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Aliyu Ibrahim, Umar Isa Umar, Umar Musa Usman, Lukman Femi Owolabi
BACKGROUND: Considerable disease variability exists between patients with epilepsy, and the societal costs for epilepsy care are overall high, because of high frequency in the general population especially in children from developing countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study where children with established diagnosis of epilepsy were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence-based costs were stratified by patients' sociodemographic characteristics and socioeconomic scores (SES)...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Valentina Giovenzana, Roberto Beghi, Simone Parisi, Lucio Brancadoro, Riccardo Guidetti
BACKGROUND: Increasing attention is paid to non-destructive methods for water status real time monitoring as a potential solution, replacing the tedious conventional techniques which are time consuming and not easily to perform directly in field. The objective was to test the potential effectiveness of two portable optical devices (visible/near infrared, vis/NIR; and near infrared, NIR) for a rapid and non-destructive evaluation of the water status of grapevine leaves. Moreover, a variable selection methodology was proposed to determine a set of candidate variables for the prediction of water potential (Ψ; MPa) related to leaf water status in a view of a simplified optical device...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
L Klimek, A M Chaker, R Mösges
BACKGROUND: The burden of allergic diseases is of particular relevance for the economy and the social welfare and health insurance framework. Allergic rhinitis (AR) has a life-time prevalence of approximately 30% and is one of the most common chronic diseases with considerable socioeconomic impact thus leading to substantial direct, indirect and intangible costs. This article explores the common hypothesis that allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) saves national economic expenses in the long term in comparison to other standard symptomatic treatment or no therapy...
September 12, 2017: HNO
Marissa Blieden, Shravanthi R Gandra, Lung-I Cheng, Anna Szatkowski, Peter P Toth
AIMS: Utility values inform estimates of the cost-effectiveness of treatment for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but values can vary depending on the method used. The aim of this systematic literature review (SLR) was to explore how methods of elicitation impact utility values for CVD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified English-language articles in Embase, MEDLINE, and the grey literature published between September 1992 and August 2015 using keywords for 'utilities' and 'stroke,' 'heart failure,' 'myocardial infarction,' or 'angina...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
Sidney P Norton, Evan M Dickerson, Charles G Kulwin, Mitesh V Shah
BACKGROUND: The Triple Aim is defined as: improving the patient experience of care, improving the health of populations, and reducing the per capita cost of health care. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the economic value of a new neurosurgical technique, the BrainPath™ approach, for use in patients with subcortical tumors and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Inpatient length of stay (LOS) data were collected for ICH and brain tumor surgical patient cases between August 2013 and November 2015...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Jie Chang, Zelong Qu, Ronghua Xu, Kaixuan Pan, Bin Xu, Yong Min, Yuan Ren, Guofu Yang, Ying Ge
Urban green spaces provide various ecosystem services, especially cultural services. Previous assessment methods depend either on hypothetic payments for ecosystems or real payments not directly related to ecosystems. In this paper, we established a method for assessing the cultural ecosystem services in any location in urban area using only two variables, green space (ecosystem) and land rent (real payment). We integrated the cultural and the regulating services into the total ecosystem services because urban green spaces provide almost no provisioning services...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Santiago J Saldana, Anthony P Marsh, W Jack Rejeski, Jack K Haberl, Peggy Wu, Scott Rosenthal, Edward H Ip
INTRODUCTION: As the population ages, the prevention of falls is an increasingly important public health problem. Balance assessment forms an important component of fall-prevention programs for older adults. The recent development of cost-effective and highly responsive virtual reality (VR) systems means new methods of balance assessment are feasible in a clinical setting. This proof-of-concept study made use of the submillimeter tracking built into modern VR head-mounted displays (VRHMDs) to assess balance through the use of visual-vestibular conflict...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
C J Ireland, A L Fielder, S K Thompson, T A Laws, D I Watson, A Esterman
Esophageal adenocarcinoma has poor 5-year survival rates. Increased survival might be achieved with earlier treatment, but requires earlier identification of the precursor, Barrett's esophagus. Population screening is not cost effective, this may be improved by targeted screening directed at individuals more likely to have Barrett's esophagus. To develop a risk prediction tool for Barrett's esophagus, this study compared individuals with Barrett's esophagus against population controls. Participants completed a questionnaire comprising 35 questions addressing medical history, symptom history, lifestyle factors, anthropomorphic measures, and demographic details...
November 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Yong He, Shupei Xiao, Pengcheng Nie, Tao Dong, Fangfang Qu, Lei Lin
Nitrogen is one of the important indexes to evaluate the physiological and biochemical properties of soil. The level of soil nitrogen content influences the nutrient levels of crops directly. The near infrared sensor can be used to detect the soil nitrogen content rapidly, nondestructively, and conveniently. In order to investigate the effect of the different soil water content on soil nitrogen detection by near infrared sensor, the soil samples were dealt with different drying times and the corresponding water content was measured...
September 7, 2017: Sensors
F Sessions Cole, Daniel J Wegner, Jonathan M Davis
Significant variability has been observed in the development and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) among neonates exposed to prenatal opioids. Since maternal opioid dose does not appear to correlate directly with neonatal outcome, maternal, placental, and fetal genomic variants may play important roles in NAS. Previous studies in small cohorts have demonstrated associations of variants in maternal and infant genes that encode the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and prepronociceptin (PNOC) with a shorter length of hospital stay and less need for treatment in neonates exposed to opioids in utero...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Santiago Montero-Mendieta, Manfred Grabherr, Henrik Lantz, Ignacio De la Riva, Jennifer A Leonard, Matthew T Webster, Carles Vilà
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a very valuable resource to understand the evolutionary history of poorly known species. However, in organisms with large genomes, as most amphibians, WGS is still excessively challenging and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) represents a cost-effective tool to explore genome-wide variability. Non-model organisms do not usually have a reference genome and the transcriptome must be assembled de-novo. We used RNA-seq to obtain the transcriptomic profile for Oreobates cruralis, a poorly known South American direct-developing frog...
