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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432989/the-effect-of-natural-ventilation-strategy-on-indoor-air-quality-in-schools
#1
Luca Stabile, Marco Dell'Isola, Aldo Russi, Angelamaria Massimo, Giorgio Buonanno
In order to reduce children's exposure to pollutants in classrooms a proper ventilation strategy need to be adopted. Such strategy is even more important in naturally ventilated schools where the air exchange rate is only based on the manual airing of classrooms. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of the manual airing strategy on indoor air quality in Italian classrooms. For this aim, schools located in the Central Italy were investigated. Indoor air quality was studied in terms of CO2, particle number and PM concentrations and compared to corresponding outdoor levels...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432965/spatiotemporal-description-of-btex-volatile-organic-compounds-in-a-middle-eastern-megacity-tehran-study-of-exposure-prediction-for-environmental-health-research-tehran-sepehr
#2
Heresh Amini, Vahid Hosseini, Christian Schindler, Hossein Hassankhany, Masud Yunesian, Sarah B Henderson, Nino Künzli
The spatiotemporal variability of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Tehran, Iran, is not well understood. Here we present the design, methods, and results of the Tehran Study of Exposure Prediction for Environmental Health Research (Tehran SEPEHR) on ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX. To date, this is the largest study of its kind in a low- and middle-income country and one of the largest globally. We measured BTEX concentrations at five reference sites and 174 distributed sites identified by a cluster analytic method...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432908/particulate-matter-pollution-from-aviation-related-activity-at-a-small-airport-of-the-aegean-sea-insular-region
#3
C Psanis, E Triantafyllou, M Giamarelou, M Manousakas, K Eleftheriadis, G Biskos
The unprecedented growth in aviation during the last years has resulted in a notable increase of local air pollution related to airports. The impacts of aviation on air quality can be extremely high particularly around airports serving remote insular regions with pristine atmospheric environments. Here we report measurements that show how the atmospheric aerosol is affected by the activity at a small airport in a remote region. More specifically, we provide measurements performed at the airport of Mytilene, Greece, a regional yet international airport that serves the entire island of Lesvos; the third largest island of the country...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432210/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-complex-intervention-to-reduce-children-s-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-in-the-home
#4
Elena Ratschen, Rebecca Thorley, Laura Jones, Magdalena Opazo Breton, Juliette Cook, Ann McNeill, John Britton, Tim Coleman, Sarah Lewis
OBJECTIVES: Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) causes significant harm and occurs predominantly through smoking by caregivers in the family home. We report a trial of a complex intervention designed to reduce secondhand smoke exposure of children whose primary caregiver feels unable or unwilling to quit smoking. DESIGN: An open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Deprived communities in Nottingham City and County, England PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers resident in Nottingham City and County in England who were at least 18 years old, the main caregiver of a child aged under 5 years living in their household, and reported that they were smoking tobacco inside their home...
April 21, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431574/does-where-you-live-matter-to-your-health-investigating-factors-that-influence-the-self-rated-health-of-urban-and-rural-chinese-residents-evidence-drawn-from-chinese-general-social-survey-data
#5
Hongsheng Chen, Ye Liu, Zhenjun Zhu, Zhigang Li
BACKGROUND: China's rapid urbanization over the past decades has exacerbated the problems of environmental degradation and health disparities. However, few studies have analysed the differences between urban and rural residents in relation to how environmental quality impacts health outcomes. This study examines the associations between Chinese people's perceptions of environmental quality and their self-rated health, particularly focusing on differences between rural and urban residents in environment-health relationships...
April 21, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431389/prediction-of-size-fractionated-airborne-particle-bound-metals-using-mlr-bp-ann-and-svm-analyses
#6
Xiang'zi Leng, Jinhua Wang, Haibo Ji, Qin'geng Wang, Huiming Li, Xin Qian, Fengying Li, Meng Yang
Size-fractionated heavy metal concentrations were observed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 2014 to 2015 (spanning all four seasons) from suburban (Xianlin) and industrial (Pukou) areas in Nanjing, a megacity of southeast China. Rapid prediction models of size-fractionated metals were established based on multiple linear regression (MLR), back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) by using meteorological factors and PM concentrations as input parameters...
