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Nuclear deformation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812999/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-a-sodium-alginate-4-aminosalicylic-acid-based-microporous-hydrogel-for-potential-viscosupplementation-for-joint-injuries-and-arthritis-induced-conditions
#1
Dharmesh R Chejara, Mostafa Mabrouk, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E Choonara, Pierre P D Kondiah, Ravindra V Badhe, Lisa C du Toit, Divya Bijukumar, Viness Pillay
A microporous hydrogel was developed using sodium alginate (alg) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA). The synthesized hydrogel was characterized using various analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-NMR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additonal carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups of 4-ASA provided significant lubrication and stress-triggered sol-gel transition to the conjugated hydrogel...
August 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810706/effects-of-trigonelline-inhibition-of-the-nrf2-transcription-factor-in-vitro-on-echinococcus-granulosus
#2
Wenjuan Qin, Dongfang Guan, Rongji Ma, Rentan Yang, Guoqiang Xing, Hongjuan Shi, Guangyao Tang, Jiajie Li, Hailong Lv, Yufeng Jiang
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of trigonelline (TRG) on Echinococcus granulosus, and to explore the inhibition impact of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway on E. granulosus protoscoleces. Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were incubated with various concentrations of TRG, and then Nrf2 protein expression and its localization in protoscoleces were detected by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in protoscoleces was measured using ROS detection kit...
August 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802825/the-role-of-nuclear-mechanics-in-cell-deformation-under-creeping-flows
#3
Francisco Serrano-Alcalde, José Manuel García-Aznar, María José Gómez-Benito
Despite the relevant regulatory role that nuclear deformation plays in cell behaviour, a thorough understanding of how fluid flow modulates the deformation of the cell nucleus in non-confined environments is lacking. In this work, we investigated the dynamics of cell deformation under different creeping flows as a general simulation tool for predicting nuclear stresses and strains. Using this solid-fluid modelling interaction framework, we assessed the stress and strain levels that the cell nucleus experiences as a function of different microenvironmental conditions, such as physical constraints, fluid flows, cytosol properties, and nucleus properties and size...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801801/nuclear-envelope-a-new-frontier-in-plant-mechanosensing
#4
REVIEW
Kateryna Fal, Atef Asnacios, Marie-Edith Chabouté, Olivier Hamant
In animals, it is now well established that forces applied at the cell surface are propagated through the cytoskeleton to the nucleus, leading to deformations of the nuclear structure and, potentially, to modification of gene expression. Consistently, altered nuclear mechanics has been related to many genetic disorders, such as muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy and progeria. In plants, the integration of mechanical signals in cell and developmental biology has also made great progress. Yet, while the link between cell wall stresses and cytoskeleton is consolidated, such cortical mechanical cues have not been integrated with the nucleoskeleton...
August 12, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793917/molluscicidal-activity-and-mechanism-of-toxicity-of-a-novel-salicylanilide-ester-derivative-against-biomphalaria-species
#5
Ping He, Weisi Wang, Benjamin Sanogo, Xin Zeng, Xi Sun, Zhiyue Lv, Dongjuan Yuan, Liping Duan, Zhongdao Wu
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is one of the most important, but often neglected, tropical diseases transmitted by snails of the genus Biomphalaria. Control of the intermediate host snail plays a crucial role in preventing the spread of schistosomiasis. However, there is only one molluscicide, niclosamide, recommended by the World Health Organization. Niclosamide has been used for several decades but is toxic to non-target organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the scaffold of niclosamide and develop novel molluscicides with enhanced potency and decreased toxicity to non-target organisms...
August 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767143/uva%C3%B9-induced-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-red-blood-cells-of-the-african-catfish-clarias-gariepinus
#6
Alaa El-Din Hamid Sayed
Ultraviolet-A light (UVA) -induced DNA damage and repair in red blood cells to investigate the sensitivity of African catfish to UVA exposure is reported. Fishes were irradiated with various doses of UVA light (15, 30, and 60 min/day for 3 days). Morphological and nuclear abnormalities in red blood cells were observed in the fish exposed to UVA compared with controls. Morphological alterations such as acanthocytes, crenated cells, swollen cells, teardrop-like cells, hemolyzed cells, and sickle cells were observed...
