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Intrapartum antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792103/prolonged-use-of-antibiotics-after-birth-is-associated-with-increased-morbidity-in-preterm-infants-with-negative-cultures
#1
C Fajardo, B Alshaikh, A Harabor
BACKGROUND: Most preterm infants are exposed to a variable duration of antibiotic therapy after birth despite negative cultures. Data is emerging about the risks of prolonged antibiotics. We sought to assess the association between length of initial antibiotic course and neonatal outcomes in a cohort from a single large perinatal centre. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data on all infants with a birth weight of less than 1250 g hospitalized in our NICU in a 4-year window and who had negative blood and CSF cultures in the first 2 days of life...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780807/a-critical-review-of-the-bacterial-baptism-hypothesis-and-the-impact-of-cesarean-delivery-on-the-infant-microbiome
#2
REVIEW
Lisa F Stinson, Matthew S Payne, Jeffrey A Keelan
Numerous studies suggest that infants delivered by cesarean section are at a greater risk of non-communicable diseases than their vaginal counterparts. In particular, epidemiological studies have linked Cesarean delivery with increased rates of asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders, and obesity. Mode of delivery has also been associated with differences in the infant microbiome. It has been suggested that these differences are attributable to the "bacterial baptism" of vaginal birth, which is bypassed in cesarean deliveries, and that the abnormal establishment of the early-life microbiome is the mediator of later-life adverse outcomes observed in cesarean delivered infants...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761674/screening-arab-israeli-pregnant-women-for-group-b-streptococcus-by-the-amplivue-gbs-assay-are-the-rates-higher-than-the-national-average
#3
Marwan Hakim, Adel Jabour, Miriam Anton, Meggie Hakim, Sahar Kheirallah
BACKGROUND: The recommendation of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding universal screening for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) at 35-37 weeks gestational age in pregnancy is not accepted in Israel. The National Council for Obstetrics, Neonatology and Genetics recommends intrapartum prophylaxis, mainly based on risk factors, to prevent early neonatal GBS infection. This policy is based on past studies demonstrating low colonization rates of the bacteria in Israeli pregnant women and very low neonatal sepsis rates...
May 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750801/streptococcus-agalactiae-carriage-among-pregnant-women-living-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-over-a-period-of-eight-years
#4
Ana Caroline N Botelho, Juliana G Oliveira, Andreia P Damasco, Késia T B Santos, Ana Flávia M Ferreira, Gabriel T Rocha, Penélope S Marinho, Rita B G Bornia, Tatiana C A Pinto, Marco A Américo, Sergio E L Fracalanzza, Lúcia M Teixeira
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) carriage by pregnant women is the primary risk factor for early-onset GBS neonatal sepsis. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) can prevent this transmission route, and two main approaches are recommended to base the selection of pregnant women to be submitted to IAP: the risk-based and the culture-based strategies. In Brazil, compliance to such recommendations is poor, and not much is known about GBS carriage. In the present study, 3,647 pregnant women living in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were screened for GBS anogenital colonization, over a period of 8 years (2008-2015)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685987/characterization-of-a-two-component-system-transcriptional-regulator-ltdr-that-impacts-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-and-disease
#5
Liwen Deng, Rong Mu, Thomas A Weston, Brady L Spencer, Roxanne Liles, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus , GBS) is often a commensal bacterium that colonizes healthy adults asymptomatically and is a frequent inhabitant of the vaginal tract in women. However, in immune-compromised individuals, particularly the newborn, GBS may transition to an invasive pathogen and cause serious disease. Despite currently recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS-positive mothers, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal septicemia and meningitis. To adapt to the various host environments encountered during its disease cycle, GBS possesses multiple two-component regulatory systems (TCS)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642754/daily-gentamicin-using-ideal-body-weight-demonstrates-lower-risk-of-postpartum-endometritis-and-increased-chance-of-successful-outcome-compared-with-traditional-8-hour-dosing-for-the-treatment-of-intrapartum-chorioamnionitis
#6
Daniel Martingano, Audrey Renson, Sharon Rogoff, Shailini Singh, Meera Kesavan Nasir, Juliette Kim, Jeanne Carey
BACKGROUND: Clinical chorioamnionitis complicates approximately 1-4% of pregnancies overall. Although universal agreement does not exist regarding the antibiotic regimen of choice, most studies have evaluated intravenous ampicillin dosed at 2 g every 6 hours plus gentamicin dosed every 8 hours. Only three studies have examined daily gentamicin for the treatment of intrapartum chorioamnionitis and thus is insufficiently investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to determine whether daily dosing of gentamicin using ideal body weight for the treatment of intrapartum chorioamnionitis is more or equivalently efficacious when compared to traditional 8-hour dosing regimens...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606026/strategies-for-preventing-early-onset-sepsis-and-for-managing-neonates-at-risk-wide-variability-across-six-western-countries
