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Nuclear deformation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166231/the-role-of-myosin-ii-in-glioma-invasion-a-mathematical-model
#1
Wanho Lee, Sookkyung Lim, Yangjin Kim
Gliomas are malignant tumors that are commonly observed in primary brain cancer. Glioma cells migrate through a dense network of normal cells in microenvironment and spread long distances within brain. In this paper we present a two-dimensional multiscale model in which a glioma cell is surrounded by normal cells and its migration is controlled by cell-mechanical components in the microenvironment via the regulation of myosin II in response to chemoattractants. Our simulation results show that the myosin II plays a key role in the deformation of the cell nucleus as the glioma cell passes through the narrow intercellular space smaller than its nuclear diameter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159839/ribosomal-protein-s3-negatively-regulates-unwinding-activity-of-recq-like-helicase-4-through-their-physical-interaction
#2
Ajay Vitthal Patil, Tao-Shih Hsieh
Human RecQ like helicase 4 (RECQL4) play crucial roles in replication initiation and DNA repair, however the contextual regulation of its unwinding activity is not fully described. Mutations in RECQL4 have been linked to three diseases including Rothmund Thomson Syndrome, which is characterized by osteoskeletal deformities, photosensitivity and increased osteosarcoma susceptibility. Understanding regulation of RECQL4 helicase activity by interaction partners will allow deciphering its role as an enzyme and a signaling cofactor in different cellular contexts...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152343/transcriptomes-reflect-the-phenotypes-of-undifferentiated-granulocyte-and-macrophage-forms-of-hl-60-s4-cells
#3
David B Mark Welch, Anna Jauch, Jörg Langowski, Ada L Olins, Donald E Olins
In order to understand the chromatin changes underlying differential gene expression during induced differentiation of human leukemic HL-60/S4 cells, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis on quadruplicate cultures of undifferentiated, granulocytic- and macrophage-differentiated cell forms. More than half of mapped genes exhibited altered transcript levels in the differentiated cell forms. In general, more genes showed increased mRNA levels in the granulocytic form and in the macrophage form, than showed decreased levels...
February 2, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145223/light-and-transmission-electron-microscopy-of-cepedea-longa-opalinidae-from-fejervarya-limnocharis
#4
Can Li, Xiao Jin, Ming Li, Guitang Wang, Hong Zou, Wenxiang Li, Shangong Wu
Cepedea longa Bezzenberger, 1904, collected from Fejervarya limnocharis (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae) from Honghu Lake, Hubei Province, China in May-July 2016, is described at both light and transmission electron microscope levels. This is the first electron microscopic study of this species. Cepedea longa possesses a developed fibrillar skeletal system, composed of longitudinal fibrillar bands and transversal fibrils as well as numerous thin microfibrils dispersed in the endoplasm, which may play an important role in morphogenesis and offer some resilience to deformations of the cell...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144670/evaluating-a-novel-dimensional-reduction-approach-for-mechanical-fractionation-of-cells-using-a-tandem-flexible-micro-spring-array-tfmsa
#5
Yin-Ting Yeh, Ramdane A Harouaka, Si-Yang Zheng
We present a novel methodology to establish experimental models for the rational design of cell fractionation based on physical properties of cells. Label-free microfluidic separation of cells based on size is a widely employed technique. However, close observation reveals that cell capture results cannot be explained by cell sizes alone. This is particularly apparent with viable cell fractionation, where cells retain their native deformability. We have developed a principal size cutoff (PSC) model based on the analysis of size distribution and size-based filtration efficiency for cell populations...
February 1, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125935/atraumatic-spine-distraction-induces-metabolic-distress-in-spinal-motor-neurons
#6
Jennifer Elizabeth Bell, Jennifer L Seifert, Eileen Nicole Shimizu, Daniel J Sucato, Mario Romero-Ortega
Correction forces during spine deformity surgery including distraction, impart significant stresses to the spinal cord, which may result in permanent injury. Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) is commonly used by surgeons to recognize possible damage to the spinal cord in cases of evident traumatic or vascular damage to the spinal cord. However, mild insult to the spinal cord, which does not result in obvious trauma or electrophysiological changes, present a major clinical challenge as the mechanisms of this type of spinal cord injury (SCI) remain largely unknown, and thus preventive strategies are lacking...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120913/mechanisms-and-functions-of-nuclear-envelope-remodelling
#7
REVIEW
Rosemarie Ungricht, Ulrike Kutay
As a compartment border, the nuclear envelope (NE) needs to serve as both a protective membrane shell for the genome and a versatile communication interface between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Despite its important structural role in sheltering the genome, the NE is a dynamic and highly adaptable boundary that changes composition during differentiation, deforms in response to mechanical challenges, can be repaired upon rupture and even rapidly disassembles and reforms during open mitosis. NE remodelling is fundamentally involved in cell growth, division and differentiation, and if perturbed can lead to devastating diseases such as muscular dystrophies or premature ageing...