August 2, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763418/tracking-cumulative-radiation-exposure-in-orthopaedic-surgeons-and-residents-what-dose-are-we-getting
#7
Elizabeth B Gausden, Alexander B Christ, Roseann Zeldin, Joseph M Lane, Moira M McCarthy
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of cumulative radiation exposure received by orthopaedic surgeons and residents in various subspecialties. We obtained dosimeter measures over 12 months on 24 residents and 16 attending surgeons. METHODS: Monthly radiation exposure was measured over a 12-month period for 24 orthopaedic residents and 16 orthopaedic attending surgeons. The participants wore a Landauer Luxel dosimeter on the breast pocket of their lead apron...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754008/combination-therapy-of-peg-hm-3-and-methotrexate-retards-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#8
Jingchao Hao, Xiaodong Wu, Sarra Setrerrahmane, Kun Qian, Yueying Hou, Liting Yu, Chenyu Lin, Qianqian Wu, Hanmei Xu
At present, the early phenomenon of inflammatory angiogenesis is rarely studied in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous research found that PEG-HM-3, an integrin inhibitor, possessed anti-angiogenesis and anti-rheumatic activity. In this study, the advantages of inhibiting angiogenesis and immune cell adhesion and migration, as well as the benefits of anti-arthritis effects, were evaluated using a combination of PEG-HM-3 and methotrexate (MTX). In vitro, spleen cell proliferation and the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in macrophage supernatant were assessed...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753911/morphological-and-molecular-basis-of-cytoplasmic-dilation-and-swelling-in-cortical-migrating-neurons
#9
REVIEW
Yoshiaki V Nishimura, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima, Takeshi Kawauchi
During corticogenesis, neuronal migration is an essential step for formation of a functional brain, and abnormal migration is known to cause various neurological disorders. Neuronal migration is not just a simple movement of the cell body, but a consequence of various morphological changes and coordinated subcellular events. Recent advances in in vivo and ex vivo cell biological approaches, such as in utero gene transfer, slice culture and ex vivo chemical inhibitor techniques, have revealed details of the morphological and molecular aspects of neuronal migration...
July 19, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751206/intravitreal-injection-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-attenuated-photoreceptor-cell-injury-in-a-naio3-induced-age-related-macular-degeneration-rat-model
#10
Suo Qiu, Yantao Wei, Xuezhi Zhou, Zhaoxin Jiang, Ting Zhang, Xintong Jiang, Shaochong Zhang
In most studies, the major supplement docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is administered orally or intraperitoneally. In this study, we proposed to assess the safety and efficacy of the intravitreal injection of DHA in an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) rat model. Different concentrations of DHA were injected into the vitreous body. Histopathology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis showed that there was no difference in thickness, observable structure, or apoptosis among the untreated, normal saline, and DHA groups (0...
July 25, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737169/actomyosin-drives-cancer-cell-nuclear-dysmorphia-and-threatens-genome-stability
#11
Tohru Takaki, Marco Montagner, Murielle P Serres, Maël Le Berre, Matt Russell, Lucy Collinson, Karoly Szuhai, Michael Howell, Simon J Boulton, Erik Sahai, Mark Petronczki
Altered nuclear shape is a defining feature of cancer cells. The mechanisms underlying nuclear dysmorphia in cancer remain poorly understood. Here we identify PPP1R12A and PPP1CB, two subunits of the myosin phosphatase complex that antagonizes actomyosin contractility, as proteins safeguarding nuclear integrity. Loss of PPP1R12A or PPP1CB causes nuclear fragmentation, nuclear envelope rupture, nuclear compartment breakdown and genome instability. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of actomyosin contractility restores nuclear architecture and genome integrity in cells lacking PPP1R12A or PPP1CB...
July 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723250/application-of-molecular-dynamic-simulation-to-study-food-proteins-a-review
#12
Ashutosh Singh, Sai Kranthi Vanga, Valerie Orsat, Vijaya Raghavan
This review presents an overview of the application of molecular dynamic simulation to study food proteins. Processing of food using thermal, chemical, radiation, electromagnetic and mechanical techniques subject its macromolecular bio-components such as carbohydrates and proteins to extreme heat, ionic strength, pH and mechanical deformation. These processing factors affect protein's functional properties such as emulsification, dough formation, gelation, etc. which are associated with changes in their structure...
July 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700212/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-structure-of-an-8-%C3%A3-8-nucleotide-rna-internal-loop-flanked-on-each-side-by-three-watson-crick-pairs-and-comparison-to-three-dimensional-predictions
#13
Andrew D Kauffmann, Scott D Kennedy, Jianbo Zhao, Douglas H Turner
The prediction of RNA three-dimensional structure from sequence alone has been a long-standing goal. High-resolution, experimentally determined structures of simple noncanonical pairings and motifs are critical to the development of prediction programs. Here, we present the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the (5'CCAGAAACGGAUGGA)2 duplex, which contains an 8 × 8 nucleotide internal loop flanked by three Watson-Crick pairs on each side. The loop is comprised of a central 5'AC/3'CA nearest neighbor flanked by two 3RRs motifs, a known stable motif consisting of three consecutive sheared GA pairs...
