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Nuclear deformation

Su-Jin Heo, Tristan P Driscoll, Stephen D Thorpe, Nandan L Nerurkar, Brendon M Baker, Michael T Yang, Christopher S Chen, David A Lee, Robert L Mauck
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation is mediated by soluble and physical cues. In this study, we investigated differentiation induced transformations in MSC cellular and nuclear biophysical properties and queried their role in mechanosensation. Our data show that nuclei in differentiated bovine and human MSCs stiffen and become resistant to deformation. This attenuated nuclear deformation was governed by restructuring of Lamin A/C and increased heterochromatin content. This change in nuclear stiffness sensitized MSCs to mechanical loading induced calcium signaling and differentiated marker expression...
November 30, 2016: ELife
Katarzyna Pietrzak, Sława Glińska, Magdalena Gapińska, Tomasz Ruman, Adriana Nowak, Egemen Aydin, Beata Gutarowska
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in all branches of industry. However, their mechanisms of action towards moulds have not been studied yet. Thus we conducted this study in which we have used laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToF-MS) analysis to determine metabolomic changes, and microscopic analysis (transmission electron microscopy, fluorescent microscopy) to observe changes in mould cells. The AgNP treatment caused the downregulation of 162 (15 ppm) and 284 (62 ppm), and 19 (15 ppm) and 29 (62 ppm) metabolites of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum, respectively...
November 29, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Yamei Cheng, Xueye Wang, Weiwei Li, Dan Chang
The conversion of 2-phenylbenzimidazole using o-phenylenediamine and benzaldehyde can be improved significantly under β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The density functional theory (DFT) method was applied to study the whole process. According to energy parameters (binding energy, deformation energy) and structural deformation, entry models and the reaction process can be pinpointed, with o-phenylenediamine embedding β-CD from a wide rim, and then benzaldehyde passing into the inclusion from the narrow rim. Subsequently, natural bonding orbital (NBO), Mulliken charge, frontier orbital, FuKui function and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods were employed to reveal the mechanism of electron transfer...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Marcelo Sartori Grunwald, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun, Cristiane Santos Souza, Luana Heimfarth, Hugo Verli, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
Extracellular heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is recognized by receptors on the plasma membrane, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, CD14, and CD40. This leads to activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enhancement of the phagocytic activity of innate immune cells, and stimulation of antigen-specific responses. However, the specific characteristics of HSP70 binding are still unknown, and all HSP70 receptors have not yet been described. Putative models for HSP70 complexation to the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGEs), considering both ADP- and ATP-bound states of HSP70, were obtained through molecular docking and interaction energy calculations...
November 17, 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
C Kremer, S Aslanidou, S Bassauer, M Hilcker, A Krugmann, P von Neumann-Cosel, T Otsuka, N Pietralla, V Yu Ponomarev, N Shimizu, M Singer, G Steinhilber, T Togashi, Y Tsunoda, V Werner, M Zweidinger
BACKGROUND: Type II shell evolution has recently been identified as a microscopic cause for nuclear shape coexistence. PURPOSE: Establish a low-lying rotational band in ^{96}Zr. METHODS: High-resolution inelastic electron scattering and a relative analysis of transition strengths are used. RESULTS: The B(E2;0_{1}^{+}→2_{2}^{+}) value is measured and electromagnetic decay strengths of the 2_{2}^{+} state are deduced...
October 21, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Gabriela A Dominguez, Josefina Perlo, Carla C Fraenza, Esteban Anoardo
The elastic properties of lipid membranes can be conveniently characterized through the bending elastic modulus κ. Elasticity directly affects the deformability of a membrane, morphological and shape transitions, fusion, lipid-protein interactions, etc. It is also a critical property for the formulation of ultradeformable liposomes, and of interest for the design of theranostic liposomes for efficient drug delivery systems and/or different imaging contrast agents. Measurements of κ in liposome membranes have been made using the fast field cycling nuclear magnetic relaxometry technique...
