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Intrapartum antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184287/of-the-phrensy-an-update-on-the-epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-the-pediatric-population
#1
REVIEW
Andrew Janowski, Jason Newland
In the past century, advances in antibiotics and vaccination have dramatically altered the incidence and clinical outcomes of bacterial meningitis. We review the shifting epidemiology of meningitis in children, including after the implementation of vaccines that target common meningitic pathogens and the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis offered to mothers colonized with Streptococcus agalactiae. We also discuss what is currently known about the pathogenesis of meningitis. Recent studies of the human microbiome have illustrated dynamic relationships of bacterial and viral populations with the host, which may potentiate the risk of bacterial meningitis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178310/diversity-and-composition-of-vaginal-microbiota-of-pregnant-women-at-risk-for-transmitting-group-b-streptococcus-treated-with-intrapartum-penicillin
#2
Luiz Fernando Wurdig Roesch, Rita C Silveira, Andréa L Corso, Priscila Thiago Dobbler, Volker Mai, Bruna S Rojas, Álvaro M Laureano, Renato S Procianoy
BACKGROUND: Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers' microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ≤ 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls. METHODS: Microbiota in vaginal swabs collected shortly before delivery from GBS positive women that received penicillin intravenously during labor or after premature rupture of membranes was compared to controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103822/emergency-obstetric-and-neonatal-care-availability-use-and-quality-a-cross-sectional-study-in-the-city-of-lubumbashi-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-2011
#3
Abel Mukengeshayi Ntambue, Françoise Kaj Malonga, Karen D Cowgill, Michèle Dramaix-Wilmet, Philippe Donnen
BACKGROUND: While emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) is a proxy indicator for monitoring maternal and perinatal mortalities, in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), data on this care is rarely available. In the city of Lubumbashi, the second largest in DRC with an estimated population of 1.5 million, the availability, use and quality of EmONC are not known. This study aimed to assess these elements in Lubumbashi. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in April and May 2011...
January 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093452/a-time-to-save
#4
Carol J Baker
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), characterized by Lancefield in 1933, was not recognized as a human pathogen until the early 1970s when it emerged and replaced Escherichia coli as the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis among neonates and young infants. This article briefly gives a personnel account of the discovery of clinical syndromes of GBS distinguished by age at onset, vertical mode of transmission for early-onset disease, meningeal tropism for GBS capsular (CPS) type III strains, and protective CPS epitopes...
January 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079555/epidural-labor-analgesia-and-maternal-fever
#5
Emily E Sharpe, Katherine W Arendt
Women receiving an epidural for labor analgesia are at increased risk for intrapartum fever. This relationship has been supported by observational, before and after, and randomized controlled trials. The etiology is not well understood but is likely a result of noninfectious inflammation as studies have found women with fever have higher levels of inflammatory markers. Maternal pyrexia may change obstetric management and women are more likely to receive antibiotics or undergo cesarean delivery. Maternal pyrexia is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017431/who-consultation-on-group-b-streptococcus-vaccine-development-report-from-a-meeting-held-on-27-28-april-2016
#6
Miwako Kobayashi, Stephanie J Schrag, Mark R Alderson, Shabir A Madhi, Carol J Baker, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, David C Kaslow, Peter G Smith, Vasee S Moorthy, Johan Vekemans
Globally, group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in infants in the first 90days of life. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for women at increased risk of transmitting GBS to their newborns has been effective in reducing part, but not all, of the GBS disease burden in many high income countries (HICs). In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), IAP use is low. Immunization of pregnant women with a GBS vaccine represents an alternative strategy to protecting newborns and young infants, through transplacental antibody transfer and potentially by reducing new vaginal colonization...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979783/culture-proven-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-in-arab-states-in-the-gulf-region-two-year-prospective-study
#7
Majeda S Hammoud, Abdullah Al-Taiar, Sameer Y Al-Abdi, Hussain Bozaid, Anwar Khan, Laila M AlMuhairi, Moghis Ur Rehman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and the pattern of causative organisms of culture-proven early-onset sepsis (EOS) in Arab states in the Gulf region. METHODS: Five neonatal care units participated in this 2-year prospective study in Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. Data were collected prospectively using a standardized data collection form. EOS was defined as the growth of a single potentially pathogenic organism from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in infants within 72h of birth, with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with infection...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872823/serial-physical-examinations-a-simple-and-reliable-tool-for-managing-neonates-at-risk-for-early-onset-sepsis
#8
Alberto Berardi, Anna Maria Buffagni, Cecilia Rossi, Eleonora Vaccina, Chiara Cattelani, Lucia Gambini, Federica Baccilieri, Francesca Varioli, Fabrizio Ferrari
AIM: To investigate whether serial physical examinations (SPEs) are a safe tool for managing neonates at risk for early-onset sepsis (EOS). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of neonates (≥ 34 wks' gestation) delivered in three high-volume level IIIbirthing centres in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) during a 4-mo period (from September 1 to December 31, 2015). Neonates at risk for EOS were managed according to the SPEs strategy, these were carried out in turn by bedside nursing staff and physicians...
