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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636597/phase-separation-drives-heterochromatin-domain-formation
#1
Amy R Strom, Alexander V Emelyanov, Mustafa Mir, Dmitry V Fyodorov, Xavier Darzacq, Gary H Karpen
Constitutive heterochromatin is an important component of eukaryotic genomes that has essential roles in nuclear architecture, DNA repair and genome stability, and silencing of transposon and gene expression. Heterochromatin is highly enriched for repetitive sequences, and is defined epigenetically by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and recruitment of its binding partner heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). A prevalent view of heterochromatic silencing is that these and associated factors lead to chromatin compaction, resulting in steric exclusion of regulatory proteins such as RNA polymerase from the underlying DNA...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636317/downsizing-proto-oncogene-cfos-to-short-helix-constrained-peptides-that-bind-jun
#2
Daniel Baxter, Samuel R Perry, Timothy A Hill, W Mei Kok, Nathan R Zaccai, R Leo Brady, David P Fairlie, Jody M Mason
The oncogenic transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a DNA-binding protein that assembles through dimerization of Fos and Jun protein subunits, their leucine-rich helical sequences entwining into a coiled-coil structure. This study reports on downsizing the proto-oncogene cFos protein (380 residues) to shorter peptides (37-25 residues) modified with helix-inducing constraints to enhance binding to Jun. A crystal structure is reported for a 37-residue Fos-derived peptide (FosW) bound to Jun. This guided iterative downsizing of FosW to shorter peptide sequences that were constrained into stable water-soluble α-helices by connecting amino acid side chains to form cyclic pentapeptide components...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636203/directional-matrix-nanotopography-with-varied-sizes-for-engineering-wound-healing
#3
Jangho Kim, Won-Gyu Bae, Yeon Ju Kim, Hoon Seonwoo, Han-Wool Choung, Kyoung-Je Jang, Sunho Park, Bog Hee Kim, Hong-Nam Kim, Kyoung Soon Choi, Myung-Sun Kim, Pill-Hoon Choung, Yun-Hoon Choung, Jong Hoon Chung
Topographic features play a crucial role in the regulation of physiologically relevant cell and tissue functions. Here, an analysis of feature-size-dependent cell-nanoarchitecture interactions is reported using an array of scaffolds in the form of uniformly spaced ridge/groove structures for engineering wound healing. The ridge and groove widths of nanopatterns are varied from 300 to 800 nm and the nanotopography features are classified into three size ranges: dense (300-400 nm), intermediate (500-600 nm), and sparse (700-800 nm)...
June 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635590/imbalance-between-innate-antiviral-and-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-may-contribute-to-different-outcomes-involving-low-and-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n3-infections-in-chickens
#4
John Pasick, Sandra Diederich, Yohannes Berhane, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Wanhong Xu
In order to gain further insight into the early virus-host interactions associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infections in chickens, genome-wide expression profiling of chicken lung and brain was carried out at 24 and 72 h post-inoculation (h p.i.). For this purpose two recombinant H5N3 viruses were utilized, each possessing a polybasic HA0 cleavage site but differing in pathogenicity. The original rH5N3 P0 virus, which has a low-pathogenic phenotype, was passaged six times through chickens to give rise to the derivative rH5N3 P6 virus, which is highly pathogenic (Diederich S, Berhane Y, Embury-Hyatt C, Hisanaga T, Handel K et al...
June 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635493/the-structure-of-lamin-filaments-in-somatic-cells-as-revealed-by-cryo-electron-tomography
#5
Y Turgay, O Medalia
Metazoan nuclei are equipped with nuclear lamina - a thin layer of intermediate filaments (IFs) mostly built of nuclear lamins facing the inner nuclear membrane (INM). The nuclear lamina serves as an interaction hub for INM-proteins, soluble nuclear factors and DNA. It confers structural and mechanical stability to the nucleus, transduces mechanical forces and biochemical signals across the nuclear envelope (NE) and regulates the organization of chromatin. By utilizing cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), we recently provided an unprecedented view into the 3D organization of lamin filaments within the lamina meshwork in mammalian somatic cells...
June 21, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635080/neuroadaptations-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptor-function-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-response-to-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#6
Yonggang Gao, Jing-Jing Zhou, Yun Zhu, Li Wang, Therese A Kosten, Xiangjian Zhang, De-Pei Li
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress induces an impaired GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It is not clear whether GABAB receptor function is altered in chronic stress. We hypothesize that chronic stress alters GABAB receptor function in PVN corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons to control hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Whole cell patch-clamp recording was performed on PVN-CRH neurons expressing eGFP driven by CRH promoter in brain slices from unstressed rats and rats that had been subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634719/a-sugarcane-pathogenesis-related-protein-scpr10-plays-a-positive-role-in-defense-responses-under-sporisorium-scitamineum-srmv-sa-and-meja-stresses
#7
Qiong Peng, Yachun Su, Hui Ling, Waqar Ahmad, Shiwu Gao, Jinlong Guo, Youxiong Que, Liping Xu
A pathogenesis-related gene, ScPR10 , was isolated from sugarcane and its bio-function was characterized, demonstrating that ScPR10 was involved in plant defense responses to Sporisorium scitamineum , SrMV, SA, and MeJA stresses. Plant fungal and viral diseases are the major concerns in sugarcane industry. Many anti-fungal and antivirus components, including pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, have been identified. The pathogenesis-related protein 10 (PR10) is the dominant group in PR families, involved in the plant defense mechanism...
