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Cell nucleus

Natália E Bernardes, Agnes Alessandra S Takeda, Thiago Revers Dreyer, Fernanda B Cupertino, Stela Virgilio, Nelly Pante, Maria Célia Bertolini, Marcos R M Fontes
The Neurospora crassa NIT-2 transcription factor belongs to the GATA transcription factor family and plays a fundamental role in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism by N. crassa Because NIT-2 acts by accessing DNA inside the nucleus, understanding the nuclear import process of NIT-2 is necessary to characterize its function. Thus, in this study, NIT-2 nuclear transport was investigated using a combination of biochemical, cellular and biophysical methods. A complemented strain that produced a sfGFP-NIT-2 fusion protein was constructed, and nuclear localization assessments were made under conditions that favored protein translocation to the nucleus...
October 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Haiqing Bai, Gillian M Schiralli Lester, Laura C Petishnok, David A Dean
Productive transfection and gene transfer requires not simply entry of DNA into cells and subsequent transcription from an appropriate promoter, but also a number of intracellular events that allow the DNA to move from the extracellular surface of the cell into and through the cytoplasm, and ultimately across the nuclear envelope and into the nucleus before any transcription can initiate. Immediately upon entry into the cytoplasm, naked DNA, either delivered through physical techniques or after disassembly of DNA-carrier complexes, associates with a large number of cellular proteins that mediate subsequent interactions with the microtubule network for movement towards the microtubule organizing center and the nuclear envelope...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
Vania Carmona-Alcocer, John H Abel, Tao C Sun, Linda R Petzold, Francis J Doyle, Carrie L Simms, Erik D Herzog
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus coordinates daily rhythms including sleep-wake, hormone release and gene expression. The cells of the SCN must synchronize to each other to drive these circadian rhythms in the rest of the body. The ontogeny of circadian cycling and intercellular coupling in the SCN remains poorly understood. Recent in vitro studies have recorded circadian rhythms from the whole embryonic SCN. Here, we tracked the onset and precision of rhythms in PERIOD2 (PER2), a clock protein, within the SCN isolated from embryonic and postnatal mice of undetermined sex...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zhipeng Zhang, Zhenkun Guo, Yanting Zhan, Huangyuan Li, Siying Wu
Manganese neurotoxicity is characterized by Parkinson-like symptoms with degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia as the principal pathological feature. Manganese neurotoxicity studies may contribute to a good understanding of the mechanism of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we first confirmed that MnCl2 can promote the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein in the nucleus or cytoplasm while increasing the binding activity of Nrf2 and antioxidant response elements, further promoting the expression of downstream target gene heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and leading to increase levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduce the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH)...
October 17, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Masamitsu Wada
Plant cells connected to adjacent cells with rigid cell wall cannot change their position, so that appropriate nuclear positioning according to nuclear movement is indispensable for cellular development involving unequal cell division. Sessile plants are severely affected by fluctuating environmental conditions, so that movement of organelles including nucleus is fundamental to accomplish physiological functions. The mechanisms of nuclear movement and their purposes studied recently with Arabidopsis thaliana, the model plants for genetics and molecular biology, and the nuclear behavior in fern gametophytes, an apical growing protonemal cell and a two-dimensional prothallus of Adiantum capillus-veneris, the model plants for cell biology and photobiology are described in this review...