November 2, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Marek Mateusz Drozdz, David John Vaux
The mammalian nuclear envelope (NE) can develop complex dynamic membrane-bounded invaginations in response to both physiological and pathological stimuli. Since the formation of these nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR) structures can occur during interphase, without mitotic NE breakdown and reassembly, some other mechanism must drive their development. Here we consider models for deformation of the interphase NE, together with the evidence for their potential roles in NR formation.
October 31, 2016: Nucleus
Gabor Kiraly, Athene S Simonyi, Melinda Turani, Istvan Juhasz, Gabor Nagy, Gaspar Banfalvi
In early S phase the newly replicated DNA is folded back to increasingly compact structures. The process of chromatin condensation inside the nucleus starts with the formation of a micronucleus observed in five established cell lines (K562, CHO, Indian muntjac, murine preB and SCC). Supercoiling of chromatin generates a polarized end-plate region extruded from the nucleus. The extruded chromatin is turned around itself forming the head portion (micronucleus) visible by fluorescence microscopy until the middle of S phase when chromatin structures are succeeded by distinguishable early forms of chromosomes...
October 25, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
C T Angell, R Hajima, T Shizuma, B Ludewigt, B J Quiter
In recent measurements of the scissors mode in radiative decay experiments, transition strengths were observed that were double that expected from theory and systematics well established from measurements on the radiative excitation channel, that is, using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). Additional strength as measured with NRF can only be present as heretofore unobserved branching or fragmentation of the scissors mode. Such possibilities were investigated in a transmission NRF measurement on the deformed, odd-mass ^{181}Ta, using a quasimonoenergetic γ-ray beam at two beam energies...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Shu-Hua Yang, Miao Long, Li-Hui Yu, Lin Li, Peng Li, Yi Zhang, Yang Guo, Feng Gao, Ming-Da Liu, Jian-Bin He
Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural and highly effective antioxidant. Studies suggest that SFN protects cells and tissues against cadmium (Cd) toxicity. This study investigated the protective effect of SFN against oxidative damage in the testes of Kunming mice exposed to cadmium, and explored the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Cadmium greatly reduced the serum testosterone levels in mice, reduced sperm motility, total sperm count, and increased the sperm deformity rate. Cadmium also reduces superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels and increases malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
N Schunck, L M Robledo
This article reviews how nuclear fission is described within nuclear density functional theory. A distinction should be made between spontaneous fission, where half-lives are the main observables and quantum tunnelling the essential concept, and induced fission, where the focus is on fragment properties and explicitly time-dependent approaches are often invoked. Overall, the cornerstone of the density functional theory approach to fission is the energy density functional formalism. The basic tenets of this method, including some well-known tools such as the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory, effective two-body nuclear potentials such as the Skyrme and Gogny force, finite-temperature extensions and beyond mean-field corrections, are presented succinctly...
November 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
Xiangnan Liu, Ruili Liu, Bin Cao, Kai Ye, Shiyu Li, Yexin Gu, Zhen Pan, Jiandong Ding
While various material factors have been shown to influence cell behaviors, recent studies started to pay attention to the effects of some material cues on "subcellular" geometry of cells, such as self-deformation of cell nuclei. It is particularly interesting to examine whether a self deformation happens discontinuously like a first-order transition and whether subcellular geometry influences significantly the extent of stem cell differentiation. Herein we prepared a series of micropillar arrays of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and discovered a first-order transition of nuclear shape as a function of micropillar height under the examined section area and interspacing of the pillars...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Alberto Garcia, Jose F Rodriguez Matas, Manuela T Raimondi
Recent evidence suggests that mechanical deformation of the cell nucleus regulates the nuclear import of the transcriptional activators of genes involved in primary physiological cell responses such as stem cell differentiation. In addition, this nuclear mechanosensing response is de-regulated in pathological states, such as cancer and neurodegeneration. One hypothesis that could greatly advance the field is that the deformation of the nuclear envelope activates nuclear pore complexes through a direct mechanical link...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Ayan Biswas, Emma C Clark, Chandan K Sen, Gayle Gordillo
: Hemangiomas are endothelial cell tumors and the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. They frequently cause deformity and can cause death. Current pharmacologic therapies have high-risk side effect profiles, which limit the number of children that receive treatment. AIMS: The objectives of this work were to identify the mechanisms through which standardized berry extracts can inhibit endothelial cell tumor growth and test these findings in vivo. RESULTS: EOMA cells are a validated model that generates endothelial cell tumors when injected subcutaneously into syngeneic (129P/3) mice...