April 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431357/soil-organic-carbon-and-nitrogen-pools-drive-soil-c-co2-emissions-from-selected-soils-in-maritime-antarctica
#7
C V Pires, C E R G Schaefer, A K Hashigushi, A Thomazini, E I F Filho, E S Mendonça
The ongoing trend of increasing air temperatures will potentially affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and soil C-CO2 emissions in terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica. The effects of SOM quality on this process remain little explored. We evaluated (i) the quantity and quality of soil organic matter and (ii) the potential of C release through CO2 emissions in lab conditions in different soil types from Maritime Antarctica. Soil samples (0-10 and 10-20cm) were collected in Keller Peninsula and the vicinity of Arctowski station, to determine the quantity and quality of organic matter and the potential to emit CO2 under different temperature scenarios (2, 5, 8 and 11°C) in lab...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431317/ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-premature-mortality-burden-in-the-holy-city-varanasi-india
#8
Vaishali Jain, Sagnik Dey, Sourangsu Chowdhury
More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431316/pbdes-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pose-a-risk-to-captive-giant-pandas
#9
Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Aaron M Ellison, Yan Zhao, Qing-Yi Ma
The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis), is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit Qinling Mountains. Previous research revealed captive pandas were exposed to bromine, so we hypothesized that captive pandas were exposed to and affected by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To test this hypothesis, we tested blood and feces of captive and wild pandas, their drinking water, food (bamboo leaves) from SWARC (Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center)and FNNR (Foping National Nature Reserve) and supplemental feedstuff given to captive panda at SWARC...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429776/global-distribution-of-particle-phase-state-in-atmospheric-secondary-organic-aerosols
#10
Manabu Shiraiwa, Ying Li, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Thomas Berkemeier, Spyros N Pandis, Jos Lelieveld, Thomas Koop, Ulrich Pöschl
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a large source of uncertainty in our current understanding of climate change and air pollution. The phase state of SOA is important for quantifying their effects on climate and air quality, but its global distribution is poorly characterized. We developed a method to estimate glass transition temperatures based on the molar mass and molecular O:C ratio of SOA components, and we used the global chemistry climate model EMAC with the organic aerosol module ORACLE to predict the phase state of atmospheric SOA...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429398/efficacy-of-passive-sampler-collection-for-atmospheric-no2-isotopes-under-simulated-environmental-conditions
#11
Justin G Coughlin, Zhongjie Yu, Emily M Elliott
RATIONALE: Nitrogen oxides or NOx (NOx  = NO + NO2 ) play an important role in air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate. The isotopic compositions of anthropogenic and natural NO2 sources are wide-ranging, and they can be used to constrain sources of ambient NO2 and associated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. While passive sample collection of NO2 isotopes has been used in field studies to determine NOx source influences on atmospheric deposition, this approach has not been evaluated for accuracy or precision under different environmental conditions...
April 20, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427667/membrane-cleaning-with-ultrasonically-driven-bubbles
#12
Fabian Reuter, Sonja Lauterborn, Robert Mettin, Werner Lauterborn
A laboratory filtration plant for drinking water treatment is constructed to study the conditions for purely mechanical in situ cleaning of fouled polymeric membranes by the application of ultrasound. The filtration is done by suction of water with defined constant contamination through a membrane module, a stack of five pairs of flat-sheet ultrafiltration membranes. The short cleaning cycle to remove the cake layer from the membranes includes backwashing, the application of ultrasound and air flushing. A special geometry for sound irradiation of the membranes parallel to their surfaces is chosen...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425896/a-longitudinal-cohort-study-examining-determinants-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-adulthood
#13
Caroline Barakat-Haddad, Usman Saeed, Susan Elliott
OBJECTIVES: Adulthood overweight and obesity are multifaceted conditions influenced by a combination of biological, environmental and socio-cultural factors across the lifespan. Using a longitudinal study design, we aimed to identify determinants of adulthood overweight and obesity, in relation to: 1) childhood and life course factors, 2) geographical differences in air quality, and 3) gender-specific factors, in a cohort followed from childhood into adulthood. METHODS: Childhood data were acquired (1978-1986) from children residing in four distinct Hamilton neighbourhoods (Ontario, Canada), including air-quality assessments...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425630/earth-abundant-chalcogenide-photovoltaic-devices-with-over-5-efficiency-based-on-a-cu2-basn-s-se-4-absorber
#14
Donghyeop Shin, Tong Zhu, Xuan Huang, Oki Gunawan, Volker Blum, David B Mitzi
In recent years, Cu2 ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) materials have enabled important progress in associated thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology, while avoiding scarce and/or toxic metals; however, cationic disorder and associated band tailing fundamentally limit device performance. Cu2 BaSnS4 (CBTS) has recently been proposed as a prospective alternative large bandgap (~2 eV), environmentally friendly PV material, with ~2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) already demonstrated in corresponding devices. In this study, a two-step process (i...
