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Addiction Medicine, Psychiatric Medicine

Miriam Schneider, Beth Levant, Martin Reichel, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychiatric disorders like mood disorders, schizophrenia, or drug addiction affect a sizeable proportion of the human population and severely compromise quality of life. Therefore, measures to prevent the manifestation, and treatments to ameliorate the symptoms, of these disorders are in high demand. Brain lipids determine the localization and function of proteins in the cell membrane of neurons. Lipids may also act as neurotransmitters or other signalling molecules. The lipid composition of the brain can be influenced by nutrition, environmental factors, and by behavioural activity...
June 16, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Yu Liu, Deyong Lin, Boliang Wu, Wenhua Zhou
Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor and has been long used as an anesthetic agent in humans and veterinary medicine. The present article reviews the epidemiology, pharmacology, neurochemistry, and treatment of ketamine abuse. Ketamine has a unique mood controlling property and a number of studies have demonstrated a significant and rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine. However, the therapeutic value of ketamine to treat psychiatric disorders faces a major challenge that ketamine also owns significant reinforcing and toxic effects...
September 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Evan J Kyzar, Allan V Kalueff
After decades of sociopolitical obstacles, the field of psychiatry is experiencing a revived interest in the use of hallucinogenic agents to treat brain disorders. Along with the use of ketamine for depression, recent pilot studies have highlighted the efficacy of classic serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin, in treating addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. However, many basic pharmacological and toxicological questions remain unanswered with regard to these compounds...
October 2016: Zebrafish
Line Kruckow, Kristian Linnet, Jytte Banner
INTRODUCTION: Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease - dual diagnosis - suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among either drug addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. METHODS: All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included...
March 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Laura P McLafferty, Madeleine Becker, Nehama Dresner, Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Priya Gopalan, Jody Glance, Guitelle St Victor, Leena Mittal, Patrick Marshalek, Laura Lander, Linda L M Worley
BACKGROUND: Women of reproductive potential with substance use disorders, especially those who are pregnant, present many clinical challenges to healthcare providers, including comorbid psychiatric disorders, a history of trauma and abuse, avoidance of or poor access to prenatal care, fear of legal consequences, and countertransference reactions. METHODS: In November 2013, members of the Women's Mental Health Special Interest Group of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine presented a Workshop reviewing substance abuse in pregnancy, highlighting the specific contributions that psychosomatic medicine specialists can make in the care of these patients...
March 2016: Psychosomatics
Patrick J Ronan, Narin Wongngamnit, Thomas P Beresford
Cannabis has been cultivated and used by humans for thousands of years. Research for decades was focused on understanding the mechanisms of an illegal/addictive drug. This led to the discovery of the vast endocannabinoid system. Research has now shifted to understanding fundamental biological questions related to one of the most widespread signaling systems in both the brain and the body. Our understanding of cannabinoid signaling has advanced significantly in the last two decades. In this review, we discuss the state of knowledge on mechanisms of Cannabis signaling in the brain and the modulation of key brain neurotransmitter systems involved in both brain reward/addiction and psychiatric disorders...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Scott Edwards
The transition from recreational drug use to addiction can be conceptualized as a pathological timeline whereby the psychological mechanisms responsible for disordered drug use evolve from positive reinforcement to favor elements of negative reinforcement. Abused substances (ranging from alcohol to psychostimulants) are initially ingested at regular occasions according to their positive reinforcing properties. Importantly, repeated exposure to rewarding substances sets off a chain of secondary reinforcing events, whereby cues and contexts associated with drug use may themselves become reinforcing and thereby contribute to the continued use and possible abuse of the substance(s) of choice...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Piotr Ścisło, Karina Badura-Brzoza, Piotr Wacław Gorczyca, Michał Błachut, Robert Pudlo, Magdalena Piegza, Robert T Hese
UNLABELLED: AIM : The aim of the research is the analysis of psychiatric consultations conducted in the multi-disciplinary hospital, establishing the cause of the consultations according to ICD-10 and the analysis of psychiatric consultations regarding their number on particular wards. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical documentation concerning given consultations in the multidisciplinary hospital in Tarnowskie Góry in the years 2002-2010 has been conducted...
2015: Psychiatria Polska
V D Mendelevich, K Yu Zalmunin
BACKGROUND: For many years, clinical protocols for treatment of drug abuse patients and treatment standards in Russian Federation were not grounded on the principles of evidence-based medicine [1]. Recommendations for use of certain drugs were not accompanied by any indication of the level of credibility of the evidence supporting it. The appearance in 2014 of such indications in clinical recommendations can be considered a significant step forward for the science of addiction medicine [2]...
2015: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
Kirsten Wiese Simonsen, Dorte J Christoffersen, Jytte Banner, Kristian Linnet, Ljubica V Andersen
INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in 2012 were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 188 fatal intoxications were recorded. The median age increased from 37.5 in 2007 to 41.5 in 2012...