July 25, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682632/linking-the-character-of-the-metal-ligand-bond-to-the-ligand-nmr-shielding-in-transition-metal-complexes-nmr-contributions-from-spin-orbit-coupling
#14
Jan Novotný, Jan Vícha, Pankaj L Bora, Michal Repisky, Michal Straka, Stanislav Komorovsky, Radek Marek
Relativistic effects significantly affect various spectroscopic properties of compounds containing heavy elements. Particularly in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the heavy atoms strongly influence the NMR shielding constants of neighboring light atoms. In this account we analyze paramagnetic contributions to NMR shielding constants and their modulation by relativistic spin-orbit effects in a series of transition-metal complexes of Pt(II), Au(I), Au(III), and Hg(II). We show how the paramagnetic NMR shielding and spin-orbit effects relate to the character of the metal-ligand (M-L) bond...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676938/the-first-report-of-gynandromorphy-in-termites-isoptera-kalotermitidae-neotermes-koshunensis
#15
Yasushi Miyaguni, Tomonari Nozaki, Toshihisa Yashiro
This is the first report of gynandromorphy in Isoptera. An Asian dry-wood termite, Neotermes koshunensis (Shiraki) [Kalotermitidae], possessing both male and female phenotypic characteristics, was found on Okinawa Island, Japan. This deformed individual showed morphological and anatomical hermaphroditism in the abdomen. The right side of the seventh sternite was the female form and contained an ovary, while the left side was the male form and contained a testis. Genotypic analysis revealed that this individual was a genotypic bilateral chimera...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668640/spectroscopic-studies-of-the-cytochrome-p450-reaction-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Piotr J Mak, Ilia G Denisov
The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are thiolate heme proteins that can, often under physiological conditions, catalyze many distinct oxidative transformations on a wide variety of molecules, including relatively simple alkanes or fatty acids, as well as more complex compounds such as steroids and exogenous pollutants. They perform such impressive chemistry utilizing a sophisticated catalytic cycle that involves a series of consecutive chemical transformations of heme prosthetic group. Each of these steps provides a unique spectral signature that reflects changes in oxidation or spin states, deformation of the porphyrin ring or alteration of dioxygen moieties...
June 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662306/oxidative-stress-and-chronic-inflammation-in-osteoarthritis-can-nrf2-counteract-these-partners-in-crime
#17
REVIEW
Andrey S Marchev, Petya A Dimitrova, Andrew J Burns, Rumen V Kostov, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Milen I Georgiev
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint degenerative disease associated with pain, joint deformity, and disability. The disease starts with cartilage damage but then progressively involves subchondral bone, causing an imbalance between osteoclast-driven bone resorption and osteoblast-driven remodeling. Here, we summarize the data for the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in OA pathology and discuss how these two processes are integrated during OA progression, as well as their contribution to abnormalities in cartilage/bone metabolism and integrity...
June 29, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655279/solid-state-deuterium-nmr-study-of-lk%C3%AE-14-peptide-aggregation-in-biosilica
#18
Helen E Ferreira, Gary P Drobny
In nature, organisms including diatoms, radiolaria, and marine sponges use proteins, long chain polyamines, and other organic molecules to regulate the assembly of complex silica-based structures. Here, the authors investigate structural features of small peptides, designed to mimic the silicifying activities of larger proteins found in natural systems. LKα14 (Ac-LKKLLKLLKKLLKL-C), an amphiphilic lysine/leucine repeat peptide with an α-helical secondary structure at polar/apolar interfaces, coprecipitates with silica to form nanospheres...
June 27, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639134/kifc1-and-myosin-va-two-motors-for-acrosomal-biogenesis-and-nuclear-shaping-during-spermiogenesis-of-portunus-trituberculatus
#19
Dan-Dan Ma, Meng-Ying Pan, Cong-Cong Hou, Fu-Qing Tan, Wan-Xi Yang
To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the spermiogenesis of the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, full lengths of motor proteins KIFC1 and myosin Va were cloned by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends from P. trituberculatus testes cDNA, and their respective probes and specific antibodies were used to track their localization during sperm maturation. Antisense probes were designed from the gene sequences and used to detect the mRNA levels of each gene. According to the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the transcription of kifc1 and myosin Va began at the mid-stage of spermatids, with the kifc1 mRNA being most active at the location where the acrosome cap was formed and the myosin Va was more concentrated in the acrosome complex...
June 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619289/validation-of-a-method-for-dose-of-the-day-calculation-in-head-neck-tomotherapy-by-using-planning-ct-to-mvct-deformable-image-registration
#20
M Branchini, C Fiorino, I Dell'Oca, M L Belli, L Perna, N Di Muzio, R Calandrino, S Broggi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and dosimetric accuracy of a method that employs planning CT-to-MVCT deformable image registration (DIR) for calculation of the daily dose for head and neck (HN) patients treated with Helical Tomotherapy (HT). METHODS: For each patient, the planning kVCT (CTplan) was deformably registered to the MVCT acquired at the 15th therapy session (MV15) with a B-Spline Free Form algorithm using Mattes mutual information (open-source software 3D Slicer), resulting in a deformed CT (CTdef)...
July 2017: Physica Medica: PM
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