October 17, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jie Su, Shuai Liu, Jinming Song
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is purely dependent on counting the percentages of blasts (>20%) in the peripheral blood or bone marrow. Manual microscopic examination of peripheral blood or bone marrow aspirate smears is time consuming and less accurate. The first and very important step in blast recognition is the segmentation of the cells from the background for further cell feature extraction and cell classification. In this paper, we aimed to utilize computer technologies in image analysis and artificial intelligence to develop an automatic program for blast recognition and counting in the aspirate smears...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
N Pokhrel, E Ben-Tal Cohen, O Genin, D Sela-Donenfeld, Y Cinnamon
The pioneering study of Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EG&K; Eyal-Giladi and Kochav, 1976) on the early developmental stages-from fertilization, through oviposition, to the gastrulation process-set the standard for characterizing chicken embryos, and has been used in numerous studies over the years. During uterine development, the chicken embryo undergoes dramatic changes, extremely rapid cell cycles, massive cell death, and axial determination processes. However, once the egg is laid, the temperature drops and the embryo enters into a diapause-like state...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
Yu Moriguchi, Jorge Mojica-Santiago, Peter Grunert, Brenton Pennicooke, Connor Berlin, Thamina Khair, Rodrigo Navarro-Ramirez, Rodolfo J Ricart Arbona, Joseph Nguyen, Roger Härtl, Lawrence J Bonassar
The most common reason that adults in the United States see their physician is lower back or neck pain secondary to degenerative disc disease. To date, approaches to treat degenerative disc disease are confined to purely mechanical devices designed to either eliminate or enable flexibility of the diseased motion segment. Tissue engineered intervertebral discs (TE-IVDs) have been proposed as an alternative approach and have shown promise in replacing native IVD in the rodent tail spine. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of our TE-IVDs in the canine cervical spine...
2017: PloS One
Napoleon Torres, Jenny Molet, Cecile Moro, John Mitrofanis, Alim Louis Benabid
Although there have been many pharmacological agents considered to be neuroprotective therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, neurosurgical approaches aimed to neuroprotect or restore the degenerative nigrostriatal system have rarely been the focus of in depth reviews. Here, we explore the neuroprotective strategies involving invasive surgical approaches (NSI) using neurotoxic models 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which have led to clinical trials. We focus on several NSI approaches, namely deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, glial neurotrophic derived factor (GDNF) administration and cell grafting methods...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Susan C Jacobs, Adam Taylor, Lara J Herrero, Suresh Mahalingam, John K Fazakerley
Transmitted by mosquitoes; chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleus. In encephalitic alphaviruses nuclear translocation induces host cell shut off; however, the role of capsid protein nuclear localisation in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using replicon systems, we investigated a nuclear export sequence (NES) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein; analogous to that found in encephalitic alphavirus capsid but uncharacterised in CHIKV...
October 20, 2017: Viruses
Tohnyui Ndinyanka Fabrice, Lusik Cherkezyan, Christoph Ringli, Célia Baroux
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study the fine ultrastructural organization of cells. Delicate specimen preparation is required for results to reflect the "native" ultrastructural organization of subcellular features such as the nucleus. Despite the advent of high-resolution, fluorescent imaging of chromatin components, TEM still provides a unique and complementary level of resolution capturing chromatin organization at the nanoscale level. Here, we describe the workflow, from tissue preparation, TEM image acquisition and image processing, for obtaining a quantitative description of chromatin density distribution in plant cells, informing on local fluctuations and periodicity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sophie Desset, Axel Poulet, Christophe Tatout
Image analysis is a classical way to study nuclear organization. While nuclear organization used to be investigated by colorimetric or fluorescent labeling of DNA or specific nuclear compartments, new methods in microscopy imaging now enable qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatin pattern, and nuclear size and shape. Several procedures have been developed to prepare samples in order to collect 3D images for the analysis of spatial chromatin organization, but only few preserve the positional information of the cell within its tissue context...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Javier Arpòn, Valérie Gaudin, Philippe Andrey
