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Salivary metabolomics

Karolina Elżbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Carmen Martin Carreras-Presas, Katri Aro, Michael Tu, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, David Tw Wong
In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Shigeo Ishikawa, Masahiro Sugimoto, Kenichiro Kitabatake, Ayako Sugano, Marina Nakamura, Miku Kaneko, Sana Ota, Kana Hiwatari, Ayame Enomoto, Tomoyoshi Soga, Masaru Tomita, Mitsuyoshi Iino
The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
M Kuboniwa, A Sakanaka, E Hashino, T Bamba, E Fukusaki, A Amano
Periodontal disease is characterized by chronic inflammation in subgingival areas, where a vast array of inflammation-associated metabolites are likely produced from tissue breakdown, increased vascular permeability, and microbial metabolism and then eventually show a steady flow into saliva. Thus, prolonged periodontal inflammation is a key feature of disease activity. Although salivary metabolomics has drawn attention for its potential use in diagnosis of periodontal disease, few authors have used that to investigate periodontal inflammation detection...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh, Thaon Jones, John Harvey
Biomarkers are broadly classified as genomic, proteomic, or metabolomic. Molecular biology and oncology research studies on oral cancer biomarkers focus on identifying key biological molecules or markers that could be linked to cancer development, risk assessment, screening, recurrence prediction, indicating prognosis, indicating invasion/metastasis and monitoring therapeutic responses of cancer. Cluster of differentiation factor 34 is a salivary biomarker that can identify recurrence potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
April 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Maria De Angelis, Lucia Vannini, Raffaella Di Cagno, Noemi Cavallo, Fabio Minervini, Ruggiero Francavilla, Danilo Ercolini, Marco Gobbetti
Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder resulting from the combination of genetic predisposition and gluten ingestion. A life-long gluten free diet (GFD) is the only therapeutic approach. Dysbiosis, which can precede the CD pathogenesis and/or persist when subjects are on GFD, is reviewed and discussed. Salivary microbiota and metabolome differed between healthy and celiac children treated under GFD (T-CD) for at least two years. The type of GFD (African- vs Italian-style) modified the microbiota and metabolome of Saharawi T-CD children...
July 19, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Abdelilah Arredouani, Matteo Stocchero, Nicola Culeddu, Julia El-Sayed Moustafa, Jean Tichet, Beverley Balkau, Thierry Brousseau, Marco Manca, Mario Falchi
Low serum salivary amylase levels have been associated with a range of metabolic abnormalities, including obesity and insulin resistance. We recently suggested that low copy-number at the AMY1 gene, associated with lower enzyme levels, also increases susceptibility to obesity. To advance our understanding of the effect of AMY1 copy-number variation on metabolism, we compared the metabolomic signatures of high and low copy-number carriers. We analysed, using mass spectrometry and NMR, the sera of healthy normal-weight women carrying either low (LA:≤4 copies; n=50) or high (HA:≥8 copies; n=50) AMY1 copies...
July 19, 2016: Diabetes
Livia Roberta Piedade de Oliveira, Carla Martins, Tatiana Kelly Silva Fidalgo, Liana Bastos Freitas-Fernandes, Rafaela de Oliveira Torres, Aline Laignier Soares, Fabio C L Almeida, Ana Paula Valente, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de Souza
Metabolomics is an important tool for the evaluation of the human condition, in both health or disease. This study analyzed the salivary components of type I diabetic children (DM1) under six years of age, to assess oral health related to diabetes control, as well as metabolite profiling using NMR. Partial least squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compare healthy (HG) and uncontrolled DM1 subjects that demonstrated a separation between the groups with classificatory performance of ACC = 0.80, R(2) = 0...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
C Bonvicini, S V Faraone, C Scassellati
The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug...
July 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Boris Duchemann, Mohammed Nawfal Triba, Dominique Guez, Matthias Rzeznik, Philippe Savarin, Hilario Nunes, Dominique Valeyre, Jean-François Bernaudin, Laurence Le Moyec
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown cause which has diverse clinical impacts, ranging from benign to very severe, which may therefore require systemic treatment. Only a few tools are currently available to monitor management in these patients. OBJECTIVES: As sarcoidosis is known to affect salivary glands, we hypothesized that analysis of saliva could reveal valuable biomarkers for disease management. We designed a comparative analysis of salivary metabolomics in patients and controls using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)...
2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Saswat Mishra, Darius Saadat, Ohjin Kwon, Yongkuk Lee, Woon-Seop Choi, Jong-Hoon Kim, Woon-Hong Yeo
There is a high demand for a non-invasive, rapid, and highly accurate tool for disease diagnostics. Recently, saliva based diagnostics for the detection of specific biomarkers has drawn significant attention since the sample extraction is simple, cost-effective, and precise. Compared to blood, saliva contains a similar variety of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota that can be compiled into a multiplex of cancer detection markers. The salivary diagnostic method holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics without any complicated and expensive procedures...
July 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Roel J T Mocking, Caroline A Figueroa, Maria M Rive, Hanneke Geugies, Michelle N Servaas, Johanna Assies, Maarten W J Koeter, Frédéric M Vaz, Marieke Wichers, Jan P van Straalen, Rudi de Raedt, Claudi L H Bockting, Catherine J Harmer, Aart H Schene, Henricus G Ruhé
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is widely prevalent and severely disabling, mainly due to its recurrent nature. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying MDD-recurrence may help to identify high-risk patients and to improve the preventive treatment they need. MDD-recurrence has been considered from various levels of perspective including symptomatology, affective neuropsychology, brain circuitry and endocrinology/metabolism. However, MDD-recurrence understanding is limited, because these perspectives have been studied mainly in isolation, cross-sectionally in depressed patients...
