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Intimal thickness

Maurizio Benucci, Francesca Bandinelli, Arianna Damiani, Francesca Li Gobbi, Maria Infantino, Valentina Grossi, Mariangela Manfredi
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis patients are exposed to a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality even in the early phases of the disease. Methods: We evaluated carotid common carotid intimal media thickness (ccIMT) intimal thickness and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients without known cardiovascular risk factors or heart disease on a stable dose of prednisone 5.2±1.2 mg/day and Methotrexate 11.5±2.1 mg at baseline (T0) and after 12 months (T1) of treatment with Abatacept 125 mg/week...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Ling-Bing Meng, Ruomei Qi, Lei Xu, Yuhui Chen, Zemou Yu, Peng Guo, Tao Gong
BACKGROUND: The mortality of atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease is on the rise, and changes in intimal and media thickness are a leading cause of cerebral ischemia-related death. Levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), total cholesterol (TC), and chronic stress (CS) are all recognized risk factors for atherosclerosis (AS). However, the leading independent risk factor is indistinct. This study explored the effects of chronic stress, LDLC, and TC on AS and intimal and media thickness, preliminarily explored the main risk factor of AS, and analyzed the related histocyte mechanisms for macrophages and endothelial cells...
June 19, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Frida Dangardt, Marietta Charakida, Scott Chiesa, Devina Bhowruth, Alicja Rapala, Daniela Thurn, Franz Schaefer, John Deanfield, Rukshana Shroff
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are exposed to both traditional 'Framingham' and uremia related cardiovascular risk factors that drive atherosclerotic and arteriosclerotic disease, but these cannot be differentiated using conventional ultrasound. We used ultra-high-frequency ultrasound (UHFUS) to differentiate medial thickness (MT) from intimal thickness (IT) in CKD patients, identify their determinants and monitor their progression. METHODS: Fifty-four children and adolescents with CKD and 12 healthy controls underwent UHFUS measurements using 55-70MHz transducers in common carotid and dorsal pedal arteries...
2018: PloS One
Romina Buchs, Bruno Lehner, Phillippe Meuwly, Bruno Schnyder
<i>C. albicans</i> frequently causes recurrent intimal infectious disease (ID). This demands the treatment of multiple phases of the infection. The objective of this study was to uncover the host-pathogen-interaction using 2D epithelium cell-barrier and 3D subepithelium tissue cells of human mucosa. The 2D cell cultures assessed <i>C. albicans</i> adhesion. Addition of the anti-fungal drug Fluconazol did not inhibit the adhesion, despite its pathogen growth inhibition (MIC value 0.08μg/mL)...
June 14, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Daisuke Kitano, Tadateru Takayama, Mitsumasa Sudo, Takaaki Kogo, Keisuke Kojima, Naotaka Akutsu, Toshihiko Nishida, Hironori Haruta, Daisuke Fukamachi, Taro Kawano, Takashi Kanai, Takafumi Hiro, Satoshi Saito, Atsushi Hirayma
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery vasospasm (CS) can be identified as either a diffuse type or focal type; however, the difference in endothelial characteristics between these spasm types remains unclear. The features of coronary intima associated with diffuse spasm and focal spasm using coronary angioscopy (CAS) were evaluated and the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings were compared. METHODS: CAS and/or OCT observational analysis was performed in 55 patients (mean age: 61...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Jing Lan, Zheng-Yi Fu, Jian-Jian Zhang, Chao Ma, Chang-Jun Cao, Wen-Yuan Zhao, Pu-Cha Jiang, Jin-Cao Chen
BACKGROUND: Giant serpentine aneurysms (GSAs) were considered to be a subgroup of gaint intracranial aneurysm,distinct from saccular and fusiform varieties, which were defined as partially thrombosed giant aneurysm with tortuous internal vascular channel. The clinicopathological characteristics of giant serpentine middle cerebral artery aneurysm have been rarely reported in the literature and were discussed only radiologically. In this review we attempt to clarify patient clinical and neuroradiological features and to discuss the mechanism of formation and progression...
