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Michelle A Kominiarek, Priya Rajan
The nutritional status of a woman during pregnancy and lactation is not only critical for her health but for future generations. Although a nutritionist or registered dietitian can help facilitate dietary counseling and interventions, physicians also need to be cognizant of nutritional needs during pregnancy because they differ significantly compared with nonpregnant populations. Furthermore, an individualized approach to nutritional counseling that considers a woman's nutritional status and body mass index is recommended...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Maria Ines Schmidt, Wing Hung Tam, Harold David McIntyre, Patrick M Catalano
The global epidemic of obesity has led to an increasing number of obese women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with reduced fertility, and pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity are associated with adverse outcomes, including increased risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, instrumental and caesarean births, infections, and post-partum haemorrhage. The medical and obstetric management of obese women is focused on identifying, addressing, and preventing some of these associated complications, and is a daunting challenge given the high percentage of patients with obesity and few therapeutic options proven to improve outcomes in this population...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Corwin D Nelson, John D Lippolis, Timothy A Reinhardt, Randy E Sacco, Jessi L Powell, Mary E Drewnoski, Matthew O'Neil, Donald C Beitz, William P Weiss
The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not well known. The vitamin D status of animals is reliably indicated by the concentration of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] metabolite in serum or plasma, with a concentration of 30 ng/mL proposed as a lower threshold for sufficiency...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Eivind Kolstad, Gyri Veiby, Nils Erik Gilhus, Marte Bjørk
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether prepregnancy overweight in women with epilepsy increases their risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery. METHODS: This study is based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A diagnosis of epilepsy was reported in 706 pregnancies. Overweight was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 prepregnancy. Overweight women with epilepsy (n = 259) were compared to normal-weight women with epilepsy (n = 416), and to women without epilepsy with and without overweight (n = 30,516 and n = 67,977, respectively)...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsia
P M Down, A J Bradley, J E Breen, W J Browne, T Kypraios, M J Green
Importance of the dry period with respect to mastitis control is now well established although the precise interventions that reduce the risk of acquiring intramammary infections during this time are not clearly understood. There are very few intervention studies that have measured the clinical efficacy of specific mastitis interventions within a cost-effectiveness framework so there remains a large degree of uncertainty about the impact of a specific intervention and its costeffectiveness. The aim of this study was to use a Bayesian framework to investigate the cost-effectiveness of mastitis controls during the dry period...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
C Laur, L Ball, J Crowley, H Bell, J Maddock, S Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Public Health
Rebekah Graham, Ottilie Stolte, Darrin Hodgetts, Kerry Chamberlain
The dominant research approach to both food insecurity and charitable meal provision is nutritionistic, deficit-orientated and ignores wider socio-economic issues. This reinforces existing power dynamics and overlooks the agency of people living food-insecure lives. We critique this dominant approach and draw on the everyday experiences of families facing food insecurity to ground an alternative approach that emphasises food as a social determinant of health.
September 28, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Dick Rogers, Kelly Griswold, Paula Kellogg Leibovitz, Kevin L Sauer, Sharon Doughten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Sherry Coleman Collins
Incidence of food allergy has increased significantly over the past decade and represents an important health issue for millions of Americans. Diagnosis of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies is sometimes difficult because blood and skin tests have high rates of false positives, and oral food challenges are uncommon due to the expense and potential for serious reactions. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid unnecessary dietary restriction, especially in children. Because registered dietitian nutritionists often work independently, receiving referrals for dietary education and guidance for a patient who is followed by one or several other practitioners, navigating the data available and making the appropriate follow-up contact optimizes treatment...
October 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Maria Grazia Spurio
For a long time, terms like "mind" and "emotion" have rarely been taken into account, not even mentioned in the medical texts. The latest scientific researches, including the studies of Candace Pert, on the contrary, have emphasized that the entire body thinks, because every single cell hears, and feels emotions. The international researcher has discovered the endocrines and a vast number of neuropeptides, that work as an "information network" that interconnects the entire body, the "psychic" molecules are transmitted and travel, communicating information as in a circular and recursive body - mind mechanism...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Jennifer Di Noia, Dorothy Monica, Heewon Lee Gray, Karen Weber Cullen
BACKGROUND: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Fresh Start (WFS) is a randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers' market fruit and vegetable (F/V) purchases and consumption among women enrolled in WIC. OBJECTIVES: To describe the baseline characteristics (demographics and F/V intake [including F/V juice]) of WFS participants, compare the characteristics with those of WIC participants in New Jersey and nationwide, and examine the baseline reliability of study measures...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Hadis Sabour, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Zahra Soltani, Seyede Azemat Mousavifar, Sahar Latifi, Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ghodsi
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia...
