Letters
Jessie Y Chen, Mark S Hockenberry, Larry I Lipshultz
INTRODUCTION: Penile deformity is the most obvious manifestation of Peyronie's disease (PD) and key to determining the optimal method of treatment. Other aspects of PD to consider include plaque size, location, and density; amount of calcification; erection quality; disease progression; and penile anatomy. Few standards exist for the objective assessment of these parameters. AIM: To describe current options and new trends in the objective evaluation of PD with a focus on penile curvature and imaging modalities...
February 21, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Alexia Vite, Caimei Zhang, Roslyn Yi, Sabrina Emms, Glenn L Radice
Shortly after birth, muscle cells of the mammalian heart lose their ability to divide. At the same time, the N-cadherin/catenin cell adhesion complex accumulates at the cell termini creating a specialized type of cell-cell contact called the intercalated disc (ICD). To investigate the relationship between ICD maturation and proliferation, αE-catenin ( Ctnna1 ) and αT-catenin ( Ctnna3 ) genes were deleted to generate cardiac-specific α-catenin double knockout (DKO) mice. DKO mice exhibited aberrant N-cadherin expression, mislocalized actomyosin activity, and increased cardiomyocyte proliferation that was dependent on Yap activity...
February 21, 2018: Development
Maria Gabriella Chiariello, Nadia Rega
Advances in time resolved vibrational spectroscopy techniques provided a new stimulus for understanding the transient molecular dynamics triggered by the electronic excitation. The detailed interpretation of such time dependent spectroscopic signals is a challenging task from both experimental and theoretical points of view. We simulated and analyzed the transient photorelaxation of the pyranine photoacid in aqueous solution, with special focus on structural parameters and low frequency skeleton modes that are possibly preparatory for the photoreaction occurring at later time, as suggested by experimental spectroscopic studies...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
M Lasalvia, R Scrima, G Perna, C Piccoli, N Capitanio, P F Biagi, L Schiavulli, T Ligonzo, M Centra, G Casamassima, A Ermini, V Capozzi
Blood is a fluid connective tissue of human body, where it plays vital functions for the nutrition, defense and well-being of the organism. When circulating in peripheral districts, it is exposed to some physical stresses coming from outside the human body, as electromagnetic fields (EMFs) which can cross the skin. Such fields may interact with biomolecules possibly inducing non thermal-mediated biological effects at the cellular level. In this study, the occurrence of biochemical/biological modifications in human peripheral blood lympho-monocytes exposed in a reverberation chamber for times ranging from 1 to 20 h to EMFs at 1...
2018: PloS One
Sumin Lim, Baeksoon Choi, Sang Young Lee, Soonchil Lee, Ho-Hyun Nahm, Yong-Hyun Kim, Taehun Kim, Je-Geun Park, Jisoo Lee, Jaeyoung Hong, Soon Gu Kwon, Taeghwan Hyeon
57 Fe Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) of magnetite nanocrystals ranging in size from 7 nm to 7 μm is measured. The linewidth of the NMR spectra changes drastically around 120 K, showing microscopic evidence of the Verwey transition. In the region above the transition temperature, the linewidth of the spectrum increases and the spin-spin relaxation time decreases as the nanocrystal size decreases. The linewidth broadening indicates the significant deformation of magnetic structure and reduction of charge order compared to bulk crystals, even when the structural distortion is unobservable...
February 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Francisco J Calero-Cuenca, Cátia S Janota, Edgar R Gomes
The position of the nucleus within cells is a key event during cell migration. The movement and positioning of the nucleus strongly impacts cell migration. Notably, the last two years largely contributed to emphasise the dynamicity of the nucleus-cytoskeleton interactions that occur during cell migration. Nuclei are under continuous tension from opposing intracellular forces and its tether to the cytoskeleton can be regulated at different levels. Interestingly, it was showed how nuclear positioning is highly related to cell function...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Duck-Hyun Kim, Bo-Young Lee, Hui-Su Kim, Chang-Bum Jeong, Dae-Sik Hwang, Il-Chan Kim, Jae-Seong Lee
We report the complete sequence analysis of the entire complement of eight typical homeobox (Hox) genes (Lab, Pb, Dfd, Scr, Antp, Ubx, Abd-A, and Abd-B) and two other genes (Hox3 and Ftz) in a 324.6-kb region in the water flea Daphnia magna. In the cluster of D. magna Hox genes, we found one long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)/R2-NeSL between Ubx and Abd-A that was not present in Daphnia pulex Hox genes. In basal expression of Hox genes at different developmental stages, biothorax complex genes (Ubx, Abd-A, and Abd-B) and some antennapedia complex genes (Lab, Scr, Antp) were moderately expressed, but the Hox3 gene was barely expressed...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Jianjun Huang, Xuping Yao, Guobin Weng, Honggang Qi, Xiaolei Ye
This study explored the potential value of curcumin, a natural product, in the protection of CsA‑induced nephrotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on Cyclosporine A (CsA)‑induced renal oxidative stress and determine the potential underlying molecular mechanisms of the renal protective effects of Cur. HK‑2 human renal cells were co‑treated with CsA and various doses of Cur. Cell survival rate was determined by an MTT assay, total cellular protein was collected and oxidative stress in cell homogenates was evaluated by determining the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‑Px) and catalase (CAT), the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Aurora Paola Borroni, Andrea Emanuelli, Pooja Anil Shah, Nataša Ilić, Liat Apel-Sarid, Biagio Paolini, Dhanoop Manikoth Ayyathan, Praveen Koganti, Gal Levy-Cohen, Michael Blank
A-lamins, encoded by the LMNA gene, are major structural components of the nuclear lamina coordinating essential cellular processes. Mutations in the LMNA gene and/or alterations in its expression levels have been linked to a distinct subset of human disorders, collectively known as laminopathies, and to cancer. Mechanisms regulating A-lamins are mostly obscure. Here, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 as a physiological regulator of lamin A and its disease-associated mutant form progerin (LAΔ50), whose expression underlies the development of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a devastating premature aging syndrome...