November 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870810/neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-infections-prevention-strategies-clinical-and-microbiologic-characteristics-in-7-years-of-surveillance
#9
Roberta Creti, Monica Imperi, Alberto Berardi, Marco Pataracchia, Simona Recchia, Giovanna Alfarone, Lucilla Baldassarri
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of group B streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease in a period of 7 years are reported. METHODS: The estimation of the neonatal GBS disease risk and prevention strategies adopted at delivery in absence of national guidelines was evaluated by the analysis of 3501 questionnaires. Notification of 194 neonatal GBS infections was recorded. In addition, 115 strains from neonatal early-onset disease (EOD) and late-onset disease, respectively, plus 320 strains from pregnant women were analyzed by molecular typing methods and for antibiotic resistance...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861568/appropriateness-of-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-disease
#10
Aida Bianco, Elisabetta Larosa, Claudia Pileggi, Maria Pavia
The aims of this study were to describe the adherence to CDC guidelines for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) and to identify possible factors influencing noncompliance with guidelines. We conducted a retrospective study in Italy. Our cohort included women in whom antenatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening was not performed, was performed, but results were not available at the time of labor or delivery and women who were positive for GBS colonization. The indications for complete execution of IAP according to revised CDC guidelines was evaluated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832763/a-comparison-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-a-population-of-low-risk-infants-exposed-and-not-exposed-to-intrapartum-antibiotics-the-baby-microbiota-of-the-intestine-cohort-study-protocol
#11
Julia Simioni, Eileen K Hutton, Elizabeth Gunn, Alison C Holloway, Jennifer C Stearns, Helen McDonald, Andrea Mousseau, Jonathan D Schertzer, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Lehana Thabane, Michael G Surette, Katherine M Morrison
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences metabolic, nutritional, and immunologic processes and has been associated with a broad range of adverse health outcomes including asthma, obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Early life exposures may alter the course of gut microbial colonization leading to differences in metabolic and immune regulation throughout life. Although approximately 50 % of low-risk full-term infants born in Canada are exposed to intrapartum antibiotics, little is known about the influence of this common prophylactic treatment on the developing neonatal intestinal microbiota...
November 10, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831912/challenges-in-reducing-group-b-streptococcus-disease-in-african-settings
#12
Yo Nishihara, Ziyaad Dangor, Neil French, Shabir Madhi, Robert Heyderman
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in high-income settings and is associated with high rates of neonatal mortality and morbidity. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that there is a high GBS disease burden in resource-limited countries, and it is therefore critically important to identify suitable and practical preventive strategies. In Europe and North America, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) has led to a dramatic reduction of early-onset GBS disease...
