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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161252/choose-rate-or-squeeze-comparison-of-economic-value-functions-elicited-by-different-behavioral-tasks
#1
Alizée Lopez-Persem, Lionel Rigoux, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde, Jean Daunizeau, Mathias Pessiglione
A standard view in neuroeconomics is that to make a choice, an agent first assigns subjective values to available options, and then compares them to select the best. In choice tasks, these cardinal values are typically inferred from the preference expressed by subjects between options presented in pairs. Alternatively, cardinal values can be directly elicited by asking subjects to place a cursor on an analog scale (rating task) or to exert a force on a power grip (effort task). These tasks can vary in many respects: they can notably be more or less costly and consequential...
November 21, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160331/primum-non-nocere-or-primum-facere-meliorem-hacking-the-brain-in-the-21st-century
#2
Lucas Borrione, Andre R Brunoni
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that modulates cortical excitability. It is devoid of serious adverse events and exerts variable effects on cognition, with several research findings suggesting that it can improve memory, verbal and mathematical skills. Because tDCS devices are low-cost, portable and relatively easy to assemble, they have become available outside of the medical setting and used for non-medical ("cosmetic") purposes by laypersons. In this sense, tDCS has become a popular technique aiming to improve cognition and the achievement of a better performance not only at work, but also in other fields such as sports, leisure activities (video games) and even the military...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159426/an-initial-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-imri-in-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery
#3
Matthew F Sacino, Sean S Huang, Robert F Keating, William D Gaillard, Chima O Oluigbo
PURPOSE: Previous studies have illustrated the clinical utility of the addition of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) to conventional microsurgical resection. While iMRI requires initial capital cost investment, long-term reduction in costly follow-up management and reoperation costs may prove economically efficacious. The objective of this study is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the addition of iMRI utilization versus conventional microsurgical techniques in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) resection in pediatric patients with medically refractory epilepsy...
November 20, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148345/exploring-the-role-of-executive-functioning-capacity-in-patient-activation-and-health-outcomes-among-medicaid-members-with-multiple-comorbidities
#4
Kimberly Case, Yi Guo, Sara Jo Nixon, Keith Muller, Tianyao Huo, Robert Prather, Heather Morris, Dena Stoner, Elizabeth Shenkman
Patient activation, the perceived capacity to manage one's health, is positively associated with better health outcomes and lower costs. Underlying characteristics influencing patient activation are not completely understood leading to gaps in intervention strategies designed to improve patient activation. We suggest that variability in executive functioning influences patient activation and ultimately has an impact on health outcomes. To examine this hypothesis, 440 chronically ill Medicaid enrollees completed measures of executive functioning, patient activation, and health-related quality of life...
May 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144394/estimating-crop-area-at-county-level-on-the-north-china-plain-with-an-indirect-sampling-of-segments-and-an-adapted-regression-estimator
#5
Qinghan Dong, Jia Liu, Limin Wang, Zhongxin Chen, Javier Gallego
Image classifications, including sub-pixel analysis, are often used to estimate crop acreage directly. However, this type of assessment often leads to a biased estimation, because commission and omission errors generally do not compensate for each other. Regression estimators combine remote sensing information with more accurate ground data on a field sample, and can result in more accurate and cost-effective assessments of crop acreage. In this pilot study, which aims to produce crop statistics in Guoyang County, the area frame sampling approach is adapted to a strip-like cropping pattern on the North China Plain...
November 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135727/comparative-cost-analysis-of-single-and-mutli-stage-temporal-deformity-correction-following-neurosurgical-procedures
#6
Anthony Asemota, Gabriel F Santiago, Susan Zhong, Chad R Gordon
PURPOSE: Temporal hollowing deformity (THD) is a visible concavity/convexity in the temporal fossa; a complication often seen following neurosurgical/craniofacial procedures. Although numerous techniques have been described, no study to date has shown the healthcare costs associated with temporal hollowing correction surgery. Thus, the purpose here is to compare and contrast the direct costs related to temporal cranioplasty using various methods including: liquid poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) implants with screw fixation, prebent, modified titanium mesh implants, and customized cranial implants (CCIs) with dual-purpose design...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134435/plant-phenology-supports-the-multi-emergence-hypothesis-for-ebola-spillover-events
#7
Katharina C Wollenberg Valero, Raphael D Isokpehi, Noah E Douglas, Seenith Sivasundaram, Brianna Johnson, Kiara Wootson, Ayana McGill
Ebola virus disease outbreaks in animals (including humans and great apes) start with sporadic host switches from unknown reservoir species. The factors leading to such spillover events are little explored. Filoviridae viruses have a wide range of natural hosts and are unstable once outside hosts. Spillover events, which involve the physical transfer of viral particles across species, could therefore be directly promoted by conditions of host ecology and environment. In this report, we outline a proof of concept that temporal fluctuations of a set of ecological and environmental variables describing the dynamics of the host ecosystem are able to predict such events of Ebola virus spillover to humans and animals...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133284/the-association-of-health-literacy-and-electronic-health-literacy-with-self-efficacy-coping-and-caregiving-perceptions-among-carers-of-people-with-dementia-research-protocol-for-a-descriptive-correlational-study
#8
Areti Efthymiou, Nicos Middleton, Andreas Charalambous, Evridiki Papastavrou
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, electronic health (eHealth) literacy has attracted the attention of the scientific community, as it is associated with the self-management of patients with chronic diseases and the quality and cost of care. It is estimated that 80% of people with chronic diseases are cared for at home by a family member, friend, or relative. Informal carers are susceptible to physical and mental health problems, as well as social and financial hardships. Nevertheless, there seems to be a research gap in terms of carers' needs, skills, and available resources in the age of new technologies, with the vital role of eHealth literacy of the carers remaining unexplored...