#7
Alberto Berardi, Cecilia Rossi, Caterina Spada, Giulia Vellani, Isotta Guidotti, Angela Lanzoni, Milena Azzalli, Irene Papa, Chiara Giugno, Laura Lucaccioni
OBJECTIVE: Group B streptococcus (GBS) early-onset sepsis (EOS) has declined after widespread intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. However, strategies for preventing EOS may differ across countries. The analysis of their strategies allows to compare the effectiveness of prevention in different countries and suggests opportunities for improvement. METHODS: We compared six western countries. Prevention strategies, incidence rates of EOS and approaches for managing neonates at-risk were analysed...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588295/early-onset-neonatal-infections-in-australia-and-new-zealand-2002-2012
#8
Tarun Singh, Elizabeth H Barnes, David Isaacs
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) varies over time, and requires regular surveillance. OBJECTIVE: To analyse data on EONS in Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data collected longitudinally from multiple neonatal units from 2002 to 2012. RESULTS: Of 386 423 live births, 454 infants had EONS. The incidence rate of EONS was 1.20 per 1000 live births in 2002 and 0...
March 27, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559801/vertical-transmission-of-group-b-streptococcus-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-a-cross-sectional-study-eastern-ethiopia
#9
Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta, Alemayehu Worku, Gudina Egata, Berhanu Seyoum, Dadi Marami, Yemane Berhane
Background: Vertically transmitted group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes fetal and neonatal infections. However, there is limited information on the vertical transmission of GBS in low-income countries. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission of GBS and associated factors among pregnant women in Eastern Ethiopia. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional, facility-based study was conducted among pregnant women in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia, from June to October, 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543148/prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-serotype-distribution-of-group-b-streptococcus-isolated-among-pregnant-women-and-newborns-in-rabat-morocco
#10
Cinta Moraleda, Rachid Benmessaoud, Jessica Esteban, Yuly López, Hassan Alami, Amina Barkat, Tligui Houssain, Meryem Kabiri, Rachid Bezad, Saad Chaacho, Lola Madrid, Jordi Vila, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Jordi Bosch, Sara M Soto, Quique Bassat
PURPOSE: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of neonatal sepsis worldwide. Data on the prevalence of maternal GBS colonization, risk factors for carriage, antibiotic susceptibility and circulating serotypes are necessary to tailor adequate locally relevant public health policies. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study including pregnant women and their newborns was conducted between March and July 2013 in Morocco. We collected clinical data and vagino-rectal and urine samples from the recruited pregnant women, together with the clinical characteristics of, and body surface samples from, their newborns...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520354/group-b-streptococcal-maternal-colonization-and-neonatal-disease-molecular-mechanisms-and-preventative-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501938/the-strong-correlation-between-neonatal-early-onset-group-b-streptococcal-disease-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#12
Irene A Stafford, Eliza Rodrigue, Alexandra Berra, Wesley Adams, Asha J Heard, Joseph L Hagan, Shawn J Stafford
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of newborn gastrointestinal emergencies, affecting 1-3 per 1000 live births. Although NEC has been linked to a microbial etiology, associations with maternal intrapartum and resultant newborn early-onset invasive Group B streptococcus (EO-GBS) have been weakly defined. OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to determine the relationship between EO-GBS and NEC. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 2008 to 2015 were collected from pediatric records with ICD diagnosis codes consistent with all stages of NEC, with the exception of neonatal EO-GBS data (only available 2011-2015)...
April 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480905/management-of-term-infants-at-increased-risk-for-early-onset-bacterial-sepsis
#13
Ann L Jefferies
Early-onset neonatal bacterial sepsis (EOS) is sepsis occurring within the first 7 days of life. This statement provides updated recommendations for the care of term (≥37 weeks' gestational age) newborns at risk of EOS, during the first 24 hours of life. Maternal Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization in the current pregnancy, GBS bacteriuria, a previous infant with invasive GBS disease, prolonged rupture of membranes (≥18 hours) and maternal fever (temperature ≥38°C) are the factors most commonly associated with EOS...
