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Geraldine Dowling, Pierce V Kavanagh, Hans-Georg Eckhardt, Brendan Twamley, Gary Hessman, Gavin McLaughlin, John O' Brien, Simon D Brandt
Nitrazolam and clonazolam are two designer benzodiazepines that are available from internet retailers and there is growing evidence suggesting that such compounds have the potential to cause severe adverse events. Information about tolerability in humans is scarce but typically, low doses can be difficult to administer for users when handling bulk material and variability of the active ingredient in tablet formulations can also be of a concern. Customs, toxicology and forensic laboratories are increasingly encountering designer benzodiazepines, both in tablet and powdered forms, and the unavailability of reference standards can impact on the ability to identify these compounds...
March 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Julius Durr, Ranjith Papareddy, Keiji Nakajima, Jose Gutierrez-Marcos
Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 is considered the best instrument for genome engineering in plants. This methodology is based on the nuclease activity of Cas9 that is guided to specific genome sequences by single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) thus enabling researchers to engineer simple mutations or large chromosomal deletions. Current methodologies for targeted genome editing in plants using CRISPR/Cas9 are however largely inefficient, mostly due to low Cas9 activity, variable sgRNA efficiency and low heritability of genetic lesions...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
D A Friedlander, W W Ludwig, J R Jayman, A Akhavan
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic injection of a bulking agent is a common first-line approach to the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). While early outcomes are comparable to open ureteroneocystotomy, 5-25% of children will eventually develop recurrent reflux necessitating repeat injections or open ureteral reimplantation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prior endoscopic injection of a bulking agent impacts outcomes of subsequent open ureteral reimplantation. STUDY DESIGN: Using a retrospective cohort design, radiographic and clinical outcomes of open ureteral reimplantation were compared between patients with and without prior endoscopic correction of reflux...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Richard C Mather, Shane J Nho, Andrew Federer, Berna Demiralp, Jennifer Nguyen, Asha Saavoss, Michael J Salata, Marc J Philippon, Asheesh Bedi, Christopher M Larson, J W Thomas Byrd, Lane Koenig
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) have increased steadily within the past decade, and research indicates clinically significant improvements after treatment of FAI with hip arthroscopy. PURPOSE: This study examined the societal and economic impact of hip arthroscopy by high-volume surgeons for patients with FAI syndrome aged <50 years with noncontroversial diagnosis and indications for surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Maria Teresa Trentinaglia, Catherine Van Der Straeten, Ilaria Morelli, Nicola Logoluso, Lorenzo Drago, Carlo L Romanò
BACKGROUND: Antibacterial coatings (ABCs) of implants have proven safe and effective to reduce postsurgical infection, but little is known about their possible economic impact on large-scale use. This study evaluated the point of economic balance, during the first year after surgery, and the potential overall annual healthcare cost savings of 3 different antibacterial technologies applied to joint arthroplasty: a dual-antibiotic-loaded bone cement (COPAL G + C), an antibacterial hydrogel coating (DAC), and a silver coating (Agluna)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Sherri Rose
OBJECTIVE: To propose nonparametric double robust machine learning in variable importance analyses of medical conditions for health spending. DATA SOURCES: 2011-2012 Truven MarketScan database. STUDY DESIGN: I evaluate how much more, on average, commercially insured enrollees with each of 26 of the most prevalent medical conditions cost per year after controlling for demographics and other medical conditions. This is accomplished within the nonparametric targeted learning framework, which incorporates ensemble machine learning...