January 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116393/a-microfluidic-device-for-characterizing-nuclear-deformations
#8
Andrew C Hodgson, Christophe M Verstreken, Cynthia L Fisher, Ulrich F Keyser, Stefano Pagliara, Kevin J Chalut
Cell nuclei experience and respond to a wide range of forces, both in vivo and in vitro. In order to characterize the nuclear response to physical stress, we developed a microfluidic chip and used it to apply mechanical stress to live cells and measure their nuclear deformability. The device design is optimized for the detection of both nucleus and cytoplasm, which can then be conveniently quantified using a custom-written Matlab program. We measured nuclear sizes and strains of embryonic stem cells, for which we observed negative Poisson ratios in the nuclei...
January 24, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113464/discriminant-incoherent-component-analysis
#9
Christos Georgakis, Yannis Panagakis, Maja Pantic
Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and action unit activations. In this paper, the Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract lowcomplexity components corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e...
March 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104838/distortion-of-histone-octamer-core-promotes-nucleosome-mobilization-by-a-chromatin-remodeler
#10
Kalyan K Sinha, John D Gross, Geeta J Narlikar
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes play essential biological roles by mobilizing nucleosomal DNA. Yet, how DNA is mobilized despite the steric constraints placed by the histone octamer remains unknown. Using methyl transverse relaxation-optimized nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a 450-kilodalton complex, we show that the chromatin remodeler, SNF2h, distorts the histone octamer. Binding of SNF2h in an activated ATP state changes the dynamics of buried histone residues...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102353/cofilin-regulates-nuclear-architecture-through-a-myosin-ii-dependent-mechanotransduction-module
#11
O'Neil Wiggan, Bryce Schroder, Diego Krapf, James R Bamburg, Jennifer G DeLuca
Structural features of the nucleus including shape, size and deformability impact its function affecting normal cellular processes such as cell differentiation and pathological conditions such as tumor cell migration. Despite the fact that abnormal nuclear morphology has long been a defining characteristic for diseases such as cancer relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control normal nuclear architecture. Mounting evidence suggests close coupling between F-actin cytoskeletal organization and nuclear morphology however, mechanisms regulating this coupling are lacking...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101199/ultrastructural-changes-during-lung-carcinogenesis-modulation-by-curcumin-and-quercetin
#12
Xin Wang, Lei Wang, Hao Zhang, Ke Li, Jiqin You
The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of curcumin and quercetin in modulating ultrastructural changes during lung carcinogenesis. A total of 24 male laka mice were divided into the normal control, benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-treated, BP+curcumin-treated, BP+quercetin- treated, and BP+curcumin+quercetin-treated groups (n=6 per group). Lung carcinogenesis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of BP [100 mg/kg of body weight (b.wt.)]. Curcumin was supplemented to mice at a dose level of 60 mg/kg of b...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094344/estrogen-related-receptor-is-required-for-the-testicular-development-and-for-the-normal-sperm-axoneme-mitochondrial-derivatives-in-drosophila-males
#13
Snigdha Misra, Anuj Kumar Pandey, Snigdha Gupta, Ajay Kumar, Priyanka Khanna, Jai Shankar, Kristipati Ravi Ram
Estrogen related receptors (ERRs), categorized as orphan nuclear receptors, are critical for energy homeostasis and somatic development. However, significance of ERRs in the development of reproductive organs/organelles/cells remain poorly understood, albeit their homology to estrogen receptors. In this context, here, we show that knockdown of ERR in the testes leads to improperly developed testes with mis-regulation of genes (aly, mia, bruce, bam, bgcn, fzo and eya) involved in spermatogenesis, resulting in reduced male fertility...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089517/hypoxia-induces-a-hif-1-dependent-transition-from-collective-to-amoeboid-dissemination-in-epithelial-cancer-cells
#14
Steffi Lehmann, Veronika Te Boekhorst, Julia Odenthal, Roberta Bianchi, Sjoerd van Helvert, Kristian Ikenberg, Olga Ilina, Szymon Stoma, Jael Xandry, Liying Jiang, Reidar Grenman, Markus Rudin, Peter Friedl
Cancer metastases arise from a multi-step process that requires metastasizing tumor cells to adapt to signaling input from varying tissue environments [1]. As an early metastatic event, cancer cell dissemination occurs through different migration programs, including multicellular, collective, and single-cell mesenchymal or amoeboid migration [2-4]. Migration modes can interconvert based on changes in cell adhesion, cytoskeletal mechanotransduction [5], and/or proteolysis [6], most likely under the control of transcriptional programs such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [7, 8]...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060557/control-of-nuclear-organization-by-f-actin-binding-proteins
#15
Karin Pfisterer, Asier Jayo, Maddy Parsons
The regulation of nuclear shape and deformability is a key factor in controlling diverse events from embryonic development to cancer cell metastasis, but the mechanisms governing this process are still unclear. Our recent study demonstrated an unexpected role for the F-actin bundling protein fascin in controlling nuclear plasticity through a direct interaction with Nesprin-2. Nesprin-2 is a component of the LINC complex that is known to couple the F-actin cytoskeleton to the nuclear envelope. We demonstrated that fascin, which is predominantly associated with peripheral F-actin rich filopodia, binds directly to Nesprin-2 at the nuclear envelope in a range of cell types...