October 2015: Danish Medical Journal
Arthur Robin Williams
Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians...
May 2016: Bioethics
Kyle Kampman, Margaret Jarvis
The Centers for Disease Control have recently described opioid use and resultant deaths as an epidemic. At this point in time, treating this disease well with medication requires skill and time that are not generally available to primary care doctors in most practice models. Suboptimal treatment has likely contributed to expansion of the epidemic and concerns for unethical practices. At the same time, access to competent treatment is profoundly restricted because few physicians are willing and able to provide it...
September 2015: Journal of Addiction Medicine
A Kibble
The theme of this year's American Psychiatric Association (APA) meeting was 'Psychiatry: integrating body and mind, heart and soul', with special focus given to advances in basic and cognitive neuroscience and how these may contribute to integrated care of mental health and illness. The program featured numerous tracks and subtracks in areas of interest such as addiction psychiatry, child, adolescent and geriatric psychiatry, and psychosomatic medicine.
June 2015: Drugs of Today
A V Nemtsov, S A Trushchelev, V N Krasnov
OBJECTIVE: To compare the publication activity of 6 psychiatric institutes based on the data from the Russian Citation Index (RCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Weighted average data of the last five years was selected for analysis: number of publications and citations per author, number of citations per publication, impact factor of journals published the papers. The analysis of the dynamics of publication activity and citations for the period of 2006-2013 for 6 institutes has been performed...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Elizabeth E Krans, Gerald Cochran, Debra L Bogen
Pregnancy is an opportune time to identify opioid dependence, facilitate conversion to opioid maintenance treatment, and coordinate care with specialists in addiction medicine, behavioral health, and social services. Comprehensive prenatal care for opioid-dependent women involves the evaluation and the management of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, polysubstance use, infectious diseases, social stressors, and counseling regarding the importance of breastfeeding, contraception, and neonatal abstinence syndrome...
June 2015: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Neomi van Duijvenbode, Joanneke E L VanDerNagel, Robert Didden, Rutger C M E Engels, Jan K Buitelaar, Marion Kiewik, Cor A J de Jong
Knowledge regarding substance use (SU) and substance use disorder (SUD) in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (ID) has increased over the last decade, but is still limited. Data on prevalence and risk factors are fragmented, and instruments for screening and assessment and effective treatment interventions are scarce. Also, scientific developments in other fields are insufficiently incorporated in the care for individuals with ID and SUD. In this selective and critical review, we provide an overview of the current status of SU(D) in ID and explore insights on the conceptualisation of SUD from other fields such as addiction medicine and general psychiatry...
March 2015: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Aleksandar Momirović, Helena Gjurić, Martina Goluban
BACKGROUND: The series of personality questionnaires constructed using a computer was created on the basis of cybernetic theories of personality, which presupposes the existence of six conative control systems: a system for the regulation of defense responses, a system for the regulation of attack responses, a system for controlling physiological functions, a system for coordination of regulatory functions, system for integration of regulatory functions and system for regulation of activity...
December 2014: Psychiatria Danubina
Marianne Stallvik, Hans M Nordahl
OBJECTIVE: The complexity of substance use and psychiatric disorders demands thorough assessment of patients for integrated services. We tested the convergent validity of the software version of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) second edition-revised criteria for patient placement by examining the software's ability to discriminate based on a variety of demographic and clinical factors. METHODS: This prospective naturalistic multi-site study examined the software's assignment of patients to three types of treatment (addiction only services, dual diagnosis capable, and dual diagnosis enhanced) and whether these assignments indicated an ability to discriminate between patients with and without dual diagnosis based on clinical characteristics and severity...
2014: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Raymond F Anton, Joseph P Schacht, Sarah W Book
Progress in understanding the neuroscience of addiction has significantly advanced the development of more efficacious medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While several medications have been approved by regulatory bodies around the world for the treatment of AUD, they are not universally efficacious. Recent research has yielded improved understanding of the genetics and brain circuits that underlie alcohol reward and its habitual use. This research has contributed to pharmacogenetic studies of medication response, and will ultimately lead to a more "personalized medicine" approach to AUD pharmacotherapy...
2014: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
R Hajela
Comprehensive assessment based on the definition of Addiction requires exploration of the biological, psychological, social and spiritual dimensions to fully ascertain all the dynamics and complications related to the pathological pursuit of reward and/or relief with the use of substances and other behaviours. This is essential in ascertaining the proper concurrent medical and/or psychiatric diagnoses that may be present or diagnoses that may be complications of Addiction. This approach requires utilization of an interdisciplinary team of professionals from a variety of backgrounds such as nursing, psychology, social work and medicine...
September 2014: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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