2017: PeerJ
Xiangru Huang, Qixing Huang, Ian E H Yen, Pradeep Ravikumar, Ruohan Zhang, Inderjit S Dhillon
Maximum-a-Posteriori (MAP) inference lies at the heart of Graphical Models and Structured Prediction. Despite the intractability of exact MAP inference, approximate methods based on LP relaxations have exhibited superior performance across a wide range of applications. Yet for problems involving large output domains (i.e., the state space for each variable is large), standard LP relaxations can easily give rise to a large number of variables and constraints which are beyond the limit of existing optimization algorithms...
April 2017: JMLR Workshop and Conference Proceedings
Huarong Zheng, Rudy R Negenborn, Gabriel Lodewijks
Waterborne autonomous guided vessels (waterborne AGVs) moving over open waters experience environmental uncertainties. This paper proposes a novel cost-effective robust distributed control approach for waterborne AGVs. The overall system is uncertain and has independent subsystem dynamics but coupling objectives and state constraints. Waterborne AGVs determine their actions in a parallel way, while still minimizing an overall cost function and respecting coupling constraints robustly by communicating within a neighborhood...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Fernanda R Oliveira, Anil K Patel, Deb P Jaisi, Sushil Adhikari, Hui Lu, Samir Kumar Khanal
In recent years, there has been a significant interest on biochar for various environmental applications, e.g., pollutants removal, carbon sequestration, and soil amelioration. Biochar has several unique properties, which makes it an efficient, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly material for diverse contaminants removal. The variability in physicochemical properties (e.g., surface area, microporosity, and pH) provides an avenue for biochar to maximize its efficacy to targeted applications. This review aims to highlight the vital role of surface architecture of biochar in different environmental applications...
August 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Jerry F Husak, Simon P Lailvaux
Whole-organism performance traits, such as maximal speed and endurance capacity are undoubtedly costly, but we know little about how or when all of the costs associated with performance are paid to individuals or how to measure them. To understand how performance traits might be involved in trade-offs with other life-history traits it is critical to determine the development, production, and maintenance costs of performance traits, as well as how each of these changes with increased or decreased use of the performance trait...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Gülsah Dogruer, Liesbeth Weijs, Janet Yat-Man Tang, Henner Hollert, Marjolijn Kock, Ian Bell, Christine A Madden Hof, Caroline Gaus
Organisms are exposed to mixtures of both known and unknown chemicals which are diverse and variable, and thus difficult and costly to characterise and monitor using traditional target analyses. The objective of this study was to validate and apply in vitro effect-based methods by which whole blood can be used to screen internal exposure to such complex chemical mixtures. For this study, we used whole blood of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). To ensure the chemical mixture in blood is transferred with minimal losses or bias, we tested a modified QuEChERS extraction method specifically developed for multi- and non-target instrument analysis...
August 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Karla Danielle Tavares Melo Milanez, Thiago César Araújo Nóbrega, Danielle Silva Nascimento, Roberto Kawakami Harrop Galvão, Márcio José Coelho Pontes
Multivariate models have been widely used in analytical problems involving quantitative and qualitative analyzes. However, there are cases in which a model is not applicable to spectra of samples obtained under new experimental conditions or in an instrument not involved in the modeling step. A solution to this problem is the transfer of multivariate models, usually performed using standardization of the spectral responses or enhancement of the robustness of the model. This present paper proposes two new criteria for selection of robust variables for classification transfer employing the successive projections algorithm (SPA)...
September 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Ahmad Alkhalil, Harveen Lamba, Salil Deo, Hiram G Bezerra, Sandeep M Patel, Alan Markowitz, Daniel I Simon, Marco A Costa, Angela C Davis, Guilherme F Attizzani
OBJECTIVE: Determine the feasibility and predictors of early discharge after minimalist transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Duration of hospitalization has a direct impact on overall cost of care, but the clinical impact of length of stay (LOS) in patients undergoing minimalist TAVR remains unclear. METHODS: We studied 268 patients who underwent minimalist TAVR. Short LOS (sLOS) was defined as post-procedural LOS ≤ 3 days and observed in 163 patients...
August 24, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
T Joseph Mattingly, Eleanor M Perfetto, Sophia Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment strategies have become common but few appear to include patient engagement or the patient perspective. The objectives of the current study were to (i) identify published HCV CEA studies that include patient input; and (ii) derive insights on patient-informed variable and outcome selection to build a framework for future economic analyses of HCV. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using SCOPUS, EMBASE, and PubMed from January 1 2012 to May 28, 2017...
August 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Naseem Cassim, Lindi Marie Coetzee, Kathryn Schnippel, Deborah Kim Glencross
INTRODUCTION: During 2016, the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) introduced laboratory-based reflexed Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening to detect early Cryptococcal disease in immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with a confirmed CD4 count of 100 cells/μl or less. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess cost-per-result of a national screening program across different tiers of laboratory service, with variable daily CrAg test volumes. The impact of potential ART treatment guideline and treatment target changes on CrAg volumes, platform choice and laboratory workflow are considered...
2017: PloS One
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