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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922536/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-attention-in-primary-school-children-short-term-association
#1
Jordi Sunyer, Elisabet Suades-González, Raquel García-Esteban, Ioar Rivas, Jesús Pujol, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Joan Forns, Xavier Querol, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Although air pollution's short-term effects are well understood to be marked and preventable, its acute neuropsychological effects have, to our knowledge, not yet been studied. We aim to examine the association between daily variation in traffic-related air pollution and attention. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study from January 2012 to March 2013 in 2,687 school children from 265 classrooms in 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). We assessed four domains of children's attention processes every 3 months over four repeated visits providing a total of 10,002 computerized tests on 177 different days using the child Attention Network test (ANT)...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922272/diversity-of-indoor-fungi-as-revealed-by-dna-metabarcoding
#2
Helena Korpelainen, Maria Pietiläinen
In the present study, we conducted DNA metabarcoding (the nuclear ITS2 region) for indoor fungal samples originating from two nursery schools with a suspected mould problem (sampling before and after renovation), from two university buildings, and from an old farmhouse. Good-quality sequences were obtained, and the results showed that DNA metabarcoding provides high resolution in fungal identification. The pooled proportions of sequences representing filamentous ascomycetes, filamentous basidiomycetes, yeasts, and other fungi equalled 62...
September 14, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922025/water-exchange-method-significantly-improves-adenoma-detection-rate-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Hui Jia, Yanglin Pan, Xuegang Guo, Lina Zhao, Xiangping Wang, Linhui Zhang, Tao Dong, Hui Luo, Zhizheng Ge, Jun Liu, Jianyu Hao, Ping Yao, Yao Zhang, Hongyu Ren, Weizhen Zhou, Yujie Guo, Wei Zhang, Xiaolin Chen, Dayong Sun, Xiaoqiang Yang, Xiaoyu Kang, Na Liu, Zhiguo Liu, Felix Leung, Kaichun Wu, Daiming Fan
OBJECTIVES: Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a key colonoscopy quality indicator in Western clinical literature. Our low ADR prompted us to assess novel methods to improve performance. Western retrospective reports suggested that water exchange (WE) could increase ADR. However, most of these studies used pain score or intubation rate as the primary outcome. Here we test the hypothesis that WE significantly increases ADR among Chinese colonoscopists and design a prospective randomized controlled trial using ADR as our primary outcome...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921226/the-relationship-between-aerosol-particles-chemical-composition-and-optical-properties-to-identify-the-biomass-burning-contribution-to-fine-particles-concentration-a-case-study-for-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil
#4
Regina Maura de Miranda, Fabio Lopes, Nilton Évora do Rosário, Marcia Akemi Yamasoe, Eduardo Landulfo, Maria de Fatima Andrade
The air quality in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is primarily determined by the local pollution source contribution, mainly the vehicular fleet, but there is a concern about the role of remote sources to the fine mode particles (PM2.5) concentration and composition. One of the most important remote sources of atmospheric aerosol is the biomass burning emissions from São Paulo state's inland and from the central and north portions of Brazil. This study presents a synergy of different measurements of atmospheric aerosol chemistry and optical properties in the MASP in order to show how they can be used as a tool to identify particles from local and remote sources...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919584/assessment-of-population-exposure-to-pm2-5-for-mortality-in-china-and-its-public-health-benefit-based-on-benmap
#5
Li Chen, Mengshuang Shi, Shuang Gao, Suhuan Li, Jian Mao, Hui Zhang, Yanling Sun, Zhipeng Bai, Zhongliang Wang
Along with the rapid socioeconomic development, air pollution in China has become a severe problem. One component of air pollution, in particular, PM2.5 has aroused wide public concern because of its high concentration. In this study, data were collected from over 900 monitoring sites of the newly constructed PM2.5 monitoring network in China. The interpolation methods were used to simulate the PM2.5 exposure level of China especially in rural areas, thus reflecting the spatial variation of PM2.5 pollution...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919555/benefits-on-public-health-from-transport-related-greenhouse-gas-mitigation-policies-in-southeastern-european-cities
#6
D A Sarigiannis, P Kontoroupis, S Nikolaki, A Gotti, D Chapizanis, S Karakitsios
Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario...
