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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549972/quality-by-design-approach-for-studying-the-impact-of-formulation-and-process-variables-on-product-quality-of-oral-disintegrating-films
#1
Sonal Mazumder, Naresh Pavurala, Prashanth Manda, Xiaoming Xu, Celia N Cruz, Yellela S R Krishnaiah
The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of formulation and process variables on the quality of oral disintegrating films (ODF) using Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Lamotrigine (LMT) was used as a model drug. Formulation variable was plasticizer to film former ratio and process variables were drying temperature, air flow rate in the drying chamber, drying time and wet coat thickness of the film. A Definitive Screening Design: of Experiments (DoE) was used to identify and classify the critical formulation and process variables impacting critical quality attributes (CQA)...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547992/spatial-and-temporal-variations-in-characteristic-ratios-of-elemental-carbon-with-carbon-monoxide-and-nitrogen-oxides-across-the-united-states
#2
Aishwarya Raman, Avelino Florentino Arellano
A ratio-based method is used to characterize anthropogenic elemental carbon (ECa) using in-situ measurements and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). We use long-term records of ground-based measurements from United States Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System (USEPA/AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments to assess the patterns in anthropogenic combustion ratios (ΔECa/ΔCO and ΔECa/ΔNOX) across the US Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) regions for the years 2000-2015...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546266/health-related-quality-of-life-and-risk-factors-associated-with-spirometric-restriction
#3
Stefano Guerra, Anne-Elie Carsin, Dirk Keidel, Jordi Sunyer, Bénédicte Leynaert, Christer Janson, Debbie Jarvis, Daiana Stolz, Thomas Rothe, Marco Pons, Alexander Turk, Josep M Anto, Nicole Probst-Hensch
The restrictive spirometric pattern is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality burden. We sought to determine to what extent spirometric restriction is associated with impaired quality of life.We used data from two large population-based European cohorts: 6698 European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) and 6069 Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) adult participants. The restrictive pattern was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥lower limit of normal (LLN) and FVC <LLN; an obstructive pattern was defined as FEV1/FVC <LLN independent of FVC...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545939/relationship-between-climatic-factors-and-air-quality-with-tuberculosis-in-the-federal-district-brazil-2003-2012
#4
Fernanda Monteiro de Castro Fernandes, Eder de Souza Martins, Daniella Melo Arnaud Sampaio Pedrosa, Maria do Socorro Nantua Evangelista
INTRODUCTION: Despite the high rate of tuberculosis (TB) indicators in Brazil, the Federal District (FD) shows a low prevalence of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between climatic factors and air quality with tuberculosis in the Brazilian Federal District. METHODOLOGY: This was an ecological and descriptive study comparing 3927 new cases of TB registered at the Federal District Tuberculosis Control Program with data from the National Institute of Meteorology, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Brazilian Agricultural Research Institute, Brasilia Environmental Institute, and the Federal District Planning Company...
May 22, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545203/influence-of-urban-vegetation-on-air-pollution-and-noise-exposure-a-case-study-in-gothenburg-sweden
#5
Jenny Klingberg, Malin Broberg, Bo Strandberg, Pontus Thorsson, Håkan Pleijel
Air pollution levels (NO2, PAHs, O3) were investigated, before (BLE) and after (ALE) leaf emergence, in the urban landscape of Gothenburg, Sweden. The aims were to study the 1) spatial and temporal variation in pollution levels between urban green areas, 2) effect of urban vegetation on air pollution levels at the same distance from a major emission source (traffic route), 3) improvement of urban air quality in urban parks compared to adjacent sites near traffic, 4) correlation between air pollution and noise in a park...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545099/fine-particles-in-homes-of-predominantly-low-income-families-with-children-and-smokers-key-physical-and-behavioral-determinants-to-inform-indoor-air-quality-interventions
#6
Neil E Klepeis, John Bellettiere, Suzanne C Hughes, Benjamin Nguyen, Vincent Berardi, Sandy Liles, Saori Obayashi, C Richard Hofstetter, Elaine Blumberg, Melbourne F Hovell
Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544519/the-effect-of-helium-oxygen-assisted-mechanical-ventilation-on-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbation-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Xu Wu, Chuan Shao, Liang Zhang, Jinjing Tu, Hui Xu, Zhihui Lin, Shuguang Xu, Biyun Yu, Yaodong Tang, Shanqun Li
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often accompanied by acute exacerbations. Patients of COPD exacerbation suffering from respiratory failure often need the support of mechanical ventilation. Helium-oxygen can be used to reduce airway resistance during mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of helium-oxygen-assisted mechanical ventilation on COPD exacerbation through a meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search through databases of Pub Med (1966∼2016), Ovid MEDLINE (1965∼2016), Cochrane EBM (1991∼2016), EMBASE (1974∼2016) and Ovid MEDLINE was performed to identify associated studies...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541795/near-roadway-monitoring-of-vehicle-emissions-as-a-function-of-mode-of-operation-for-ldvs
#8
Dongqi Wen, Wenjuan Zhai, Sheng Xiang, Zhice Hu, Tongchuan Wei, Kenneth E Noll