March 11, 2018: Health Services Research
P D S N Somarathna, Budiman Minasny, Brendan P Malone, Uta Stockmann, Alex B McBratney
Spatial modelling of environmental data commonly only considers spatial variability as the single source of uncertainty. In reality however, the measurement errors should also be accounted for. In recent years, infrared spectroscopy has been shown to offer low cost, yet invaluable information needed for digital soil mapping at meaningful spatial scales for land management. However, spectrally inferred soil carbon data are known to be less accurate compared to laboratory analysed measurements. This study establishes a methodology to filter out the measurement error variability by incorporating the measurement error variance in the spatial covariance structure of the model...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S S Almarzoky Abuhussain, K J Goodlet, M D Nailor, D P Nicolau
Skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) refer to a collection of clinical infectious syndromes involving layers of skin and associated soft tissues. Although associated with less morbidity and mortality than other common skin infections, SSSIs represent a significant increasing source of healthcare expense, with a prevalence of 500 episodes per 10,000 patient-years in the United States resulting in burdening health care systems, of approximately $6 billion annually. Areas covered: Opportunities to reduce costs of care associated with SSSI are highlighted, including transitions of care and avoiding unnecessary hospital admissions...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Rosario López-Rodríguez, Aida Ferreiro-Iglesias, Aurea Lima, Miguel Bernardes, Andrzej Pawlik, Agnieszka Paradowska-Gorycka, Jerzy Świerkot, Ryszard Slezak, Isidoro Gonzalez-Alvaro, Javier Narvaez, Eva Pérez-Pampín, Antonio Mera-Varela, Laura Vidal-Bralo, José Gorgonio Acuña-Ochoa, Carmen Conde, Antonio Gonzalez
Variability of response to treatment hinders successful management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Consequently, a clinical pharmacogenetics model for predicting response to methotrexate (CP-MTX) has been previously proposed that includes four clinical variables (disease activity, sex, the presence of rheumatoid factor and smoking status) and four SNPs (rs2236225, rs17602729, rs1127354, and rs2372536) in genes of the folate pathway. It showed good performance, but failed to attract attention, likely, in relation with lack of clear clinical benefit...
March 8, 2018: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Cavallo, Maria Guembe, Grazia Prignano, Maria Teresa Gallo, Valentina Bordignon, Giovanna D'Agosto, Isabella Sperduti, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases, ranging from skin and mucosal lesions to severe systemic, life-threatening infections. Candida albicans accounts for more than 70% of all Candida infections, however, the clinical relevance of other species such as Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei are being increasingly recognized. Biofilm-producing yeasts cells acquire an increased resistance to antifungal agents, often leading to therapeutic failure and chronic infection...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Ting Ji, Jiajia Wu, QiaoQiao He, Yi Tao, Ruth Mace
The relative importance of social evolution theories such as kin selection, direct reciprocity and need-based transfers in explaining real-world cooperation is the source of much debate. Previous field studies of cooperation in human communities have revealed variability in the extent to which each of these theories explains human sociality in different contexts. We conducted multivariate social network analyses predicting costly cooperation-labouring on another household's farm-in 128 082 dyads of Mosuo farming households in southwest China...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Héctor Echavarría-Heras, Cecilia Leal-Ramírez, Enrique Villa-Diharce, Nohe Cazarez-Castro
BACKGROUND: The effects of current anthropogenic influences on eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows are noticeable. Eelgrass ecological services grant important benefits for mankind. Preservation of eelgrass meadows include several transplantation methods. Evaluation of establishing success relies on the estimation of standing stock and productivity. Average leaf biomass in shoots is a fundamental component of standing stock. Existing methods of leaf biomass measurement are destructive and time consuming...
March 6, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Alejandro Ruiz-Patiño, Samuel Rey, German Molina, Luis Carlos Dominguez, Saul Rugeles
BACKGROUND: Colombia is a developing nation in need for efficient resource administration in fields such as health care, where innovation is constant. Since the introduction of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), direct costs have been increasing without definitive results in terms of clinical outcomes. The objective of this study is to determine the cost-effectiveness of open appendectomy (OA) versus LA and thereby help surgeons in clinical decision-making in a limited resource setting. METHODS: A retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis comparing OA versus multiport LA during 2013 in a third-level university hospital (Hospital Universitario San Ignacio) in Bogota, Colombia was performed...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
John P Ney, Jason J Sico, Brad C Klein, Brandon Magliocco, Brian C Callaghan, Gregory J Esper
Objective To assess the association of neurologist ambulatory care with healthcare utilization and expenditure in headache. Methods This was a longitudinal cohort study from two-year duration panel data, pooled from 2002-2013, of adult respondents identified with diagnostic codes for headache in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Those with a neurologist ambulatory care visit in year one of panel participation were compared with those who did not for the change in annual aggregate direct headache-related health care costs from year one to year two of panel participation, inflated to 2015 US dollars...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
P L Bernard, H Blain, G Tallon, G Ninot, A Jaussent, M C Picot, C Belloc, O Coste, J Bousquet, S Ramdani
This study analyzes the evolution in kinematic and non-linear stabilometric parameters in elderly sedentary women selected to participate in a brisk walking program. Ninety-four women were randomly selected for a program of 78 sessions over 6 months, with three sessions of 60 min per week. On the force platform, participants were assessed with both eyes opened as well as eyes closed during a period of 51.2 s and the sampling frequency was 40 Hz. The main dependent kinematic variables were the length, stabilogram surface, and the mean position in anteroposterior as well as medio-lateral directions...