June 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Yonghua Bi, Hongmei Chen, Yahua Li, Zepeng Yu, Xinwei Han, Jianzhuang Ren
The self-healing phenomenon can be found in the elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) model, and an enlarging AAA model was successfully induced by coarctation. Unfortunately, aortic coarctation in these enlarging models is generally not found in human AAA disease. This study aimed to create an experiment model of enlarging AAA in rabbits to better mimic human aortic aneurysm disease. Eighty-four male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups: two aneurysm groups (A and B) and a SHAM group...
2018: PloS One
Fatemeh Namazi, Tahoora Shomali, Pouya Taghikhani, Saied Nazifi
Objective: Finding compounds that could be used for prevention of atherosclerosis (AS) is highly desired. The present study evaluated the protective effects of Urtica dioica (UD, commonly known as stinging nettle) leaf ethanolic extract against high-fat diet-induced AS in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 male adult Sprauge-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups and treated as follows for 9 consecutive weeks: (1) Normal control (NC; normal rats that were fed with a basic diet); (2) Atherosclerotic rats (AT; which received no particular treatment); (3) Atherosclerotic rats that received 100 mg/kg/day ethanolic extract of UD orally and (4) Atherosclerotic rats that received simvastatin 4 mg/kg/day orally...
May 2018: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Evangelos Theodorou, Adrianos Nezos, Eleni Antypa, Dimitrios Ioakeimidis, Michael Koutsilieris, Maria Tektonidou, Haralampos M Moutsopoulos, Clio P Mavragani
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease with an increased atherosclerotic risk compared to healthy population, partially explained by traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Recent data suggest B-cell activating factor (BAFF) as an important contributor in the pathogenesis of both SLE and atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study is to explore whether serum BAFF levels along with variants of the BAFF gene increase lupus related atherosclerotic risk...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Gerhard Sommer, Christoph Benedikt, Justyna A Niestrawska, Gloria Hohenberger, Christian Viertler, Peter Regitnig, Tina U Cohnert, Gerhard A Holzapfel
Peripheral vascular trauma due to injuries of the upper and lower limbs are life-threatening, and their treatment require rapid diagnosis and highly-qualified surgical procedures. Experienced surgeons have recognized that subclavian arteries, affected by injuries of the upper limbs, require a more careful handling due to fragility than common iliac arteries, which are may be affected by injures of the lower limbs. We investigated these two artery types with comparable diameter to evaluate the differences in the biomechanical properties between subclavian and iliac arteries...
May 30, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Juan Verdejo-Román, Natalia Bueso-Izquierdo, Julia C Daugherty, Miguel Pérez-García, Natalia Hidalgo-Ruzzante
Poor emotion processing is thought to influence violent behaviors among male batterers in abusive relationships. Nevertheless, little is known about the neural mechanisms of emotion processing in this population. OBJECTIVE: With the objective of better understanding brain structure and its relation to emotion processing in male batterers, the present study compares the cortical grey matter thickness of male batterers to that of other criminals in brain areas related to emotion. Differences among these brain areas were also compared to an emotional perception task...
May 26, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Pedro M Castro, Flávia Sousa, Rui Magalhães, Victor Manuel Pizones Ruiz-Henestrosa, Ana M R Pilosof, Ana Raquel Madureira, Bruno Sarmento, Manuela E Pintado
The association of alginate beads and guar-gum films in a single delivery system was idealized to promote a more effective buccal and oral delivery of bioactive molecules. A response surface method (experimental design approach) was performed to obtain optimal formulations of alginate beads to be incorporated into guar gum oral films as combined buccal and oral delivery systems for caffeine delivery. The combined formulation was further characterized regarding physicochemical properties, drug release, cell viability and buccal permeability...
August 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xingxing Zhu, Kangcheng Wang, Li Chen, Aihua Cao, Qunlin Chen, Junchao Li, Jiang Qiu
Life satisfaction reflects an individual's general evaluation of their overall quality of life. It has been hypothesized that relationship status (i.e. state of intimate relationship such as marriage, unmarried cohabiting, dating with others, single or divorce) may influence individual life satisfaction. However, there is little accessible empirical evidence that allows us to explore this proposition. Using a large sample of young adults (n = 1031) from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we showed that compared to other relationship statuses (e...