Determination of the effect of vehicles emissions on air quality near roadways is important because vehicles are a major source of air pollution. A near roadway monitoring program was undertaken in Chicago between August 4 and October 30 2014 to measure ultrafine particles, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, traffic volume and speed, and wind direction and speed. The objective of this study was to develop a method to relate short term changes in traffic mode of operation to air quality near roadways using data averaged over 5 minute intervals to provide a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution concentrations near roadways...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541679/biomagnetic-monitoring-of-atmospheric-pollution-a-review-of-magnetic-signatures-from-biological-sensors
#9
Jelle Hofman, Barbara A Maher, Adrian R Muxworthy, Karen Wuyts, Ana Castanheiro, Roeland Samson
Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution is a growing application in the field of environmental magnetism. Particulate matter (PM) in atmospheric pollution contains readily-measurable concentrations of magnetic minerals. Biological surfaces, exposed to atmospheric pollution, accumulate magnetic particles over time, providing a record of location-specific, time-integrated air quality information. This review summarizes current knowledge of biological material ('sensors') used for biomagnetic monitoring purposes...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540543/impact-of-socioeconomic-and-meteorological-factors-on-reservoirs-air-quality-a-case-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-of-chongqing-tgrc-china-over-a-10-year-period
#10
Ying Peng, Fengwu Zhou, Jian Cui, Ke Du, Qiangmei Leng, Fumo Yang, Andy Chan, Hongting Zhao
The Three Gorges Dam's construction and industrial transfer have resulted in a new air pollution pattern with the potential to threaten the reservoir eco-environment. To assess the impact of socioeconomic factors on the pattern of air quality vairation and economical risks, concentrations of SO2, NO2, and PM10, industry genres, and meteorological conditions were selected in the Three Gorges Reservoir of Chongqing (TGRC) during 2006-2015. Results showed that air quality had improved to some extent, but atmospheric NO2 showed an increased trend during 2011-2015...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540437/volatile-organic-compounds-and-good-laboratory-practices-in-the-in-vitro-fertilization-laboratory-the-important-parameters-for-successful-outcome-in-extended-culture
#11
Nupur Agarwal, Ratna Chattopadhyay, Sanghamitra Ghosh, Arpita Bhoumik, S K Goswami, Baidyanath Chakravarty
PURPOSE: This study aims to describe the role of implementing good laboratory practices to improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes which are of great interest for practitioners dealing with infertility. METHODS: Certain modifications were introduced in May 2015 in our IVF laboratory like high-efficiency particulate air CODA system, steel furniture instead of wooden, use of new disinfectants like oosafe, and restriction of personnel entry along with avoidance of cosmetics like perfume to improve pregnancy rates...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539180/visual-and-hearing-impairment-and-retirement-in-older-adults-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Bamini Gopinath, Gerald Liew, George Burlutsky, Catherine M McMahon, Paul Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Impaired vision and hearing are common among older adults and have been shown to reduce functional independence and to reduce quality of life. This cohort study investigated the cross-sectional and temporal associations between objectively measured dual sensory impairment (DSI) and retirement from employment. STUDY DESIGN: 2409 Blue Mountains Eye Study participants aged 55+ years at baseline were included for analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity less than 20/40 (better eye), and hearing impairment as average pure-tone air conduction threshold >25dB HL (500-4000Hz, better ear)...
June 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538790/challenges-for-conducting-blood-collection-and-biochemical-analysis-in-a-large-multicenter-school-based-study-with-adolescents-lessons-from-erica-in-brazil
#13
Felipe Vogt Cureau, Katia Vergetti Bloch, Aline Henz, Camila W Schaan, Carlos Henrique Klein, Cecília Lacroix de Oliveira, Denise Tavares Giannini, Elisa Brosina de Leon, Gabriela de Azevedo Abreu, Gabriela Heiden Telo, Glauber Monteiro Dias, Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho, Laura Augusta Barufaldi, Maria Cristina Caetano Kuschnir, Moyses Szklo, Renan Montenegro, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da Silva, Ulf Ekelund, Beatriz D Schaan
The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (ERICA) is a pioneering study that aimed to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including metabolic syndrome components in Brazilian adolescents. This study aims to describe the methodological aspects related to blood collection as well as to report pertaining results of the preparation, transport, storage, and exams in ERICA. Exams in ERICA were performed in a single laboratory and blood samples were collected in schools in a standardized manner...
May 18, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538078/vibroplasty-in-severe-congenital-or-acquired-meatal-stenosis-by-coupling-an-active-middle-ear-implant-to-the-short-process-of-the-incus
#14
Jan Peter Thomas, Christiane Voelter, Katrin Neumann, Stefan Dazert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of coupling an active middle ear implant to the short process of the incus in subjects with meatal pathologies. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Twelve patients suffering from either congenital aural atresia or acquired meatal fibrosis. INTERVENTION: Implantation of an active middle ear implant with coupling of the actuator to the short process of the incus...