March 5, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Isabel Cuesta-López, Marina Sánchez-Cuervo, Ángel Candela-Toha, Juana Benedí-González, Teresa Bermejo-Vicedo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of the protocolization and centralization of  the preparation of intravenous vasoactive drug mixtures in the treatment of  critically ill patients. METHOD: A prospective interventional study (July 2012-December 2014) was  conducted to measure the impact of different vasoactive drug protocols on costs  in the treatment of critically ill patients. The economic impact was measured by  comparing the direct costs (fixed and variable) of the preparation of intravenous  vasoactive drug mixtures in the Pharmacy Department with their traditional  preparation in hospital care units...
March 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
Iwona Pranke, Laure Bidou, Natacha Martin, Sandra Blanchet, Aurélie Hatton, Sabrina Karri, David Cornu, Bruno Costes, Benoit Chevalier, Danielle Tondelier, Emmanuelle Girodon, Matthieu Coupet, Aleksander Edelman, Pascale Fanen, Olivier Namy, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Alexandre Hinzpeter
Premature termination codons (PTCs) are generally associated with severe forms of genetic diseases. Readthrough of in-frame PTCs using small molecules is a promising therapeutic approach. Nonetheless, the outcome of preclinical studies has been low and variable. Treatment efficacy depends on: 1) the level of drug-induced readthrough, 2) the amount of target transcripts, and 3) the activity of the recoded protein. The aim of the present study was to identify, in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) model, recoded channels from readthrough therapy that may be enhanced using CFTR modulators...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Nijoy John, Anson V Koehler, Brendan R E Ansell, Louise Baker, Nicholas D Crosbie, Aaron R Jex
Production of taste and odour (T/O) compounds, principally geosmin, by complex cyanobacterial blooms is a major water quality issue globally. Control of these cyanobacteria imposes a significant cost on water producing and dependent industries, and requires routine monitoring and management. Classic monitoring methods, including microscopy and direct chemical analysis, lack sensitivity, are laborious, expensive or cannot reliably identify the source of geosmin production. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based tools targeting the geosmin synthase gene (geoA) provide a novel tool for routine monitoring...
February 19, 2018: Water Research
Yufeng Zhang, Kang Nian Yap, Tony D Williams, David L Swanson
Skeletal muscle remodeling is an important component of phenotypic flexibility in birds and impacts organismal metabolism and performance, which could potentially influence fitness. One regulator of skeletal muscle remodeling is myostatin, an autocrine/paracrine muscle growth inhibitor that may be down-regulated under conditions promoting heavier muscle masses. In this study, we employed protocols requiring hovering while foraging to increase foraging costs and modify phenotypes of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Laura J Brattain, Brian A Telfer, Manish Dhyani, Joseph R Grajo, Anthony E Samir
Ultrasound (US) imaging is the most commonly performed cross-sectional diagnostic imaging modality in the practice of medicine. It is low-cost, non-ionizing, portable, and capable of real-time image acquisition and display. US is a rapidly evolving technology with significant challenges and opportunities. Challenges include high inter- and intra-operator variability and limited image quality control. Tremendous opportunities have arisen in the last decade as a result of exponential growth in available computational power coupled with progressive miniaturization of US devices...
February 28, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
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