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Cell nucleus

Hsiao-Yu Yeh, David Sun, Yen-Chun Peng, Yuh-Lin Wu
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation-mediated PKA and PKC pathways have been recognized to be important in ovarian physiology. Expression of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) has been reported in ovarian granulosa cells. The detailed mechanisms in PKA- and PKC-regulated RGS2 expression and cellular translocation in granulosa cells remain mostly unclear. PKA activator 8-bromo-cAMP and PKC activator phorbol-12, 13-didecanoate appeared to rapidly elevate both protein and mRNA levels and promoter activation of RGS2 gene...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Juan A Laiuppa, Graciela E Santillán
Modulation of purinergic receptors play an important role in the regulation of osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the GSK3/βcatenin signaling in the action of ATPγ-S on osteogenic differentiation of primary cell cultures from rat calvaria. Our results indicate that the cell treatment with 10 or 100 µM ATPγ-S for 96 h increase the cytoplasmic levels of β-catenin and its translocation to nucleus respect to control. A similar effect was observed after cell treatment with the GSK3 inhibitor LiCl (10 mM)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Hai-Hao Han, Yu-Jiao Qiu, Yuan-Yuan Shi, Wen Wen, Xiao-Peng He, Li-Wei Dong, Ye-Xiong Tan, Yi-Tao Long, He Tian, Hong-Yang Wang
The ability of chemical tools to effectively detect malignancy in frozen sections removed from patients during surgery is important for the timely determination of the subsequent surgical program. However, current clinical methods for tissue imaging rely on dye-based staining or antibody-based techniques, which are sluggish and complicated. Methods: Here, we have developed a 2D material-based supramolecular imaging probe for the simple, rapid yet precise diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The 2D probe is constructed through supramolecular self-assembly between a water soluble, fluorescent peptide ligand that selectively targets glypican-3 (GPC-3, a specific cell-surface biomarker for HCC) and 2D molybdenum disulfide that acts as a fluorescence quencher as well as imaging enhancer...
2018: Theranostics
Ihor Shymanskyi, Olha Lisakovska, Anna Mazanova, Dmytro Labudzynskyi, Mykola Veliky
The effectiveness of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in counteracting the side effects of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy has been demonstrated previously. Abnormalities in systemic hormonal and local (cytokine) regulation of bone marrow (BM) cells may underlie GC-induced imbalance between osteosynthesis and bone resorption. The cytokine system receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) is considered as an integrating link in the NF-κB-mediated interaction of various cells involved in maintaining osteoblastic-osteoclastic balance, which makes it a pharmacological target for regulation and correction of the bone remodeling process...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Tobias Jores, Jannis Lawatscheck, Viktor Beke, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Kaori Yunoki, Julia C Fitzgerald, Boris Macek, Toshiya Endo, Hubert Kalbacher, Johannes Buchner, Doron Rapaport
Mitochondrial β-barrel proteins are encoded in the nucleus, translated by cytosolic ribosomes, and then imported into the organelle. Recently, a detailed understanding of the intramitochondrial import pathway of β-barrel proteins was obtained. In contrast, it is still completely unclear how newly synthesized β-barrel proteins reach the mitochondrial surface in an import-competent conformation. In this study, we show that cytosolic Hsp70 chaperones and their Hsp40 cochaperones Ydj1 and Sis1 interact with newly synthesized β-barrel proteins...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Mar Soto, Iraia García-Santisteban, Lenno Krenning, René H Medema, Jonne A Raaijmakers
DNA in micronuclei is prone to get damaged. When shattered DNA from micronuclei gets reincorporated into the primary nucleus, aberrant rearrangements can take place, a phenomenon referred to as chromothripsis. Here, we investigated how chromatids from micronuclei act in subsequent divisions and how this affects their fate. We observed that the majority of chromatids derived from micronuclei fail to establish a proper kinetochore in mitosis associated with problems in chromosome alignment, segregation and spindle assembly checkpoint activation...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Marcus C Parrish, Isaac A Chaim, Zachary D Nagel, Steven R Tannenbaum, Leona D Samson, Bevin P Engelward
It is well established that inflammation leads to the creation of potent DNA damaging chemicals, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Nitric oxide can react with glutathione to create S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which can in turn lead to S-nitrosated proteins. Of particular interest is the impact of GSNO on the function of DNA repair enzymes. The base excision repair (BER) pathway can be initiated by the alkyl-adenine DNA glycosylase (AAG), a monofunctional glycosylase that removes methylated bases...