June 20, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634473/toxic-effects-of-prodigiosin-secreted-by-hahella-sp-ka22-on-harmful-alga-phaeocystis-globosa
#8
Huajun Zhang, Hui Wang, Wei Zheng, Zhiyuan Yao, Yun Peng, Su Zhang, Zhong Hu, Zhen Tao, Tianling Zheng
Application of algicidal compounds secreted by bacteria is a promising and environmentally friendly strategy to control harmful algal blooms (HABs). Years ago prodigiosin was described as an efficient algicidal compound, but the details about the effect of prodigiosin on algal cells are still elusive. Prodigiosin shows high algicidal activity on Phaeocystis globosa, making it a potential algicide in HAB control. When P. globosa were treated with prodigiosin at 5 μg/mL, algae cells showed cytoplasmic hypervacuolization, chloroplast and nucleus rupture, flagella missing, and cell fracture, when observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634440/cysteines-as-redox-molecular-switches-and-targets-of-disease
#9
REVIEW
Annamaria Fra, Edgar D Yoboue, Roberto Sitia
Thiol groups can undergo numerous modifications, making cysteine a unique molecular switch. Cysteine plays structural and regulatory roles as part of proteins or glutathione, contributing to maintain redox homeostasis and regulate signaling within and amongst cells. Not surprisingly therefore, cysteines are associated with many hereditary and acquired diseases. Mutations in the primary protein sequence (gain or loss of a cysteine) are most frequent in membrane and secretory proteins, correlating with the key roles of disulfide bonds...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634010/lamp-1-chimeric-dna-vaccines-enhance-the-antibody-response-in-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#10
Iang Rondón-Barragán, Reiko Nozaki, Ikuo Hirono, Hidehiro Kondo
DNA vaccination is one method to protect farmed fish from viral and bacterial diseases. Chimeric antigens encoded by DNA vaccines have been shown to increase the resistance to viral diseases. Here, we sequenced the gene encoding lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, (JfLAMP-1) and assessed its use in a chimeric DNA vaccine fused with the major capsule protein (MCP) from red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). JfLAMP-1 cDNA has a length of 1248 bp encoding 415 aa, which contains transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains...
June 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633952/chronic-methylphenidate-regulates-genes-and-proteins-mediating-neuroplasticity-in-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#11
Emmanuel Quansah, Tiziana Sgamma, Estabraq Jaddoa, Tyra S C Zetterström
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the front-line psychostimulant medication prescribed for alleviating the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic MPH (2.0mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) exposure to young rats (20-25days old at start of treatment) on the expression of genes and proteins associated with neuroplasticity, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53), cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2)...
June 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633925/the-discovery-of-plasma-cells-an-historical-note
#12
REVIEW
Domenico Ribatti
The name plasma cell was introduced by the anatomist Heinrich H. von Hartz-Waldeyer in 1875. Plasma cells derive from small B lymphocytes after their activation. A fully mature plasma cell lacks surface immunoglobulin expression. Its form is round or oval, with characteristic basophilic cytoplasm and an eccentric nucleus that contains coarse heterochromatin. Antigen activation of mature B cells leads initially to germinal center development, the transient generation of plasmablasts that secrete antibody while still dividing, and short-lived extrafollicular plasma cells that secrete antigen-specific germ line-encoded antibodies...
June 17, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633895/synthesis-of-meon-neoglycosides-of-digoxigenin-with-6-deoxy-and-2-6-dideoxy-d-glucose-derivatives-and-their-anticancer-activity
#13
Dong-Dong Wang, Xiao-San Li, Yu-Zhou Bao, Jie Liu, Xiao-Kun Zhang, Xin-Sheng Yao, Xue-Long Sun, Jin-Shan Tang
Cardiac glycosides show anticancer activities and their deoxy-sugar chains are vital for their anticancer effects. In order to study the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of cardiac glycosides toward cancers and get more potent anticancer agents, a series of MeON-neoglycosides of digoxigenin was synthesized and evaluated. First, ten 6-deoxy- and 2,6-dideoxy-d-glucopyranosyl donors were synthesized starting from methyl α-d-glucopyranoside and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Meanwhile, the digoxigenin was obtained by acidic hydrolysis of commercially available digoxin as glycosyl acceptor...