The cell nucleus is a structurally complex and dynamic organelle ensuring key biological functions. Complex relationships between nuclear structure and functions require a better understanding of the three-dimensional organization of the genome and of the subnuclear compartments. Quantitative image analysis coupled with spatial statistics and modeling is a relevant approach to address these questions. In this chapter, we describe a step-by-step procedure to process images and to test a spatial random model for the distribution of nuclear objects using chromocenters as an example...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Aline V Probst
The long linear chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms are tightly packed into the nucleus of the cell. Beyond a first organization into nucleosomes and higher-order chromatin fibers, the positioning of nuclear DNA within the three-dimensional space of the nucleus plays a critical role in genome function and gene expression. Different techniques have been developed to assess nanoscale chromatin organization, nuclear position of genomic regions or specific chromatin features and binding proteins as well as higher-order chromatin organization...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zhongshan He, Jing Zeng, Yun Ren, Dan Chen, Wenjie Li, Fengyan Gao, Ye Cao, Tao Luo, Guoqiang Yuan, Xianghong Wu, Yueyang Liang, Qiming Deng, Shiquan Wang, Aiping Zheng, Jun Zhu, Huainian Liu, Lingxia Wang, Ping Li, Shuangcheng Li
Growth-regulating factor (GRF) interacting factors (GIFs) are involved in several developmental processes in Arabidopsis. We previously showed that upregulation of OsGIF1 expression improves rice grain size. However, whether OsGIF1 is involved in other developmental processes remains unclear. Here, we report pleiotropic effects of OsGIF1 on rice organ size regulation. Overexpression and functional knock-out via a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy revealed that OsGIF1 not only positively regulates the sizes of rice leaf, stem, and grain but also influences rice reproduction...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Minyuan Peng, Yanming Li, Jian Zhang, Yong Wu, Xiaoyang Yang, Ye Lei, Mao Ye, Jing Liu, Xu Han, Yijin Kuang, Xielan Zhao, Fangping Chen
The main roles of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) and concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) are to transfer single nucleosides and analogues for the nucleic acid salvage pathway. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) can be transported into the cytoplasm or nucleus of cells under certain conditions. Among ODNs composed of a single type of nucleotide, the transport efficiency differs with the length and nucleotide composition of the ODNs and varies in different types of leukaemia cells; among the 5 tested random sequence ODNs and 3 aptamers with varying sequences, the data showed that some sequences were associated with significantly higher transport efficiency than others...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Guangli Wang, Yao Zeng, Shaoying Chen, Deling Li, Wei Li, Yanchun Zhou, Robert H Singer, Wei Gu
TFPI-2 has recently been recognized as a tumor suppressor, which not only plays a fundamental role in modulation of ECM integrity, but also involves the regulation of many oncogenes. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanism of TFPI-2 in the suppression of breast cancer growth and invasion. We showed that, with either over-expression of TFPI-2 or after treatment with exogenous rTFPI-2, breast cancer cells exhibited reduced proliferation and invasion. We demonstrated that in addition to being secreted, TFPI-2 was also distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nina Westphal, Thomas Theis, Gabriele Loers, Melitta Schachner, Ralf Kleene
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the major carrier of polysialic acid (PSA) which modulates NCAM functions of neural cells at the cell surface. In previous studies, we have shown that stimulation of cultured neurons with surrogate NCAM ligands leads to the generation and nuclear import of PSA-lacking and -carrying NCAM fragments. Here, we show that the nuclear import of the PSA-carrying NCAM fragment is mediated by positive cofactor 4 and cofilin, which we identified as novel PSA-binding proteins...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Justin Watkins, Jordan M Chapman, Gloria K Muday
Abscisic acid (ABA) increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) in guard cells to close Arabidopsis stomata. In Solanum lycopersicum we find that ABA increased ROS is followed by stomatal closure and both responses are blocked by inhibitors of ROS-producing respiratory burst oxidase enzymes. ABA-induced ROS sensor fluorescence accumulates in the nucleus, chloroplasts, and in endomembranes. Accumulation of flavonol antioxidants in guard cells, but not surrounding pavement cells, were visualized by confocal microscopy using a flavonol-specific fluorescent dye...
October 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
Gyeong-Won Jeong, Jae-Woon Nah
For efficient gene delivery, non-viral vectors should have high cellular uptake, excellent endosomal escape, and the ability to rapidly release the gene into the cytoplasm. Here, we developed a disulfide bond-conjugated bioreducible LMWSC-g-bPEI (LCP) composed of low molecular-weight water soluble chitosan (LMWSC), bPEI, and cystamine (Cys). The developed LCP had advantages such as low toxicity, great endosomal escape, and rapid release of pDNA into the cytoplasm. The polyplexes with LCP showed higher uptake into the nucleus and greater transfection efficiency than that without disulfide bond...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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