May 19, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537401/low-power-photothermal-self-oscillation-of-bimetallic-nanowires
#15
Roberto De Alba, Thanniyil Sebastian Abhilash, Richard H Rand, Harold G Craighead, Jeevak M Parpia
We investigate the nonlinear mechanics of a bimetallic, optically absorbing SiN-Nb nanowire in the presence of incident laser light and a reflecting Si mirror. Situated in a standing wave of optical intensity and subject to photothermal forces, the nanowire undergoes self-induced oscillations at low incident light thresholds of <1μW due to engineered strong temperature-position (T-z) coupling. Along with inducing self-oscillation, laser light causes large changes to the mechanical resonant frequency ω0 and equilibrium position z0 that cannot be neglected...
May 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536962/trace-element-contents-in-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-in-urban-school-microenvironments-near-a-contaminated-beach-with-mine-tailings-cha%C3%A3-aral-chile
#16
Stephanie Mesías Monsalve, Leonardo Martínez, Karla Yohannessen Vásquez, Sergio Alvarado Orellana, José Klarián Vergara, Miguel Martín Mateo, Rogelio Costilla Salazar, Mauricio Fuentes Alburquenque, Dante D Cáceres Lillo
Air quality in schools is an important public health issue because children spend a considerable part of their daily life in classrooms. Particulate size and chemical composition has been associated with negative health effects. We studied levels of trace element concentrations in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in indoor versus outdoor school settings from six schools in Chañaral, a coastal city with a beach severely polluted with mine tailings. Concentrations of trace elements were measured on two consecutive days during the summer and winter of 2012 and 2013 and determined using X-ray fluorescence...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536439/pesticides-in-fine-airborne-particles-from-a-green-analysis-method-to-atmospheric-characterization-and-risk-assessment
#17
Madson M Nascimento, Gisele O da Rocha, Jailson B de Andrade
The intensive use of pesticides such as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and acaricides has been lead to ubiquitous contamination, being present not only in soils, water bodies and/or crops, but also in the atmosphere. Considering the massive amount of pesticides employed globally, together to their persistence, this may be an important concern regarding air quality and human health worldwide. In the present study we developed a green sensitive sample preparation method for determination of nine organophosphates, two pyrethroids, one carbamate, and one strobirulin in PM2...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534713/the-influence-of-thermal-comfort-on-the-quality-of-life-of-nursing-home-residents
#18
Ana Mendes, Ana Luísa Papoila, Pedro Carreiro-Martins, Lívia Aguiar, Stefano Bonassi, Iolanda Caires, Teresa Palmeiro, Álvaro Silva Ribeiro, Paula Neves, Cristiana Pereira, Amália Botelho, Nuno Neuparth, João Paulo Teixeira
Thermal comfort (TC) parameters were measured in 130 rooms from nursing homes (NH), following ISO 7730:2005 in order to evaluate the influence of winter season TC indices on quality of life (QoL) in older individuals. Mean radiant temperature (mrT), predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percent of dissatisfied people (PPD) indices, and the respective measurement uncertainties were calculated using Monte Carlo Method. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was conducted from September 2012 to April 2013, during the winter season TC sampling campaign...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534494/airborne-observations-reveal-elevational-gradient-in-tropical-forest-isoprene-emissions
#19
Dasa Gu, Alex B Guenther, John E Shilling, Haofei Yu, Maoyi Huang, Chun Zhao, Qing Yang, Scot T Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Saewung Kim, Roger Seco, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Karla M Longo, Julio Tóta, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Oscar Vega, Ying Liu, Manish Shrivastava, Eliane G Alves, Fernando C Santos, Guoyong Leng, Zhiyuan Hu
Isoprene dominates global non-methane volatile organic compound emissions, and impacts tropospheric chemistry by influencing oxidants and aerosols. Isoprene emission rates vary over several orders of magnitude for different plants, and characterizing this immense biological chemodiversity is a challenge for estimating isoprene emission from tropical forests. Here we present the isoprene emission estimates from aircraft eddy covariance measurements over the Amazonian forest. We report isoprene emission rates that are three times higher than satellite top-down estimates and 35% higher than model predictions...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534316/relationship-between-air-quality-and-outdoor-exercise-behavior-in-china-a-novel-mobile-based-study
#20
Liang Hu, Li Zhu, Yaping Xu, Jiaying Lyu, Kellie Imm, Lin Yang
PURPOSE: Based on data collected from an exercise app, the study aims to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between air quality and patterns of outdoor exercise in China. METHODS: Objective outdoor exercise data spanning 160 days were collected from 153 users of an exercise app, Tulipsport in China. Each exercise mode (running, biking, and walking, respectively) was organized into five air quality categories based on Air Quality Index (AQI): excellent, good, mild pollution, moderate pollution, and serious pollution...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
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