December 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918743/could-formaldehyde-induce-mutagenic-and-cytotoxic-effects-in-buccal-epithelial-cells-during-anatomy-classes
#7
D-C Lorenzoni, L-P Pinheiro, H-S Nascimento, C-S Menegardo, R-G Silva, W-G Bautz, J-F Henriques, K-L Almeida-Coburn, L-N da Gama-de-Souza
BACKGROUND: Due to increased formaldehyde exposure, carcinogenic to humans, several researches have been studying the potential toxicity and the safe levels for human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in buccal epithelial exfoliated cells (BEC) of students subjected to formaldehyde (FA) during anatomy classes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: BEC were collected periodically from 17 volunteers of undergraduate programs, who had participated in practical anatomy classes, before and after FA exposure...
December 6, 2016: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918460/indoor-air-quality-in-the-metro-system-in-north-taiwan
#8
Ying-Yi Chen, Fung-Chang Sung, Mei-Lien Chen, I-Fang Mao, Chung-Yen Lu
Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS) in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ozone (O₃), airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918457/air-quality-strategies-on-public-health-and-health-equity-in-europe-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Li Wang, Buqing Zhong, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Fengying Zhang, Eva Pilot, Yonghua Li, Linsheng Yang, Wuyi Wang, Thomas Krafft
Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916264/the-use-of-conifer-needles-as-biomonitor-candidates-for-the-study-of-temporal-air-pollution-variation-in-the-strasbourg-region
#10
Josephine Al-Alam, Ziad Fajloun, Asma Chbani, Maurice Millet
The continuous emission of polluting chemicals into the atmosphere requires the implementation of monitoring of ambient air quality. The use of vegetation for environmental monitoring can be considered as a simple monitoring technique by providing a cheap and accessible matrix. In this study, needles of two conifers (Pinus nigra and Cedrus atlantica), were used for the consecutive biomonitoring of multipollutants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban area in Strasbourg (France)...
December 1, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914781/incident-air-kerma-to-absorbed-organ-dose-conversion-factors-for-breast-and-lung-in-pa-thorax-radiography-the-effect-of-patient-thickness-and-radiation-quality
#11
A Kelaranta, P Toroi, P Vock
PURPOSE: Converting the measurable quantities to patient organ doses in projection radiography is usually based on a standard-sized patient model and a specific radiation quality, which are likely to differ from the real situation. Large inaccuracies can therefore be obtained in organ doses, because organ doses are dependent on the exposure parameters, exposure geometry and patient anatomy. In this study, the effect of radiation quality and patient thickness on the organ dose conversion factors were determined...
November 30, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914645/comparison-of-diverse-estimation-methods-for-personal-exposure-to-air-pollutants-and-associations-with-allergic-symptoms-the-allergy-gene-environment-link-angel-study
#12
Young-Min Kim, Jihyun Kim, Youngshin Han, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Inbo Oh, Gwi-Nam Bae, Jae Young Lee, Chang-Heok Kim, SungChul Seo, Su Ryeon Noh, Kangmo Ahn
We estimated the exposure to ambient air pollutants and analyzed the associations with allergic diseases. We enrolled 177 children with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 70 asthmatic adults living in Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and followed for 17months between August 2013 and December 2014. Parents or patients recorded symptom scores on a daily basis. Exposure to particulate matter with a diameter <10μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated in four different ways in each individual, using the AQ1 (measurements from the nearest air quality monitoring station to residential houses), AQ2 (measurements modified from AQ1 with the indoor level of air pollutants and time activity of each individual), AQ1-DI, and AQ2-DI (measurements modified from AQ1 and AQ2, respectively, with daily inhalation intakes of air pollutants)...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914642/chemical-and-physical-properties-of-biomass-burning-aerosols-and-their-ccn-activity-a-case-study-in-beijing-china
#13
Zhijun Wu, Jing Zheng, Yu Wang, Dongjie Shang, Zhoufei Du, Yuanhang Zhang, Min Hu
Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM1) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913014/characterizations-of-atmospheric-particulate-bound-mercury-in-the-kathmandu-valley-of-nepal-south-asia
#14
Junming Guo, Shichang Kang, Jie Huang, Qianggong Zhang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shiwei Sun, Lekhendra Tripathee, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K Panday, Mika Sillanpää, Rukumesh Paudyal
