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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902747/joint-profiling-of-mirnas-and-mrnas-reveals-mirna-mediated-gene-regulation-in-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-obesity-model
#1
Caroline M Junker Mentzel, Ferhat Alkan, Helle Keinicke, Mette J Jacobsen, Jan Gorodkin, Merete Fredholm, Susanna Cirera
Obesity and its comorbidities are an increasing challenge for both affected individuals and health care systems, worldwide. In obese individuals, perturbation of expression of both protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNA) are seen in obesity-relevant tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle). miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have important regulatory roles in a wide range of biological processes, including obesity. Rodents are widely used animal models for human diseases including obesity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902532/lean-six-sigma-to-reduce-intensive-care-unit-length-of-stay-and-costs-in-prolonged-mechanical-ventilation
#2
Stephen Trzeciak, Michael Mercincavage, Cory Angelini, William Cogliano, Emily Damuth, Brian W Roberts, Sergio Zanotti, Anthony J Mazzarelli
OBJECTIVE: Patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) represent important "outliers" of hospital length of stay (LOS) and costs (∼$26 billion annually in the United States). We tested the hypothesis that a Lean Six Sigma (LSS) approach for process improvement could reduce hospital LOS and the associated costs of care for patients with PMV. DESIGN: Before-and-after cohort study. SETTING: Multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) in an academic medical center...
November 29, 2016: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899538/reducing-unplanned-extubations-in-the-nicu-using-lean-methodology
#3
EDITORIAL
Bonnie M Powell, Edeltraud Gilbert, Teresa A Volsko
BACKGROUND: Unplanned extubations can lead to iatrogenic injury and have the potential to contribute to serious safety events. We adopted lean methodology to reduce the unplanned extubation rate in a Level 3b NICU. We hypothesized that the use of a rapid-cycle PDSA (plan, do, study, act) initiative would reduce the unplanned extubation rate. METHODS: Baseline unplanned extubation data were collected from November 1, 2012 to June 6, 2014. A voice of the customer survey ascertained perceptions regarding unplanned extubation causes and impact on care...
December 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899483/integrin-linked-kinase-is-necessary-for-the-development-of-diet-induced-hepatic-insulin-resistance
#4
Ashley S Williams, Elijah Trefts, Louise Lantier, Carrie Grueter, Deanna P Bracy, Freyja D James, Ambra Pozzi, Roy Zent, David H Wasserman
The liver extracellular matrix (ECM) expands with high fat (HF) feeding. This finding led us to address whether receptors for the ECM, integrins, are key to the development of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a downstream integrin signaling molecule involved in multiple hepatic processes including those related to differentiation, wound healing and metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that deletion of ILK in mice on a HF diet would disrupt the ECM-Integrin signaling axis thereby preventing the transformation into the insulin resistant liver...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898910/feeding-microalgae-meal-all-g-rich-ccap-4067-2-to-beef-heifers-ii-effects-on-ground-beef-color-and-palatability
#5
K J Phelps, J S Drouillard, T G O'Quinn, D D Burnett, T L Blackmon, J E Axman, C L Van Bibber-Krueger, J M Gonzalez
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to finishing heifers on 85% lean and 15% fat (85/15) ground beef PUFA content, palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894065/evaluation-of-csf-and-plasma-biomarkers-of-brain-melanocortin-activity-in-response-to-caloric-restriction-in-humans
#6
Gabrielle Page-Wilson, Kim T Nguyen, Deniz Atalayer, Kana Meece, Heather A Bainbridge, Judith Korner, Rebecca J Gordon, Sunil K Panigrahi, Anne White, Richard Smiley, Sharon L Wardlaw
The melanocortin neuronal system, comprised of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons, is a leptin target that regulates energy balance and metabolism, but studies in humans are limited by lack of reliable biomarkers for brain melanocortin activity. The objective of this study was to measure the POMC prohormone and its processed peptide, ß-endorphin (ß-EP), in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and AgRP in CSF and plasma after calorie restriction to validate their utility as biomarkers of brain melanocortin activity...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893517/ready-for-change-the-role-of-physician-and-staff-engagement-burnout-and-workplace-attributes
#7
Dorothy Hung, Po-Han Chen
We examined factors associated with change readiness among 343 primary care physicians and 590 nonphysician staff undergoing "Lean"-based process improvements. Baseline levels of engagement were associated with greater readiness for change across all measured domains. Job-related burnout correlated with greater need for change, but lower self-efficacy and perceived support, whereas a personal sense of accomplishment was associated with higher efficacy to implement changes. At a department level, teamwork, participation in decision making, and change history were associated with higher engagement and lower burnout among physicians and staff; conversely, a busy or stressful department correlated with lower engagement and higher burnout...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ambulatory Care Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890489/spinal-muscular-atrophy-types-i-and-ii-what-are-the-differences-in%C3%A2-body-composition-and-resting-energy-expenditure
