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Intrapartum antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872823/serial-physical-examinations-a-simple-and-reliable-tool-for-managing-neonates-at-risk-for-early-onset-sepsis
#1
Alberto Berardi, Anna Maria Buffagni, Cecilia Rossi, Eleonora Vaccina, Chiara Cattelani, Lucia Gambini, Federica Baccilieri, Francesca Varioli, Fabrizio Ferrari
AIM: To investigate whether serial physical examinations (SPEs) are a safe tool for managing neonates at risk for early-onset sepsis (EOS). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of neonates (≥ 34 wks' gestation) delivered in three high-volume level IIIbirthing centres in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) during a 4-mo period (from September 1 to December 31, 2015). Neonates at risk for EOS were managed according to the SPEs strategy, these were carried out in turn by bedside nursing staff and physicians...
November 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870810/neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-infections-prevention-strategies-clinical-and-microbiologic-characteristics-in-7-years-of-surveillance
#2
Roberta Creti, Monica Imperi, Alberto Berardi, Marco Pataracchia, Simona Recchia, Giovanna Alfarone, Lucilla Baldassarri
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of group B streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease in a period of 7 years are reported. METHODS: The estimation of the neonatal GBS disease risk and prevention strategies adopted at delivery in absence of national guidelines were evaluated by the analysis of 3501 questionnaires. Notification of 194 neonatal GBS infections was recorded. In addition, 115 strains from neonatal early and late onset disease (EOD and LOD, respectively) plus 320 strains from pregnant women were analyzed by molecular typing methods and for antibiotic resistance...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861568/appropriateness-of-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-disease
#3
Aida Bianco, Elisabetta Larosa, Claudia Pileggi, Maria Pavia
The aims of this study were to describe the adherence to CDC guidelines for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) and to identify possible factors influencing noncompliance with guidelines. We conducted a retrospective study in Italy. Our cohort included women in whom antenatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening was not performed, was performed, but results were not available at the time of labor or delivery and women who were positive for GBS colonization. The indications for complete execution of IAP according to revised CDC guidelines was evaluated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832763/a-comparison-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-a-population-of-low-risk-infants-exposed-and-not-exposed-to-intrapartum-antibiotics-the-baby-microbiota-of-the-intestine-cohort-study-protocol
#4
Julia Simioni, Eileen K Hutton, Elizabeth Gunn, Alison C Holloway, Jennifer C Stearns, Helen McDonald, Andrea Mousseau, Jonathan D Schertzer, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Lehana Thabane, Michael G Surette, Katherine M Morrison
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences metabolic, nutritional, and immunologic processes and has been associated with a broad range of adverse health outcomes including asthma, obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Early life exposures may alter the course of gut microbial colonization leading to differences in metabolic and immune regulation throughout life. Although approximately 50 % of low-risk full-term infants born in Canada are exposed to intrapartum antibiotics, little is known about the influence of this common prophylactic treatment on the developing neonatal intestinal microbiota...
November 10, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831912/challenges-in-reducing-group-b-streptococcus-disease-in-african-settings
#5
Yo Nishihara, Ziyaad Dangor, Neil French, Shabir Madhi, Robert Heyderman
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in high-income settings and is associated with high rates of neonatal mortality and morbidity. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that there is a high GBS disease burden in resource-limited countries, and it is therefore critically important to identify suitable and practical preventive strategies. In Europe and North America, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) has led to a dramatic reduction of early-onset GBS disease...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803803/group-b-streptococcus-vaccine-development-present-status-and-future-considerations-with-emphasis-on-perspectives-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
REVIEW
Miwako Kobayashi, Johan Vekemans, Carol J Baker, Adam J Ratner, Kirsty Le Doare, Stephanie J Schrag
Globally, group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in young infants, with its greatest burden in the first 90 days of life. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for women at risk of transmitting GBS to their newborns has been effective in reducing, but not eliminating, the young infant GBS disease burden in many high income countries. However, identification of women at risk and administration of IAP is very difficult in many low and middle income country (LMIC) settings, and is not possible for home deliveries...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668902/streptococcus-agalactiae-prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-vaginal-and-rectal-swabs-in-italian-pregnant-women