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience
Christina Maria Steger, Nikolaos Bonaros, Ralf Joachim Rieker, Johannes Bonatti, Thomas Schachner
Gene therapy for avoiding intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts after coronary artery bypass grafting is still discussed controversially. A promising application of gene therapy in vein grafts is the use of antisense oligonucleotides to block the expression of genes encoding cell cycle regulatory proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells. C-myc, either directly or by regulating the expression of other proteins, controls cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell survival, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, cell metabolism, production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and also participates in cell transformation...
May 15, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Giovanni Tarantino, Luigi Barrea, Domenico Capone, Vincenzo Citro, Teresa Mosca, Silvia Savastano
Background: Literature data suggest with some criticism that full-fledged cardiovascular (CV) events (acute or chronic) are likely predicted by blood components, which are reported to be associated with the presence/severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was aimed at determining which marker(s) derived from blood count, such as white blood cells, neutrophils, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit values were associated with ear or subclinical atherosclerosis, in obese patients of various classes suffering from NAFLD...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Michael Allon, Silvio H Litovsky, Jason Chieh Sheng Tey, Chad A Sundberg, Yingying Zhang, Zhen Chen, Yun Fang, Alfred K Cheung, Yan-Ting Shiu
INTRODUCTION: Several histologic features have been identified in the upper-extremity arteries and veins of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, which may affect arteriovenous fistula maturation. However, it is unclear whether these chronic kidney disease vascular features are abnormal. METHODS: We obtained upper-extremity arterial and venous specimens from 125 advanced chronic kidney disease patients undergoing arteriovenous fistula creation and from 15 control subjects...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Stephen P Juraschek, Natalie Daya, Lawrence J Appel, Edgar R Miller, John William McEvoy, Kunihiro Matsushita, Christie M Ballantyne, Elizabeth Selvin
BACKGROUND: Although orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a well-recognized manifestation of neuropathy and hypovolemia, its contribution to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants with OH, defined as a decrease in blood pressure (systolic ≥20 mm Hg or diastolic ≥10 mm Hg) from the supine to standing position, were identified during the first visit of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-1989) within 2 minutes of standing...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Michal Pazdernik, Zhi Chen, Helena Bedanova, Josef Kautzner, Vojtech Melenovsky, Vladimir Karmazin, Ivan Malek, Ales Tomasek, Eva Ozabalova, Jan Krejci, Janka Franekova, Andreas Wahle, Honghai Zhang, Tomas Kovarnik, Milan Sonka
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based studies of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) published thus far have focused mainly on frame-based qualitative analysis of the vascular wall. Full capabilities of this inherently 3-dimensional (3D) imaging modality to quantify CAV have not been fully exploited. METHODS: Coronary OCT imaging was performed at 1 month and 12 months after heart transplant (HTx) during routine surveillance cardiac catheterization...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Li Wang, Janelle Geist, Alyssa Grogan, Li-Yen R Hu, Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos
Sarcomeres consist of highly ordered arrays of thick myosin and thin actin filaments along with accessory proteins. Thick filaments occupy the center of sarcomeres where they partially overlap with thin filaments. The sliding of thick filaments past thin filaments is a highly regulated process that occurs in an ATP-dependent manner driving muscle contraction. In addition to myosin that makes up the backbone of the thick filament, four other proteins which are intimately bound to the thick filament, myosin binding protein-C, titin, myomesin, and obscurin play important structural and regulatory roles...
March 13, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Senthil K Vasan, Ambuj Roy, Viji Thomson Samuel, Belavendra Antonisamy, Santosh K Bhargava, Anoop George Alex, Bhaskar Singh, Clive Osmond, Finney S Geethanjali, Fredrik Karpe, Harshpal Sachdev, Kanhaiya Agrawal, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Nikhil Tandon, Nihal Thomas, Prasanna S Premkumar, Prrathepa Asaithambi, Sneha F X Princy, Sikha Sinha, Thomas Vizhalil Paul, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Caroline H D Fall
INTRODUCTION: South Asians have high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and central obesity). Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction are features of these disorders and important predictors of CVD mortality. Lower birth and infant weight and greater childhood weight gain are associated with increased adult CVD mortality, but there are few data on their relationship to LV function. The IndEcho study will examine associations of birth size, growth during infancy, childhood and adolescence and CVD risk factors in young adulthood with midlife cardiac structure and function in South Asian Indians...
April 10, 2018: BMJ Open
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