February 5, 2018: Aging Cell
L Gallais, R Burla, F Martin, J C Richaud, G Volle, M Pontillon, H Capdevila, Y Pontillon
We report on experimental development and qualification of a system developed to detect and quantify the deformations of the cladding surface of nuclear fuel pellet assemblies submitted to heat transient conditions. The system consists of an optical instrument, based on 2 wavelengths speckle interferometry, associated with an induction furnace and a model pellet assembly used to simulate the radial thermal gradient experienced by fuel pellets in pressurized water reactors. We describe the concept, implementation, and first results obtained with this system...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Chao Li, Cheng Li, Bingbing Wang, Runqi Zhang, Kaiyong Fu, William J Gale, Chunyan Li
Drought frequently occurs during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain filling. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of post-anthesis drought on programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat endosperm cells and (ii) to examine the role of ethylene (ETH) receptors and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating wheat endosperm PCD. Two winter wheat cultivars ('Xindong 18' and 'Xindong 22') were used in this study. Grain samples were collected from normal and drought stressed plants at 5-day intervals between 5 and 35 days post-anthesis...
January 29, 2018: Protoplasma
Byeongsuk Ha, Sieun Lee, Sinil Kim, Minseek Kim, Yoon Jung Moon, Yelin Song, Hyeon-Su Ro
In mating of Lentinula edodes, dikaryotic strains generated from certain monokaryotic strains such as the B2 used in this study tend to show better quality of fruiting bodies regardless of the mated monokaryotic strains. Unlike B2, dikaryotic strains generated from B16 generally show low yields, with deformed or underdeveloped fruiting bodies. This indicates that the two nuclei in the cytoplasm do not contribute equally to the physiology of dikaryotic L. edodes, suggesting an expression bias in the allelic genes of the two nuclei...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Kellie Beicker, E Timothy O'Brien, Michael R Falvo, Richard Superfine
The ability to measure dynamic structural changes within a cell under applied load is essential for developing more accurate models of cell mechanics and mechanotransduction. Atomic force microscopy is a powerful tool for evaluating cell mechanics, but the dominant applied forces and sample strains are in the vertical direction, perpendicular to the imaging plane of standard fluorescence imaging. Here we report on a combined sideways imaging and vertical light sheet illumination system integrated with AFM. Our system enables high frame rate, low background imaging of subcellular structural dynamics in the vertical plane synchronized with AFM force data...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chao Han, Jinkai Yang, Pengyan Song, Xiao Wang, Wanyu Shi
This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and possible underlying mechanisms of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides (SMP) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity of SMP was detected by the MTT method. The morphological change of RAW264.7 was observed by Diff-Quik staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate the production of cytokines in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. The nitric oxide (NO) kit assay detected the NO release from LPS-induced RAW264...
January 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Ange Stoianov, Christophe Gourlaouen, Sergi Vela, Chantal Daniel
The excited states properties of a series of bi-nuclear NHetPHOS-Cu(I) complexes have been investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent-DFT (TD-DFT). It is shown that experimental trends observed in powder, generally explored via S1 and T1 excited state energetics and S1 ⇔ T1 intersystem crossing (ISC) efficiency, are hardly analyzed on the basis of excited states properties calculated in solution. Indeed, several local minima corresponding to various structural deformations are put in evidence on the lowest excited state potential energy surfaces (PES) when solvent correction is applied leading to a four-state thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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