#7
Chiara Matani, Michele Trezzi, Alice Matteini, Carlotta Catalani, Daniela Messeri, Corrado Catalani
Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) reduces both the vertical transmission of Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and the early onset of neonatal sepsis. However, existing guidelines do not recommend that antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) be routinely performed. Penicillin or ampicillin are indicated as first-choice antibiotics, cefazolin being an alternative in the case of history of mild allergic reactions, and vancomycin or clindamycin an alternative in the event of severe reactions...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593156/an-area-based-study-on-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-preventing-group-b-streptococcus-early-onset-disease-advances-and-limitations
#8
Alberto Berardi, Cecilia Rossi, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Annalisa Bastelli, Maria Grazia Capretti, Claudio Chiossi, Valentina Fiorini, Lucia Gambini, Sara Gavioli, Marcello Lanari, Luigi Memo, Irene Papa, Luana Pini, Maria Vittoria Rizzo, Andrea Zucchini, Fabio Facchinetti, Fabrizio Ferrari
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of maternal group-B-streptococcus (GBS) colonization and risk factors (RFs) for neonatal early-onset disease (EOD) in Europe are poorly defined. Large-scale information concerning adherence to recommendations for preventing GBS-EOD are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a 3-month retrospective area-based study including all regional deliveries  ≥35 weeks' gestation (in 2012). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, odds ratio and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) among full-term and preterm deliveries and prolonged membrane rupture (PROM) were calculated...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560963/broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment-and-subsequent-childhood-type-1-diabetes-a-nationwide-danish-cohort-study
#9
Tine D Clausen, Thomas Bergholt, Olivier Bouaziz, Magnus Arpi, Frank Eriksson, Steen Rasmussen, Niels Keiding, Ellen C Løkkegaard
BACKGROUND: Studies link antibiotic treatment and delivery by cesarean section with increased risk of chronic diseases through changes of the gut-microbiota. We aimed to evaluate the association of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment during the first two years of life with subsequent onset of childhood type 1 diabetes and the potential effect-modification by mode of delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Danish nationwide cohort study including all singletons born during 1997-2010...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533103/evaluation-and-management-of-newborns-with-suspected-early-onset-sepsis-comparison-of-two-approaches-and-suggestion-for-guidelines
#10
Arieh Riskin, Yael Aloni, Amir Kugelman, Arina Toropine, Waseem Said, David Bader
Objective Although its incidence is declining with the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotics, early-onset sepsis (EOS) continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Maternal, infant, and peripartum risk factors, as well as infant's laboratory tests, have been used to try and identify asymptomatic newborns at risk. In this study, we reevaluate the management of newborns at risk for EOS by comparing our outcomes using two different approaches. Study Design Comparison of clinical data and outcomes of newborns at risk for EOS between two study periods, in which we have used two different protocols for their evaluation and management...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500346/avoiding-inadequate-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-group-b-streptococci
#11
Sarah Bienenfeld, Laura G Rodriguez-Riesco, Kent D Heyborne
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and reasons for inadequate group B streptococci (GBS) prophylaxis at our institution and to estimate what proportion of cases can be avoided with perfect protocol adherence. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of neonates born to GBS-colonized women who received inadequate prophylaxis between April 30, 2013, and May 1, 2014. The maternal chart was analyzed to categorize each case as avoidable (adequate time on labor and delivery to receive antibiotics 4 hours before birth and β-lactam antibiotic-eligible) or unavoidable and to determine whether a violation of the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) protocol (delayed or incorrect antibiotics) occurred...
September 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451382/-is-rapid-intrapartum-vaginal-screening-test-of-group-b-streptococci-gbs-during-partum-useful-in-identifying-infants-developing-early-onset-gbs-sepsis-in-postpartum-period
#12
J Raignoux, M Benard, S Huo Yung Kai, O Dicky, A Berrebi, L Bibet, A-S Chetouani, N Marty, L Cavalie, C Casper, C Assouline-Azogui
INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common infectious agent responsible for early-onset bacterial sepsis (EOS) in term newborns. French prevention of perinatal GBS disease guidelines recommend screening for maternal vaginal GBS colonization at the 9th month of pregnancy, and use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) in case of detected GBS vaginal colonization. Peripheral bacterial sampling (gastric aspiration, ear, or meconium) and measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) are performed in asymptomatic newborns in case of infectious risk factors and/or incomplete IAP...