June 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633589/laser-induced-thermal-ablation-of-cancerous-cell-organelles
#14
Renat R Letfullin, Scott A Szatkowski
AIM: By exploiting the physical changes experienced by cancerous organelles, we investigate the feasibility of destroying cancerous cells by single and multipulse modes of laser heating. MATERIALS & METHODS: Our procedure consists of two primary steps: determining the normal and cancerous organelles optical properties and simulating the heating of all of the major organelles in the cell to find the treatment modes for the laser ablation of cancerous organelles without harming healthy cells...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633340/citrus-citnac62-cooperates-with-citwrky1-to-participate-in-citric-acid-degradation-via-up-regulation-of-citaco3
#15
Shao-Jia Li, Xue-Ren Yin, Wen-Li Wang, Xiao-Fen Liu, Bo Zhang, Kun-Song Chen
Citric acid is the predominant organic acid of citrus fruit. Degradation of citric acid occurs during fruit development, influencing fruit acidity. Associations of CitAco3 transcripts and citric acid degradation have been reported for citrus fruit. Here, transient overexpression of CitAco3 significantly reduced the citric acid content of citrus leaves and fruits. Using dual luciferase assays, it was shown that CitNAC62 and CitWRKY1 could transactivate the promoter of CitAco3. Subcellular localization results showed that CitWRKY1 was located in the nucleus and CitNAC62 was not...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632132/antagonistic-modulation-of-npy-agrp-and-pomc-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-by-noradrenalin
#16
Lars Paeger, Ismene Karakasilioti, Janine Altmüller, Peter Frommolt, Jens Brüning, Peter Kloppenburg
In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) satiety signaling (anorexigenic) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing and hunger signaling (orexigenic) agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons are key components of the neuronal circuits that control food intake and energy homeostasis. Here, we assessed whether the catecholamine noradrenalin directly modulates the activity of these neurons in mice. Perforated patch clamp recordings showed that noradrenalin changes the activity of these functionally antagonistic neurons in opposite ways, increasing the activity of the orexigenic NPY/AgRP neurons and decreasing the activity of the anorexigenic POMC neurons...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632030/ultraviolet-b-radiation-stimulates-the-interaction-between-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-5-nfat5-and-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-human-lens-epithelial-cells
#17
Inyoung Chung, Young-Sool Hah, SunMi Ju, Ji-Hye Kim, Woong-Sun Yoo, Hee-Young Cho, Ji-Myong Yoo, Seong-Wook Seo, Wan-Sung Choi, Seong-Jae Kim
PURPOSE: Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cataracts. The authors investigated the relationship between nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) and NF-κB in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human lens epithelial (HLE) cells. METHODS: Human lens epithelial B-3 (HLE-B3) cells were exposed to UVB light at a dose of 10 mJ/cm(2) and then incubated for 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay...
February 26, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631571/a-truncated-p53-in-human-lung-cancer-cells-as-a-critical-determinant-of-proliferation-and-invasiveness
#18
Weiying Li, Baitang Lai, Xuehui Yang, Chunyan Zhang, Hui Wang
As a transcription factor, p53 must accumulate in the nucleus to be effective. Signals related to nuclear localization are distributed mainly in the C-terminal of p53. So these nuclear location domains were reserved and the other part of the C-terminal was removed in this study. We investigated whether the truncated p53 (p53(DEL)) may affect proliferation and invasive potential of human lung cancer cells. H1299 and 801D cells expressing full-length p53 and the p53(DEL) were obtained by screening. Cell proliferation assay, cell apoptotic analysis, cell migration assay, and invasion assay were performed...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631015/ask-yeast-how-to-burn-your-fats-lessons-learned-from-the-metabolic-adaptation-to-salt-stress
#19
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Alba Timón-Gómez, Markus Proft
Here, we review and update the recent advances in the metabolic control during the adaptive response of budding yeast to hyperosmotic and salt stress, which is one of the best understood signaling events at the molecular level. This environmental stress can be easily applied and hence has been exploited in the past to generate an impressively detailed and comprehensive model of cellular adaptation. It is clear now that this stress modulates a great number of different physiological functions of the cell, which altogether contribute to cellular survival and adaptation...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630428/nuclear-accumulation-of-symplekin-promotes-cellular-proliferation-and-dedifferentiation-in-an-erk1-2-dependent-manner
#20
Chen Zhang, Hai-Lei Mao, Yi Cao
Symplekin is a multifunctional protein that localizes to both tight junctions and the nucleus in polarized epithelial cells, with confirmed roles in mRNA maturation, transcriptional modulation and tight-junction assembly. However, the mechanisms governing its subcellular distribution and related functions remain unclear. In this study, we found that symplekin primarily localizes to the nuclei of cultured dedifferentiated colorectal cancer cells, and nuclear symplekin showed higher phosphorylation and binding affinity with YBX3 than its membrane fraction...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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