#8
Simona Bertoli, Ramona De Amicis, Chiara Mastella, Giulia Pieri, Ester Giaquinto, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandro Leone, Giovanni Baranello
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Different neuromuscular functional domains in types I and II Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMAI and SMAII) could lead to differences in body composition (BC) and resting energy expenditure (REE). Their identification could provide the key to defining appropriate strategies in clinical dietary management, but data comparing SMAI and SMAII in terms of BC and REE are not yet available. We measured total and regional fat (FM), lean (LBM), mineral (BMC) masses, body water (total, intra- and extra-cellular, TBW, ICW, ECW) and REE in a sample of SMAI and II children, matched for age and sex, and also adjusting for body size to compare these features of the two SMA phenotypes...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876805/landscape-genetics-informs-mesohabitat-preference-and-conservation-priorities-for-a-surrogate-indicator-species-in-a-highly-fragmented-river-system
#9
J Lean, M P Hammer, P J Unmack, M Adams, L B Beheregaray
Poor dispersal species represent conservative benchmarks for biodiversity management because they provide insights into ecological processes influenced by habitat fragmentation that are less evident in more dispersive organisms. Here we used the poorly dispersive and threatened river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) as a surrogate indicator system for assessing the effects of fragmentation in highly modified river basins and for prioritizing basin-wide management strategies. We combined individual, population and landscape-based approaches to analyze genetic variation in samples spanning the distribution of the species in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, one of the world's most degraded freshwater systems...
November 23, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860065/the-application-of-lean-six-sigma-methodology-to-reduce-the-risk-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-surgery-departments
#10
Emma Montella, Maria Vincenza Di Cicco, Anna Ferraro, Piera Centobelli, Eliana Raiola, Maria Triassi, Giovanni Improta
RATIONALE: Nowadays, the monitoring and prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is a priority for the healthcare sector. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: In this article, we report on the application of the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology to reduce the number of patients affected by sentinel bacterial infections who are at risk of HAI. METHODS: The LSS methodology was applied in the general surgery department by using a multidisciplinary team of both physicians and academics...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856719/the-effect-of-obesity-on-the-contractile-performance-of-isolated-mouse-soleus-edl-and-diaphragm-muscles
#11
Jason Tallis, Cameron Hill, Rob S James, Val M Cox, Frank Seebacher
Obesity affects the major metabolic and cellular processes involved in skeletal muscle contractility. Surprisingly, the effect of obesity on isolated skeletal muscle performance remains unresolved. The present study is the first to examine the muscle specific changes in contractility following dietary induced obesity using an isolated muscle work-loop (WL) model that more closely represents in vivo muscle performance. Following 16-week high calorific feeding, soleus (SOL), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and diaphragm (DIA) were isolated from female (CD-1) mice and contractile performance compared against a lean control group...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835773/microbiota-of-high-pressure-processed-serrano-ham-investigated-by-culture-dependent-and-culture-independent-methods
#12
N Martínez-Onandi, A Castioni, E San Martín, A Rivas-Cañedo, M Nuñez, S Torriani, A Picon
The microbiota of Serrano dry-cured ham of different chemical composition, subjected or not to high-pressure processing (HPP), was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Microbial counts were submitted to analysis of variance with physicochemical parameters (aw, NaCl concentration, salt-in-lean ratio and intramuscular fat content) or HPP as main effects. In untreated hams, physicochemical parameters significantly affected counts of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and moulds and yeasts...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830937/mass-vaccinations-at-the-united-states-naval-academy
#13
Chrysanthy Ha, Christopher Taylor, Jitendrakumar R Modi
We analyzed the mass influenza vaccination clinic process at the United States Naval Academy to identify gaps and implement changes for improvement. The Lean Six Sigma methodology was employed. Total number of staff members working the clinic and total hours worked were measured at baseline in August 2013 and after implementation in August 2014 to determine improvement. The clinic was moved from a hallway to an auditorium, and a linear patient flow was established. Staff members wore vests for easy identification, and the supply box was reorganized...