September 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385362/group-b-streptococcal-immunisation-of-pregnant-women-for-the-prevention-of-early-and-late-onset-group-b-streptococcal-infection-of-the-neonate-as-well-as-adult-disease
#13
Anna L Kenchington, Ronald F Lamont
INTRODUCTION: Early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal disease is preventable. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has resulted in a significant reduction in neonatal mortality and morbidity. National guidelines for the selection of women eligible for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, whether screening-based or risk-based, differ according to the local burden of disease. Despite the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, there remains a significant burden of disease, which can be resolved by better adherence to guidelines, rapid identification of maternal colonization or in the future, vaccination...
July 6, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378534/-usefulness-of-a-rapid-intrapartum-real-time-pcr-assay-in-comparison-with-the-group-b-streptococcus-culture-screening-at-the-end-of-pregnancy-in-pregnant-women
#14
M Defez, F Khizar, M Maurin, F Biot, J-C Pons, F Sergent
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid real-time PCR assay at the onset of labor with those of the current antenatal culture-based test at 34-38 weeks gestation for group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study including all pregnant women admitted for delivery after a 34-week gestation period was conducted in October 2012 at the Grenoble University Hospital Centre. A first culture-based GBS screening test was performed between 34 and 38 weeks of gestation followed by a second screening test at the onset of labor, using a real-time PCR Assay and a culture-based method (gold standard) in order to calculate the diagnostic accuracy...
July 1, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27332552/early-gut-microbiota-perturbations-following-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#15
Giuseppe Mazzola, Kiera Murphy, R Paul Ross, Diana Di Gioia, Bruno Biavati, Luigi T Corvaglia, Giacomo Faldella, Catherine Stanton
The faecal microbiota composition of infants born to mothers receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with ampicillin against group B Streptococcus was compared with that of control infants, at day 7 and 30 of life. Recruited newborns were both exclusive breastfed and mixed fed, in order to also study the effect of dietary factors on the microbiota composition. Massive parallel sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR analysis were performed. Antibiotic prophylaxis caused the most marked changes on the microbiota in breastfed infants, mainly resulting in a higher relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, compared with control infants (52% vs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214190/obstetric-care-consensus-no-4-periviable-birth
#16
(no author information available yet)
Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth...
June 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214184/obstetric-care-consensus-no-4-summary-periviable-birth
#17
(no author information available yet)
Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth...
June 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193837/the-availability-of-emergency-obstetric-care-in-the-context-of-the-jsy-cash-transfer-programme-in-madhya-pradesh-india
#18
Yogesh Sabde, Vishal Diwan, Bharat Randive, Sarika Chaturvedi, Kristi Sidney, Mariano Salazar, Ayesha De Costa
BACKGROUND: Since 2005, India has implemented a national cash transfer programme, the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides women a cash transfer upon giving birth in an existing public facility. This has resulted in a steep rise in facility births across the country. The early years of the programme saw efforts being made to strengthen the ability of facilities to provide obstetric care. Given that the JSY has been able to draw millions of women into facilities to give birth (there have been more than 50 million beneficiaries thus far), it is important to study the ability of these facilities to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), as the functionality of these facilities is critical to improved maternal and neonatal outcomes...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136545/impact-of-prematurity-and-perinatal-antibiotics-on-the-developing-intestinal-microbiota-a-functional-inference-study
#19
Silvia Arboleya, Borja Sánchez, Gonzalo Solís, Nuria Fernández, Marta Suárez, Ana M Hernández-Barranco, Christian Milani, Abelardo Margolles, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Marco Ventura, Miguel Gueimonde
BACKGROUND: The microbial colonization of the neonatal gut provides a critical stimulus for normal maturation and development. This process of early microbiota establishment, known to be affected by several factors, constitutes an important determinant for later health. METHODS: We studied the establishment of the microbiota in preterm and full-term infants and the impact of perinatal antibiotics upon this process in premature babies. To this end, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based microbiota assessment was performed at phylum level and functional inference analyses were conducted...
April 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117365/-rapid-group-b-streptococcus-screening-methods-in-late-pregnancy-and-the-maternal-neonatal-outcomes
#20
X Wang, L K Ma, Y N Song, J T Liu, Y C Xu, J Yi
OBJECTIVE: To study the sensitivity of the quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) in detecting group B streptococcus (GBS) in late pregnant women and the influence of vaginal/rectal GBS colonization on the maternal-neonatal outcomes. METHODS: A total of 2020 swabs were taken from 505 women who received routine culture and QF-PCR screening at 35 and 37 weeks of gestation from September, 2013 to April, 2014 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital...
April 19, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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