January 6, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050725/dft-study-on-the-effects-of-catalysis-by-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-in-the-reaction-of-p-nitrophenyl-acetate
#16
Yamei Cheng, Xueye Wang, Weiwei Li, Dan Chang
The reaction of p-nitrophenyl acetate and α-alanine can be improved apparently with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) according to previous research, the interaction mechanism between β-cyclodextrin and p-nitrophenyl acetate is described in this paper. Density functional theory (DFT) method is used throughout the study. According to the energy (the binding energy, the deformation energy) and structural deformation, entry models and reaction process can be pinpointed, viz p-nitrophenyl acetate embed β-CD from the wide rim...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044322/simultaneous-fluoroscopic-and-nuclear-imaging-impact-of-collimator-choice-on-nuclear-image-quality
#17
Sandra van der Velden, Casper Beijst, Max A Viergever, Hugo W A M de Jong
PURPOSE: X-ray-guided oncological interventions could benefit from the availability of simultaneously acquired nuclear images during the procedure. To this end, a real-time, hybrid fluoroscopic and nuclear imaging device, consisting of an X-ray c-arm combined with gamma imaging capability, is currently being developed (Beijst C, Elschot M, Viergever MA, de Jong HW. Radiol. 2015;278:232-238). The setup comprises four gamma cameras placed adjacent to the X-ray tube. The four camera views are used to reconstruct an intermediate three-dimensional image, which is subsequently converted to a virtual nuclear projection image that overlaps with the X-ray image...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042595/expression-purification-and-crystallization-of-the-herpesvirus-nuclear-egress-complex-nec
#18
Janna M Bigalke, Ekaterina E Heldwein
The protocol describes the production and crystallization of the soluble form of the nuclear egress complex (NEC) from Herpes simplex virus 1 and Pseudorabies virus. The NEC is a heterodimer that consists of conserved proteins UL31 and UL34. NEC oligomerization deforms the inner nuclear membrane around the capsid in infected cells, thereby mediating capsid budding into the perinuclear space during nuclear egress. We have successfully developed a protocol for large-scale preparation of highly pure NEC from two different viruses in a prokaryotic expression system, which enabled us to crystallize these viral protein complexes and determine their structures...
July 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035043/measuring-mechanodynamics-in-an-unsupported-epithelial-monolayer-grown-at-an-air-water-interface
#19
Corinne Gullekson, Matthew Walker, James L Harden, Andrew E Pelling
Actomyosin contraction and relaxation in a monolayer is a fundamental biophysical process in development and homeostasis. Current methods used to characterize the mechanodynamics of monolayers often involve cells grown on solid supports such as glass or gels. The results of these studies are fundamentally influenced by these supporting structures. Here we describe a new method for measuring the mechanodynamics of epithelial monolayers by culturing cells at an air-liquid interface. These model monolayers are grown in the absence of any supporting structures, removing cell-substrate effects...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025825/ultrastructural-analysis-of-sequential-cyprinid-herpesvirus-3-morphogenesis-in%C3%A2-vitro
#20
S J Monaghan, S M Bergmann, K D Thompson, L Brown, T Herath, J Del-Pozo, A Adams
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is an alloherpesvirus, and it is the aetiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease. Although the complex morphogenic stages of the replication cycle of CyHV-3 were shown to resemble that of other members of the Herpesvirales, detailed analysis of the sequence and timing of these events was not definitively determined. This study describes these features through a time course using cyprinid cell cultures (KF-1 and CCB) infected with CyHV-3 (KHV isolate, H361) and analysed by transmission electron microscopy...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
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