May 5, 2018: DNA Repair
Dimitris Theofilatos, Panagiotis Fotakis, Efi Valanti, Despina Sanoudou, Vassilis Zannis, Dimitris Kardassis
BACKGROUND: High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and its main protein component, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have numerous atheroprotective functions on various tissues including the endothelium. Therapies based on reconstituted HDL containing apoA-I (rHDL-apoA-I) have been used successfully in patients with acute coronary syndrome, peripheral vascular disease or diabetes but very little is known about the genomic effects of rHDL-apoA-I and how they could contribute to atheroprotection. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to understand the endothelial signaling pathways and the genes that may contribute to rHDL-apoA-I-mediated atheroprotection...
June 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Peng Ao, Wenzhou Huang, Jian Li, Tianlong Wu, Libiao Xu, Zhongbo Deng, Wenjie Chen, Changchang Yin, Xigao Cheng
Serum deprivation is a likely contributor to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IVDD).17β-estradiol (E2) have been noted to protect nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) against apoptosis. Autophagy and apoptosis play a paramount role in maintaining the homeostasis of IVD. So far, little research has been published on whether autophagy could take place at this very moment when E2 provides protection for NPCs. The aim of this study is to understand whether autophagy is involved in the protective effect of E2 against serum deprivation-induced cell apoptosis and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and MMP-13...
June 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hongchang Li, Guobiao Ji, Yun Wang, Qian Qian, Jichen Xu, Sodmergen, Guozhen Liu, Xianfeng Zhao, Mingsheng Chen, Wenxue Zhai, Dayong Li, Lihuang Zhu
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are interacting organelles that play important roles in plant development. In addition to a small number proteins encoded by their own genomes, the majority of mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins are encoded in the cell nucleus and imported into the organelle. As a consequence, coordination between mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the nucleus is of crucial importance to plant cells. Variegated mutants are chloroplast-defective mutants and are considered to be ideal models for studying the intercommunication between these organelles...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Raghu Patil Junjappa, Prakash Patil, Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae
Inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease 1α (IRE1α) is the most prominent and evolutionarily conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein. This transduces the signal of misfolded protein accumulation in the ER, named as ER stress, to the nucleus as "unfolded protein response (UPR)." The ER stress-mediated IRE1α signaling pathway arbitrates the yin and yang of cell life. IRE1α has been implicated in several physiological as well as pathological conditions, including immune disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ewa Markiewicz, Olusola Clement Idowu
Human skin is a stratified endocrine organ with primary roles in protection against detrimental biochemical and biophysical factors in the environment. Environmental stress causes gradual accumulation of the macromolecular damage and clinical manifestations consistent with chronic inflammatory conditions and premature aging of the skin. Structural proteins of cell nucleus, the nuclear lamins and lamina-associated proteins, play an important role in the regulation of a number of signal transduction pathways associated with stress...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Szu-Chin Fu, Ho Yee Joyce Fung, Tolga Cağatay, Jordan Baumhardt, Yuh Min Chook
CRM1 (Exportin1/XPO1) exports hundreds of broadly functioning protein cargos out of the cell nucleus by binding to their classical nuclear export signals (NESs). The 8-15 amino acids long NESs contain 4-5 hydrophobic residues and are highly diverse in both sequence and CRM1-bound structure. Here, we examine the relationship between nuclear export activities of 24 different NES peptides in cells, and their CRM1-NES affinities. We found that binding affinity and nuclear export activity are linearly correlated for NESs with dissociation constants (KD s) between tens of nanomolar to tens of micromolar...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Xiaohua Liu, Chan Luo, Kai Deng, Zhulian Wu, Yingming Wei, Jianrong Jiang, Fenghua Lu, Deshun Shi