November 13, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126865/vitrification-of-dog-spermatozoa-effects-of-two-cryoprotectants-sucrose-or-trehalose-and-two-warming-procedures
#9
E Caturla-Sánchez, M J Sánchez-Calabuig, J F Pérez-Gutiérrez, J Cerdeira, C Castaño, J Santiago-Moreno
Sperm vitrification is a low cost and simple technique that does not require special equipment and may represent an attractive alternative to the costly and time consuming conventional dog spermatozoa cryopreservation techniques. The objective of this study was to evaluate different cryoprotectants and warming temperatures on the vitrification of dog spermatozoa. Pooled semen samples from 10 beagle dogs were vitrified with four extenders, based on Tris, citric acid and glucose, 20% egg yolk (TCG-20% EY) and different combinations of sucrose and/or trehalose: 250 mM sucrose; 250 mM trehalose; 125 mM sucrose + 125 mM trehalose; 250 mM sucrose + 250 mM trehalose...
November 7, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126499/economic-impact-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-adults-a-population-based-study-idea-study
#10
A Sicras-Mainar, R Navarro-Artieda, J M Carrascosa Carrillo
OBJECTIVE: To determine resource usage and costs associated with atopic dermatitis in adults according to severity and comorbid conditions in daily clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed an observational, retrospective study based on a review of registries of patients aged ≥18 years who sought health care in 2013 and 2014 in an area of Catalonia, Spain, with a population of 215,634 persons. We established 3 classes of severity depending on the treatment prescribed...
November 7, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116629/the-evolution-of-strain-typing-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#11
Matthias Merker, Thomas A Kohl, Stefan Niemann, Philip Supply
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease with a complex epidemiology. Therefore, molecular typing (genotyping) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains is of primary importance to effectively guide outbreak investigations, define transmission dynamics and assist global epidemiological surveillance of the disease. Large-scale genotyping is also needed to get better insights into the biological diversity and the evolution of the pathogen. Thanks to its shorter turnaround and simple numerical nomenclature system, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, based on 24 standardized plus 4 hypervariable loci, optionally combined with spoligotyping, has replaced IS6110 DNA fingerprinting over the last decade as a gold standard among classical strain typing methods for many applications...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112128/an-embedded-wireless-sensor-network-with-wireless-power-transmission-capability-for-the-structural-health-monitoring-of-reinforced-concrete-structures
#12
Luca Gallucci, Costantino Menna, Leopoldo Angrisani, Domenico Asprone, Rosario Schiano Lo Moriello, Francesco Bonavolontà, Francesco Fabbrocino
Maintenance strategies based on structural health monitoring can provide effective support in the optimization of scheduled repair of existing structures, thus enabling their lifetime to be extended. With specific regard to reinforced concrete (RC) structures, the state of the art seems to still be lacking an efficient and cost-effective technique capable of monitoring material properties continuously over the lifetime of a structure. Current solutions can typically only measure the required mechanical variables in an indirect, but economic, manner, or directly, but expensively...
November 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111274/hospital-and-community-characteristics-associated-with-pediatric-direct-admission-to-hospital
#13
JoAnna K Leyenaar, Meng-Shiou Shieh, Tara Lagu, Penelope S Pekow, Peter K Lindenauer
OBJECTIVES: One-quarter of pediatric hospitalizations begin as direct admissions, defined as hospitalization without receiving care in the hospital's emergency department (ED). Direct admission rates are highly variable across hospitals, yet previous studies have not examined reasons for this variation. We aimed to determine the relationships between hospital and community factors and pediatric direct admission rates, and evaluate the degree to which these characteristics explain variation in risk-adjusted direct admission rates...