The Kathmandu Valley, located in the Himalayan foothills in Nepal, is heavily polluted. In order to investigate ambient particulate-bound mercury (Hg) in the Kathmandu Valley, a total 64 total suspended particulates (TSP) samples were collected from a sub-urban site in the Kathmandu Valley, the capital region of Nepal during a sampling period of an entire year (April 2013-April 2014). They were analyzed for ambient particulate-bound Hg (PBM) using thermal desorption combined with cold vapor atomic spectroscopy...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908624/a-review-of-biomass-burning-emissions-and-impacts-on-air-quality-health-and-climate-in-china
#15
REVIEW
Jianmin Chen, Chunlin Li, Zoran Ristovski, Andelija Milic, Yuantong Gu, Mohammad S Islam, Shuxiao Wang, Jiming Hao, Hefeng Zhang, Congrong He, Hai Guo, Hongbo Fu, Branka Miljevic, Lidia Morawska, Phong Thai, Yun Fat Lam, Gavin Pereira, Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, Umesh C Dumka
Biomass burning (BB) is a significant air pollution source, with global, regional and local impacts on air quality, public health and climate. Worldwide an extensive range of studies has been conducted on almost all the aspects of BB, including its specific types, on quantification of emissions and on assessing its various impacts. China is one of the countries where the significance of BB has been recognized, and a lot of research efforts devoted to investigate it, however, so far no systematic reviews were conducted to synthesize the information which has been emerging...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908382/water-soluble-and-organic-extracts-of-airborne-particulate-matter-induce-micronuclei-in-human-lung-epithelial-a549-cells
#16
Isabel C Palacio, Silvia B M Barros, Deborah A Roubicek
The in vitro genotoxic effects of organic and water-soluble fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM10) with the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) test in human alveolar carcinoma cells A549 were investigated. Samples were collected in three different sites of São Paulo State, Brazil, and fifteen soluble metals and the sixteen EPÁs priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were chemically determined. PAHs prevailing were fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene. In the water-soluble extracts, highest concentration of metals was found for zinc, iron, and copper in all places of collection...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907205/household-air-pollution-and-acute-lower-respiratory-infections-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#17
Hannah Jary, Hope Simpson, Deborah Havens, Geoffrey Manda, Daniel Pope, Nigel Bruce, Kevin Mortimer
INTRODUCTION: Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905059/exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-impairs-fracture-healing-in-rats
#18
Hildemberg A R Santiago, Ariane Zamarioli, Manoel D Sousa Neto, Jose B Volpon
BACKGROUND: Nonsmokers may be affected by environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke), but the effects of such exposure on fracture healing have not been well studied. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To explore the possible effects of passive inhalation of tobacco smoke on the healing of a diaphyseal fracture in femurs of rats. We hypothesized that secondhand exposure to tobacco smoke adversely affects fracture healing. METHODS: A mid-diaphyseal fracture was created in the femur of 41 female Wistar rats and fixed with an intramedullary metallic pin; 14 rats were excluded (nine for inadequate fractures and five for K wire extrusion)...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904846/complete-congenital-heart-block-in-a-neonate-with-a-complex-congenital-heart-defect-in-africa
#19
Clovis Nkoke, Edvine Yonta Wawo, Liliane Kuate Mfeukeu, Larissa Makamte, Sandrine Dikosso Edie, Flore Esiene Balana
Congenital heart block (CHB) is rare disorder that has a higher mortality when associated with structural congenital heart defects. Very few cases have been reported in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We present a case of complete CHB associated with a complex congenital heart defect in a neonate in Cameroon. A 1-month-old neonate in Cameroon was referred for the evaluation of bradycardia. The obstetrical ultrasound done during pregnancy revealed fetal bradycardia without further evaluation. Clinical examination showed well a developed neonate with bradycardia at 62 beats/minute, and mild cyanosis with oxygen saturation at 93% at room air...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904610/effects-of-air-pollution-on-human-health-and-practical-measures-for-prevention-in-iran
#20
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
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