November 10, 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829041/cognitive-bias-in-ambiguity-judgements-using-computational-models-to-dissect-the-effects-of-mild-mood-manipulation-in-humans
#14
Kiyohito Iigaya, Aurelie Jolivald, Wittawat Jitkrittum, Iain D Gilchrist, Peter Dayan, Elizabeth Paul, Michael Mendl
Positive and negative moods can be treated as prior expectations over future delivery of rewards and punishments. This provides an inferential foundation for the cognitive (judgement) bias task, now widely-used for assessing affective states in non-human animals. In the task, information about affect is extracted from the optimistic or pessimistic manner in which participants resolve ambiguities in sensory input. Here, we report a novel variant of the task aimed at dissecting the effects of affect manipulations on perceptual and value computations for decision-making under ambiguity in humans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822373/using-lean-methodology-to-improve-efficiency-of-electronic-order-set-maintenance-in-the-hospital
#15
Lori Idemoto, Barbara Williams, Craig Blackmore
Order sets, a series of orders focused around a diagnosis, condition, or treatment, can reinforce best practice, help eliminate outdated practice, and provide clinical guidance. However, order sets require regular updates as evidence and care processes change. We undertook a quality improvement intervention applying lean methodology to create a systematic process for order set review and maintenance. Root cause analysis revealed challenges with unclear prioritization of requests, lack of coordination between teams, and lack of communication between producers and requestors of order sets...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810133/improving-first-case-start-times-using-lean-in-an-academic-medical-center
#16
Romina Deldar, Tahereh Soleimani, Carol Harmon, Larry H Stevens, Rajiv Sood, Sunil S Tholpady, Michael W Chu
BACKGROUND: Lean is a process improvement strategy that can improve efficiency of the perioperative process. The purpose of this study was to identify etiologies of late surgery start times, implement Lean interventions, and analyze their effects. METHODS: A retrospective review of all first-start surgery cases was performed. Lean was implemented in May 2015, and cases 7 months before and after implementation were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 4,492 first-start cases were included; 2,181 were pre-Lean and 2,311 were post-Lean...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801291/computational-workflow-for-the-fine-grained-analysis-of-metagenomic-samples
#17
Esteban Pérez-Wohlfeil, Jose A Arjona-Medina, Oscar Torreno, Eugenia Ulzurrun, Oswaldo Trelles
BACKGROUND: The field of metagenomics, defined as the direct genetic analysis of uncultured samples of genomes contained within an environmental sample, is gaining increasing popularity. The aim of studies of metagenomics is to determine the species present in an environmental community and identify changes in the abundance of species under different conditions. Current metagenomic analysis software faces bottlenecks due to the high computational load required to analyze complex samples...
October 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777314/integrating-lean-exploration-loops-into-healthcare-facility-design-schematic-phase
#18
Kendra Johnson, Lukasz Mazur, Janet Chadwick, Pegah Pooya, Alison Amos, John McCreery
PURPOSE: To explore how Lean can add value during the schematic phase of design through providing additional resources and support to project leadership and the architectural design team. BACKGROUND: This case study-based research took place at one large academic hospital during design efforts of surgical tower to house 19 operating rooms (ORs) and support spaces including pre- and post-op, central processing and distribution, and materials management. Surgical services project leadership asked for Lean practitioners' support during the design process...
October 24, 2016: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765712/walking-balance-and-compensatory-gait-mechanisms-in-surgically-treated-patients-with-adult-spinal-deformity
#19
Mitsuru Yagi, Hideaki Ohne, Tsunehiko Konomi, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Shinjiro Kaneko, Masakazu Takemitsu, Masafumi Machida, Yoshiyuki Yato, Takashi Asazuma
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Gait patterns and their relationship to demographic and radiographic data in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) have not been fully documented. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess gait pattern in patients with ASD and the effect of corrective spinal surgery on gait. DESIGN/SETTING: This is a prospective case series. PATIENT SAMPLE: The gait patterns of 33 consecutive women with ASD (age 67...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749347/using-lean-six-sigma-methodology-to-improve-quality-of-the-anesthesia-supply-chain-in-a-pediatric-hospital
#20
Renée J Roberts, Ashley E Wilson, Zenaide Quezado
Six Sigma and Lean methodologies are effective quality improvement tools in many health care settings. We applied the DMAIC methodology (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) to address deficiencies in our pediatric anesthesia supply chain. We defined supply chain problems by mapping existing processes and soliciting comments from those involved. We used daily distance walked by anesthesia technicians and number of callouts for missing supplies as measurements that we analyzed before and after implementing improvements (anesthesia cart redesign)...
October 3, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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