July 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445511/management-of-group-b-streptococcus-positive-pregnant-women-at-maternity-homes-in-japan-a-questionnaire-survey-of-compliance-among-midwives
#14
Kotomi Yamaguchi, Kazutomo Ohashi
Background: Per the 2014 Japanese Midwives Association (JMA) guidelines, midwives were allowed to manage the deliveries for group B streptococcus (GBS)-positive pregnant women in labour at maternity homes without the supervision of a medical doctor if they complied with the guidelines of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG), wherein midwives working for maternity homes are expected to cooperate with commissioned obstetricians and paediatricians in cooperative medical facilities...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433692/infection-n%C3%A3-onatale-bact%C3%A3-rienne-pr%C3%A3-coce-inbp-quel-algorithme-de-prise-en-charge-en-2017
#15
C Gras-Le Guen, L Foix-L'Hélias, P Boileau
In the era of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis to reduce GBS, rates of early onset bacterial infection have declined in term newborns. New guidelines have been written in order to adapt our current practices to this epidemiological evolution and limit excessive exams and antibiotic administrations. The main point of these new guidelines consists in a clinical systematic surveillance in maternity for well appearing newborns instead of the current empiric antibiotic treatment. Advised biological exams are also detailed...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326182/variations-in-childbirth-interventions-in-high-income-countries-protocol-for-a-multinational-cross-sectional-study
#16
Anna Seijmonsbergen-Schermers, Thomas van den Akker, Katrien Beeckman, Annick Bogaerts, Monalisa Barros, Patricia Janssen, Lorena Binfa, Eva Rydahl, Lucy Frith, Mechthild Gross, Berglind Hálfdánsdóttir, Deirdre Daly, Jean Calleja-Agius, Patricia Gillen, Anne Britt Vika Nilsen, Eugene Declercq, Ank de Jonge
INTRODUCTION: There are growing concerns about the increase in rates of commonly used childbirth interventions. When indicated, childbirth interventions are crucial for preventing maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but their routine use in healthy women and children leads to avoidable maternal and neonatal harm. Establishing ideal rates of interventions can be challenging. This study aims to describe the range of variations in the use of commonly used childbirth interventions in high-income countries around the world, and in outcomes in nulliparous and multiparous women...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288162/retrospective-consent-in-a-neonatal-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Nils T Songstad, Calum T Roberts, Brett J Manley, Louise S Owen, Peter G Davis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The requirement for prospective consent in clinical trials in acute settings may result in samples unrepresentative of the study population, potentially altering study findings. However, using retrospective consent may raise ethical issues. We assessed whether using retrospective consent affected recruitment, participant characteristics, and outcomes within a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial, which compared nasal high flow (nHF) with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for primary respiratory support in preterm infants...
January 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276165/caesarean-delivery-surgical-site-infection-what-are-expected-rates-and-potentially-modifiable-risk-factors
#18
Ziad A Haidar, Susan Hosseini Nasab, Hind N Moussa, Baha M Sibai, Sean C Blackwell
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine baseline Caesarean delivery (CD) surgical site infection (SSI) rates in various patient subgroups and to identify potentially modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for SSI. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicentre CD registry. Women who underwent CD were divided into SSI versus no SSI. SSI was defined as an infection that occurred in the part of the body where the surgery took place, within 30 days of surgery...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184093/intrapartum-antibiotics-for-gbs-prophylaxis-alter-colonization-patterns-in-the-early-infant-gut-microbiome-of-low-risk-infants
#19
Jennifer C Stearns, Julia Simioni, Elizabeth Gunn, Helen McDonald, Alison C Holloway, Lehana Thabane, Andrea Mousseau, Jonathan D Schertzer, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Laura Rossi, Michael G Surette, Katherine M Morrison, Eileen K Hutton
Early life microbial colonization and succession is critically important to healthy development with impacts on metabolic and immunologic processes throughout life. A longitudinal prospective cohort was recruited from midwifery practices to include infants born at full term gestation to women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Here we compare bacterial community succession in infants born vaginally, with no exposure to antibiotics (n = 53), with infants who were exposed to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for Group B Streptococcus (GBS; n = 14), and infants born by C-section (n = 7)...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167295/sex-specific-impact-of-asthma-during-pregnancy-on-infant-gut-microbiota
#20
Petya T Koleva, Hein M Tun, Theodore Konya, David S Guttman, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, Anita L Kozyrskyj
Asthma during pregnancy is associated with retardation of fetal growth in a sex-specific manner. Lactobacilli microbes influence infant growth. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli and other microbes are reduced in the gut of infants born to an asthmatic mother, and whether this differs by the sex of the infant.Mother-infant pairs (N=1021) from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development full-term cohort were studied. The abundance of infant faecal microbiota at 3-4 months, profiled by gene sequencing, was compared between both women with and without asthma treatment during pregnancy...
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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