2016: BMJ Open
Danilo Ercolini, Ruggiero Francavilla, Lucia Vannini, Francesca De Filippis, Teresa Capriati, Raffaella Di Cagno, Giuseppe Iacono, Maria De Angelis, Marco Gobbetti
Fourteen Saharawi celiac children following an African-style gluten-free diet for at least two years were subjected to a change of diet to an Italian-style gluten-free diet for 60 days. Significant differences were identified in the salivary microbiota and metabolome when Saharawi celiac children switched from African- to Italian-style dietary habits. An Italian-style gluten-free diet caused increases in the abundance of Granulicatella, Porphyromonas and Neisseria and decreases in Clostridium, Prevotella and Veillonella, altering the 'salivary type' of the individuals...
December 18, 2015: Scientific Reports
Yong Zhang, Jie Sun, Chien-Chung Lin, Elliot Abemayor, Marilene B Wang, David T W Wong
Saliva contains a variety of biomolecules, including DNA, coding and noncoding RNA, proteins, metabolites and microbiota. The changes in the salivary levels of these molecular constituents can be used to develop markers for disease detection and risk assessment. Use of saliva as an early-detection tool is a promising approach because collection of saliva is easy and noninvasive. Here, we review recent developments in salivary diagnostics, accomplished using salivaomics approaches, including genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and microbiomic technologies...
February 2016: Periodontology 2000
J J W Mikkonen, S P Singh, M Herrala, R Lappalainen, S Myllymaa, A M Kullaa
Metabolomics is a systemic study of metabolites, which are small molecules generated by the process of metabolism. The metabolic profile of saliva can provide an early outlook of the changes associated with a wide range of diseases, including oral cancer and periodontal diseases. It is possible to measure levels of disease-specific metabolites using different methods as presented in this study. However, many challenges exist including incomplete understanding of the complicated metabolic pathways of different oral diseases...
August 2016: Journal of Periodontal Research
Goro Kawasaki, Yoko Ichikawa, Izumi Yoshitomi, Masahiro Umeda
Yusho patients had many symptoms, and mouth dryness was one of the important oral symptoms. Presently, some Yusho patients complain of mouth dryness. In the present study, we measured mouth dryness by using an oral moisture checking device and examined metabolites of saliva by using metabolome analysis. We found no difference between Yusho patients and controls in terms of mouth dryness. Concerning metabolomes of saliva, there were some metabolites in Yusho patients that were not in controls.
May 2015: Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi, Hukuoka Acta Medica
G Kageyama, J Saegusa, Y Irino, S Tanaka, K Tsuda, S Takahashi, S Sendo, A Morinobu
The recent development of salivary proteomics has led to the identification of potential biomarkers for diagnosing patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Here we sought to identify differentially produced salivary metabolites from pSS patients and healthy controls (HCs) that might be used to characterize this disease. We obtained salivary samples from 12 female pSS patients (mean age 44.2 ± 13.01) and 21 age-matched female HCs. The metabolite profiles of saliva were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
November 2015: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
J T Marchesan, T Morelli, K Moss, S P Barros, M Ward, W Jenkins, M B Aspiras, S Offenbacher
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbial community (MC) composition as it relates to salivary metabolites and periodontal clinical parameters in a 21-d biofilm-overgrowth model. Subjects (N = 168) were enrolled equally into 5 categories of periodontal status per the biofilm-gingival interface classification. Microbial species within subgingival plaque samples were identified by human microbiome identification microarray. Whole saliva was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for metabolite identification...
October 2015: Journal of Dental Research
Jessica Wang, Hyman M Schipper, Ana M Velly, Shrisha Mohit, Mervyn Gornitsky
Human saliva is an increasingly attractive medium for biomarker discovery due to its amenability to noninvasive and repeated sampling, ease of collection and processing, and suitability for single analyte or metabolomic measurements. Salivary biomarkers of oxidative stress reflect local and systemic pathologies and may inform on the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic responsiveness of numerous human diseases. However, for many of the disorders investigated, data reporting on alterations in salivary redox homeostasis are often highly conflicted across studies...
August 2015: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Francesca De Filippis, Lucia Vannini, Antonietta La Storia, Luca Laghi, Paola Piombino, Giuseppina Stellato, Diana I Serrazanetti, Giorgia Gozzi, Silvia Turroni, Ilario Ferrocino, Camilla Lazzi, Raffaella Di Cagno, Marco Gobbetti, Danilo Ercolini
The salivary microbiota has been linked to both oral and non-oral diseases. Scant knowledge is available on the effect of environmental factors such as long-term dietary choices on the salivary microbiota and metabolome. This study analyzed the microbial diversity and metabolomic profiles of the saliva of 161 healthy individuals who followed an omnivore or ovo-lacto-vegetarian or vegan diet. A large core microbiota was identified, including 12 bacterial genera, found in >98% of the individuals. The subjects could be stratified into three "salivary types" that differed on the basis of the relative abundance of the core genera Prevotella, Streptococcus/Gemella and Fusobacterium/Neisseria...
2014: PloS One
Qihui Wang, Pan Gao, Xiaoyi Wang, Yixiang Duan
Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an attractive strategy to increase survival rate of patient. An integrated separation approach of reversed phase liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography combining with time of flight mass spectrometer has been firstly developed for performing global saliva metabonomics analysis for early diagnosis of OSCC. This approach was designed to overcome the limitations of a single chromatographic method due to different polarity of endogenous metabolites...
2014: Scientific Reports
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