July 6, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
Jerzy Falandysz, Leela M Rizal
The purpose of this paper is to review the detail concentration of arsenic in some species of mushrooms, and organic and inorganic forms of arsenic in the substrates where wild and cultivated edible mushrooms grow, are discussed. We also briefly reviewed the molecular forms of arsenic in mushrooms. There is still a lack of experimental data from the environment for a variety of species from different habitats and for different levels of geogenic arsenic in soil. This information will be useful for mushrooms consumers, nutritionists and food regulatory agencies by describing ways to minimize arsenic content in edible mushrooms and arsenic intake from mushroom meals...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
Noushin Mohammadifard, Ali Reza Khosravi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Awat Feizi, Zahra Abdollahi, Forouzan Salehi, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
BACKGROUND: The 24-hour urine sodium excretion is considered the gold standard method to estimate salt intake. However, since this method is not easy to perform, this study developed two instruments, including a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one spot urine sodium excretion, to assess sodium intake. These two methods were then compared with 24-h urine sodium excretion and twelve 24-h recalls during a year. METHODS: This study was performed on 219 healthy subjects aged ≥ 6 years in 2014-2015...
September 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Beata M Gruber
The importance of vitamins in the prevention of cancer has attracted the attention of consumers, nutritionists and scientists for decades. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, extended in the context of the function of vitamins, i.e. regulation of and participation in metabolic processes in the cell, suggest a substantial impact of these compounds on the initial stages of carcinogenesis. One-carbon metabolism involving folic acid, vitamins B2, B6 and B12, and folate metabolism doesn't only generate methyl groups, thus determining epigenetic processes, modifications of the genome and carcinogenesis...
May 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Rebecca B Costello, Johanna T Dwyer, Leila Saldanha, Regan L Bailey, Joyce Merkel, Edwina Wambogo
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp) has been suggested to help patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) achieve better glycemic control, although conclusions from meta-analyses are mixed. To evaluate whether the use of cinnamon dietary supplements by adults with T2DM had clinically meaningful effects on glycemic control, as measured by changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a comprehensive PubMed literature search was performed. Eleven randomized controlled trials were identified that met our inclusion criteria that enrolled 694 adults with T2DM receiving hypoglycemic medications or not...
September 8, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Yu Cheng, Xue Yang, Li-Xin Na, Ying Li, Chang-Hao Sun
Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight...
2016: Nutrients
David I Thurnham, Christine A Northrop-Clewes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Investigations to discover new biomarkers of nutrition highlighted the fact that inflammation and infection were cross-cutting issues complicating interpretation of status. Collaborative groups of nutritionists, immunologists, clinicians and statisticians were set up to investigate the issues, and some are now reporting their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work on the vitamins A, D, E and C and the elements iron, zinc and selenium are reported in this review...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Luciana Gavilan Dias Folchetti, Isis Tande da Silva, Bianca de Almeida-Pititto, Sandra Roberta G Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCDs) represent a burden for public health. Alongside the established cardiometabolic risk factors such as high blood pressure and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism, living habits and nutritional status at different stages of life are seen as contributors to this scenario. Gut microbiota composition and subclinical inflammation have been pointed out as underlying mechanisms of NCCDs. Studies involving health professionals have brought relevant contributions to the knowledge about risk factors...
2016: BMJ Open
Michele Cristina Miyauti da Silva, Luís Carlos Lopes, Lucila Castanheira Nascimento, Regina Aparecida Garcia de Lima
OBJECTIVE: to investigate health professionals' knowledge about the concept, assessment and intervention in fatigue in children and adolescents with cancer. METHOD: exploratory study with qualitative approach, with 53 health professionals (10 nurses, 33 assistant nurses, 3 physicians, 3 nutritionists, 2 psychologists and 2 physical therapists). Semi structured interviews were held, which were recorded and analyzed by means of inductive thematic content analysis...
2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
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