January 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803803/group-b-streptococcus-vaccine-development-present-status-and-future-considerations-with-emphasis-on-perspectives-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
REVIEW
Miwako Kobayashi, Johan Vekemans, Carol J Baker, Adam J Ratner, Kirsty Le Doare, Stephanie J Schrag
Globally, group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in young infants, with its greatest burden in the first 90 days of life. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for women at risk of transmitting GBS to their newborns has been effective in reducing, but not eliminating, the young infant GBS disease burden in many high income countries. However, identification of women at risk and administration of IAP is very difficult in many low and middle income country (LMIC) settings, and is not possible for home deliveries...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668902/streptococcus-agalactiae-prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-vaginal-and-rectal-swabs-in-italian-pregnant-women
#14
Chiara Matani, Michele Trezzi, Alice Matteini, Carlotta Catalani, Daniela Messeri, Corrado Catalani
Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) reduces both the vertical transmission of Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and the early onset of neonatal sepsis. However, existing guidelines do not recommend that antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) be routinely performed. Penicillin or ampicillin are indicated as first-choice antibiotics, cefazolin being an alternative in the case of history of mild allergic reactions, and vancomycin or clindamycin an alternative in the event of severe reactions...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593156/an-area-based-study-on-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-preventing-group-b-streptococcus-early-onset-disease-advances-and-limitations
#15
Alberto Berardi, Cecilia Rossi, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Annalisa Bastelli, Maria Grazia Capretti, Claudio Chiossi, Valentina Fiorini, Lucia Gambini, Sara Gavioli, Marcello Lanari, Luigi Memo, Irene Papa, Luana Pini, Maria Vittoria Rizzo, Andrea Zucchini, Fabio Facchinetti, Fabrizio Ferrari
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of maternal group-B-streptococcus (GBS) colonization and risk factors (RFs) for neonatal early-onset disease (EOD) in Europe are poorly defined. Large-scale information concerning adherence to recommendations for preventing GBS-EOD are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a 3-month retrospective area-based study including all regional deliveries  ≥35 weeks' gestation (in 2012). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, odds ratio and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) among full-term and preterm deliveries and prolonged membrane rupture (PROM) were calculated...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560963/broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment-and-subsequent-childhood-type-1-diabetes-a-nationwide-danish-cohort-study
#16
Tine D Clausen, Thomas Bergholt, Olivier Bouaziz, Magnus Arpi, Frank Eriksson, Steen Rasmussen, Niels Keiding, Ellen C Løkkegaard
BACKGROUND: Studies link antibiotic treatment and delivery by cesarean section with increased risk of chronic diseases through changes of the gut-microbiota. We aimed to evaluate the association of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment during the first two years of life with subsequent onset of childhood type 1 diabetes and the potential effect-modification by mode of delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Danish nationwide cohort study including all singletons born during 1997-2010...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533103/evaluation-and-management-of-newborns-with-suspected-early-onset-sepsis-comparison-of-two-approaches-and-suggestion-for-guidelines
#17
Arieh Riskin, Yael Aloni, Amir Kugelman, Arina Toropine, Waseem Said, David Bader
Objective Although its incidence is declining with the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotics, early-onset sepsis (EOS) continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Maternal, infant, and peripartum risk factors, as well as infant's laboratory tests, have been used to try and identify asymptomatic newborns at risk. In this study, we reevaluate the management of newborns at risk for EOS by comparing our outcomes using two different approaches. Study Design Comparison of clinical data and outcomes of newborns at risk for EOS between two study periods, in which we have used two different protocols for their evaluation and management...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500346/avoiding-inadequate-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-group-b-streptococci
#18
Sarah Bienenfeld, Laura G Rodriguez-Riesco, Kent D Heyborne
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and reasons for inadequate group B streptococci (GBS) prophylaxis at our institution and to estimate what proportion of cases can be avoided with perfect protocol adherence. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of neonates born to GBS-colonized women who received inadequate prophylaxis between April 30, 2013, and May 1, 2014. The maternal chart was analyzed to categorize each case as avoidable (adequate time on labor and delivery to receive antibiotics 4 hours before birth and β-lactam antibiotic-eligible) or unavoidable and to determine whether a violation of the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) protocol (delayed or incorrect antibiotics) occurred...
September 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451382/-is-rapid-intrapartum-vaginal-screening-test-of-group-b-streptococci-gbs-during-partum-useful-in-identifying-infants-developing-early-onset-gbs-sepsis-in-postpartum-period
#19
J Raignoux, M Benard, S Huo Yung Kai, O Dicky, A Berrebi, L Bibet, A-S Chetouani, N Marty, L Cavalie, C Casper, C Assouline-Azogui
INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common infectious agent responsible for early-onset bacterial sepsis (EOS) in term newborns. French prevention of perinatal GBS disease guidelines recommend screening for maternal vaginal GBS colonization at the 9th month of pregnancy, and use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) in case of detected GBS vaginal colonization. Peripheral bacterial sampling (gastric aspiration, ear, or meconium) and measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) are performed in asymptomatic newborns in case of infectious risk factors and/or incomplete IAP...
September 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385362/group-b-streptococcal-immunisation-of-pregnant-women-for-the-prevention-of-early-and-late-onset-group-b-streptococcal-infection-of-the-neonate-as-well-as-adult-disease
#20
Anna L Kenchington, Ronald F Lamont
Early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal disease is preventable. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has resulted in a significant reduction in neonatal mortality and morbidity. National guidelines for the selection of women eligible for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, whether screening-based or risk-based, differ according to the local burden of disease. Despite the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, there remains a significant burden of disease, which can be resolved by better adherence to guidelines, rapid identification of maternal colonization or in the future, vaccination...
January 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
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