April 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424961/tillandsia-usneoides-a-successful-alternative-for-biomonitoring-changes-in-air-quality-due-to-a-new-highway-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#15
EDITORIAL
Poliana Cardoso-Gustavson, Francine Faia Fernandes, Edenise Segala Alves, Mariana Pereira Victorio, Barbara Baesso Moura, Marisa Domingos, Caroline Albuquerque Rodrigues, Andreza Portella Ribeiro, Catarina Carvalho Nievola, Ana Maria G Figueiredo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423881/effects-of-calcium-propionate-on-the-fermentation-quality-and-aerobic-stability-of-alfalfa-silage
#16
Zhi Hao Dong, Xian Jun Yuan, Ai You Wen, Seare T Desta, Tao Shao
Objective: To assess the potency of calcium propionate used as silage additive, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of calcium propionate on the nitrogen transformation, fermentation quality and aerobic stability of alfalfa silages. Methods: Alfalfa was ensiled with four levels of calcium propionate (CAP; 5, 10, 15 and 20 g kg-1 of fresh weigh) in laboratory silos for 30 days. After opening, the silages were analyzed for the chemical and microbiological characteristics, and subjected to an aerobic stability test...
March 25, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423205/the-impact-of-biogas-and-fuelwood-use-on-institutional-kitchen-air-quality-in-kampala-uganda
#17
Aleia Ingulli McCord, Sarah Adel Stefanos, Vianney Tumwesige, Dorothy Lsoto, Anna Hillstrom Meding, Angela Adong, James Jay Schauer, Rebecca Anne Larson
Experts have suggested that microscale biogas systems offer a source of renewable energy that improves indoor air quality, but such impacts have not been directly measured. This study documented cooking behaviors and measured 2.5 μm particulate matter (PM2.5 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) concentrations within 14 institutional kitchens in Kampala, Uganda that prepare meals using biogas (n=5), a mixture of biogas and fuelwood (n=3), and fuelwood (n=6). Small institutions (10-30 people) with biogas kitchens had 99% lower concentrations of PM2...
April 19, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423049/inmap-a-model-for-air-pollution-interventions
#18
Christopher W Tessum, Jason D Hill, Julian D Marshall
Mechanistic air pollution modeling is essential in air quality management, yet the extensive expertise and computational resources required to run most models prevent their use in many situations where their results would be useful. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422971/comparison-of-chemical-use-between-hydraulic-fracturing-acidizing-and-routine-oil-and-gas-development
#19
William T Stringfellow, Mary Kay Camarillo, Jeremy K Domen, Seth B C Shonkoff
The potential hazards and risks associated with well-stimulation in unconventional oil and gas development (hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, and matrix acidizing) have been investigated and evaluated and federal and state regulations requiring chemical disclosure for well-stimulation have been implemented as part of an overall risk management strategy for unconventional oil and gas development. Similar evaluations for chemicals used in other routine oil and gas development activities, such as maintenance acidizing, gravel packing, and well drilling, have not been previously conducted, in part due to a lack of reliable information concerning on-field chemical-use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420188/health-risk-assessment-of-indoor-air-quality-socioeconomic-and-house-characteristics-on-respiratory-health-among-women-and-children-of-tirupur-south-india
#20
Krassi Rumchev, Yun Zhao, Jeffery Spickett
Background: Indoor air pollution is still considered as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and especially in developing countries, including India. This study aims to assess social, housing, and indoor environmental factors associated with respiratory health among mothers and children. Methods: The study was conducted in the city of Tirupur, South India. We quantitatively assessed the indoor exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide in relation to respiratory health among women and children...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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