October 5, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Xuan Cao, Emad Moeendarbary, Philipp Isermann, Patricia M Davidson, Xiao Wang, Michelle B Chen, Anya K Burkart, Jan Lammerding, Roger D Kamm, Vivek B Shenoy
It is now evident that the cell nucleus undergoes dramatic shape changes during important cellular processes such as cell transmigration through extracellular matrix and endothelium. Recent experimental data suggest that during cell transmigration the deformability of the nucleus could be a limiting factor, and the morphological and structural alterations that the nucleus encounters can perturb genomic organization that in turn influences cellular behavior. Despite its importance, a biophysical model that connects the experimentally observed nuclear morphological changes to the underlying biophysical factors during transmigration through small constrictions is still lacking...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Fei Deng, Shuling Wang, Hua Xin
Roots of Allium cepa were exposed to six CuO NPs suspensions (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 mg L(-1)) in this study. Results revealed that with the increase of CuO NPs concentration, the Cu content in roots increased significantly. Compared to control, onion roots treated with CuO NPs (except 5 mg L(-1) suspension) grew slowly after 24 h. The surface of the root cap and meristematic zone were obviously damaged. The apical meristem of roots treated by 10 mg L(-1) and above concentrations stopped division. The nucleus of meristematic cells deformed, and nucleoli number increased...
October 4, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Zhimin Sun, Changgu Shi, Xiangyang Wang, Qiang Fang, Jianying Huang
Sulfonated chitosan (SCS) was prepared via a facile chemical procedure by using 1,3-propane sultone attached to the backbone of chitosan. The resulting chitosan derivative was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, elemental analysis, and thermo gravimetric analysis. The antibacterial experiments demonstrated that SCS exhibited higher antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
M Mostafavi, R Bradley, D E J Armstrong, T J Marrow
Nanoindentation of engineering materials is commonly used to study, at small length scales, the continuum mechanical properties of elastic modulus and yield strength. However, it is difficult to measure strain hardening via nanoindentation. Strain hardening, which describes the increase in strength with plastic deformation, affects fracture toughness and ductility, and is an important engineering material property. The problem is that the load-displacement data of a single nanoindentation do not provide a unique solution for the material's plastic properties, which can be described by its stress-strain behaviour...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Courtney R Bone, Yu-Tai Chang, Natalie E Cain, Shaun P Murphy, Daniel A Starr
Cellular migrations through constricted spaces are a crucial aspect of many developmental and disease processes including hematopoiesis, inflammation and metastasis. A limiting factor in these events is nuclear deformation. Here, we establish an in vivo model in which nuclei can be visualized while moving through constrictions and use it to elucidate mechanisms for nuclear migration. C. elegans hypodermal P-cell larval nuclei traverse a narrow space that is about 5% their width. This constriction is blocked by fibrous organelles, structures that pass through P cells to connect the muscles to cuticle...
November 15, 2016: Development
Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari, Abdul Quaiyoom Khan, Sarah A Al-Asmari, Abdulqadir Al-Rawi, Saud Al-Omani
BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucositis is a major concern related with cancer therapy. It is well established that overproduction of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators plays vital role in the pathogenesis of mucositis. The aim of the study was to investigate the modulatory effect of vitamin E (vit. E) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis by targeting oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in rats. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
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