The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of cytoplasmic volume on nucleus reprogramming and developmental competence of buffalo handmade cloning (HMC) embryos. We found that both HMC embryos derived from ~150% cytoplasm or ~225% cytoplasm resulted in a higher blastocyst rate and total cell number of blastocyst in comparison with those from ~75% cytoplasm (25.4 ± 2.0%, 27.9 ± 1.6% vs. 17.9 ± 3.1%; 150 ± 10, 169 ± 12 vs. 85 ± 6, P<0.05). Meanwhile, the proportions of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) were also increased in the embryos derived from ~150% or ~225% enucleated cytoplasm compared to those from ~75% cytoplasm...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Joseph T Smith, Ujjal K Singha, Smita Misra, Minu Chaudhuri
The small Tim proteins belong to a group of mitochondrial intermembrane space chaperones that aid in the import of mitochondrial inner membrane proteins with internal targeting signals. Trypanosoma brucei , the protozoan parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, possesses multiple small Tim proteins that include homologues of T. brucei Tim9 (TbTim9) and Tim10 (TbTim10) and a unique small Tim that shares homology with both Tim8 and Tim13 (TbTim8/13). Here, we found that these three small TbTims are expressed as soluble mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Gillian Elliott, Kathleen Pheasant, Katja Ebert-Keel, Julianna Stylianou, Ashley Franklyn, Juliet Jones
The HSV1 virion host shutoff (vhs) protein is an endoribonuclease that binds to the cellular translation initiation machinery and degrades associated mRNAs, resulting in shut-off of host protein synthesis. Hence its unrestrained activity is considered to be lethal, and it has been proposed that vhs is regulated by two other virus proteins, VP22 and VP16. We have found that during infection, translation of vhs requires VP22 but not the VP22-VP16 complex. Moreover, in the absence of VP22, vhs is not overactive against cellular or viral transcripts...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Giel P Göertz, Kristin L McNally, Shelly J Robertson, Sonja M Best, Gorben P Pijlman, Jelke J Fros
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has evolved effective mechanisms to counteract the type I interferon (IFN) response. Upon viral recognition, cells secrete IFNs which signal through transmembrane receptors (IFNAR) to phosphorylate STAT proteins (pSTAT). pSTAT dimers are transported into the nucleus by importin-α5 and activate the transcription of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) increasing cellular resistance to infection. Subsequently, STAT proteins are shuttled back into the cytoplasm by exportin CRM1...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Su Bin Park, Gwang Hun Park, Ha Na Kim, Hun Min Song, Ho-Jun Son, Ji Ae Park, Hyun-Seok Kim, Jin Boo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Although the inhibitory effect of mistletoe on cancer cell growth has been reported, the underlying mechanisms to explain its anti-proliferative activity are not fully studied. Thus, we elucidated the potential molecular mechanism of the branch from Taxillus yadoriki (TY) parasitic to Neolitsea sericea (NS) (TY-NS-B) for the anti-proliferative effect. METHODS: Anti-cell proliferative effect was evaluated by MTT assay. The change of cyclin D1 protein or mRNA level was evaluated by Western blot and RT-RCR, respectively...
June 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Charisma Enam, Yifat Geffen, Tommer Ravid, Richard G Gardner
Nuclear proteins participate in diverse cellular processes, many of which are essential for cell survival and viability. To maintain optimal nuclear physiology, the cell employs the ubiquitin-proteasome system to eliminate damaged and misfolded proteins in the nucleus that could otherwise harm the cell. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge about the major ubiquitin-protein ligases involved in protein quality control degradation (PQCD) in the nucleus and how they orchestrate their functions to eliminate misfolded proteins in different nuclear subcompartments...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Daniel G Bichet
Recent experiments using optogenetic tools allow the identification and functional analysis of thirst neurons and vasopressin producing neurons. Two major advances provide a detailed anatomy of taste for water and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) release: (1) thirst and AVP release are regulated not only by the classical homeostatic, intero-sensory plasma osmolality negative feedback, but also by novel, extero-sensory, anticipatory signals. These anticipatory signals for thirst and vasopressin release converge on the same homeostatic neurons of circumventricular organs that monitor the composition of the blood; (2) acid-sensing taste receptor cells (which express polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 protein) on the tongue that were previously suggested as the sour taste sensors also mediate taste responses to water...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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