October 27, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109227/the-impact-of-recombination-on-human-mutation-load-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Isabel Alves, Armande Ang Houle, Julie G Hussin, Philip Awadalla
Recombination promotes genomic integrity among cells and tissues through double-strand break repair, and is critical for gamete formation and fertility through a strict regulation of the molecular mechanisms associated with proper chromosomal disjunction. In humans, congenital defects and recurrent structural abnormalities can be attributed to aberrant meiotic recombination. Moreover, mutations affecting genes involved in recombination pathways are directly linked to pathologies including infertility and cancer...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089861/disease-control-programme-support-costs-an-update-of-who-choice-methodology-price-databases-and-quantity-assumptions
#15
Melanie Y Bertram, Karin Stenberg, Callum Brindley, Jina Li, Juliana Serje, Rory Watts, Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer
BACKGROUND: Estimating health care costs, either in the context of understanding resource utilization in the implementation of a health plan, or in the context of economic evaluation, has become a common activity of health planners, health technology assessment agencies and academic groups. However, data sources for costs outside of direct service delivery are often scarce. WHO-CHOICE produces global price databases and guidance on quantity assumptions to support country level costing exercises...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083473/intracavity-lavage-and-wound-irrigation-for-prevention-of-surgical-site-infection
#16
REVIEW
Gill Norman, Ross A Atkinson, Tanya A Smith, Ceri Rowlands, Amber D Rithalia, Emma J Crosbie, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are wound infections that occur after an operative procedure. A preventable complication, they are costly and associated with poorer patient outcomes, increased mortality, morbidity and reoperation rates. Surgical wound irrigation is an intraoperative technique, which may reduce the rate of SSIs through removal of dead or damaged tissue, metabolic waste, and wound exudate. Irrigation can be undertaken prior to wound closure or postoperatively...
October 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074114/regional-variation-in-the-cost-of-infra-inguinal-lower-extremity-bypass-surgery-in-the-united-states
#17
Besma J Nejim, Sophie Wang, Isibor Arhuidese, Tammam Obeid, Husain Nader Alshaikh, Hanaa Dakour Aridi, Satinderjit Locham, Mahmoud B Malas
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity bypass (LEB) remains the gold standard revascularization procedure in patients with peripheral arterial disease. The cost of LEB substantially varies based on patient's characteristics and comorbidities. The aim of this study was to assess regional variation in infra-inguinal LEB cost and to identify the specific health care expenditures per service that are associated with the highest cost in each region. METHODS: We identified adult patients who underwent infra-inguinal LEB in the Premier database between June 2009 and March 2015...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073256/cost-effectiveness-analysis-comparing-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-antidepressant-medications-after-a-first-treatment-failure-for-major-depressive-disorder-in-newly-diagnosed-patients-a-lifetime-analysis
#18
Jeffrey Voigt, Linda Carpenter, Andrew Leuchter
OBJECTIVE: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) commonly is used for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) after patients have failed to benefit from trials of multiple antidepressant medications. No analysis to date has examined the cost-effectiveness of rTMS used earlier in the course of treatment and over a patients' lifetime. METHODS: We used lifetime Markov simulation modeling to compare the direct costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) of rTMS and medication therapy in patients with newly diagnosed MDD (ages 20-59) who had failed to benefit from one pharmacotherapy trial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072539/coordination-impairments-are-associated-with-falling-among-older-adults
#19
Eric G James, Suzanne G Leveille, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Bruce Barton, Sarah Cote, Murat Karabulut, Phillip Conatser, David N Kennedy, Katherine L Tucker, Soham Al Snih, Kyriakos S Markides, Jonathan F Bean
Background/Study Context: Approximately one third of older adults over the age of 65, and over 40% of those over 80 years, fall each year, leading to fractures, morbidity, and mortality. Annual direct medical costs due to falls in the United States are approximately $19.2 billion. The identification of new treatable risk factors for falls has the potential to advance their prevention and rehabilitation. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 127 community-dwelling adults aged 67-99 years was conducted...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069451/poor-recovery-of-households-from-out-of-pocket-payment-for-assisted-reproductive-technology
#20
Silke J Dyer, Latiefa Vinoos, John E Ataguba
STUDY QUESTION: How do households recover financially from direct out-of-pocket payment for government subsidized ART? SUMMARY ANSWER: After a mean of 3.8 years, there was poor recovery from initiated financial coping strategies with the poorest households being disproportionatley affected. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Out-of-pocket payment for health services can create financial burdens for households and inequities in access to care. A previous study conducted at a public-academic institution in South Africa documented that patient co-payment for one cycle of ART resulted in catastrophic expenditure for one in five households, and more frequently among the poorest, requiring diverse financial coping strategies to offset costs...
October 21, 2017: Human Reproduction
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