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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743130/sglt-2-inhibition-a-potential-new-treatment-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#1
Robert D Toto
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney failure. Treatments with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system have proven beneficial in slowing kidney disease progression among those with diabetes; their benefit is limited and they do not stop disease progression. Despite multiple clinical trials of various interventions including dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system over the past 15 years, no new therapies have emerged to slow kidney disease progression in diabetes. SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new class of antiglycemic drugs that have been shown to lower blood glucose by inhibition of the sodium-glucose transporter 2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney...
July 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742600/cholesterol-reduction-and-macrophage-function-role-of-paraoxonases
#2
C Roger White, G M Anantharamaiah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Unregulated uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages to form foam cells is the hallmark for atherosclerosis. The paraoxonase (PON) family of enzymes plays a critical role in attenuating atherosclerotic lesion formation by hydrolyzing lipid peroxides (LOOHs) and preventing the oxidation of LDL particles and by enhancing HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Findings in recent years suggest novel mechanisms by which PON isoforms interact with macrophages to regulate cholesterol metabolism and cellular function...
July 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742538/anaphylaxis-and-intimate-behaviour
#3
Gennaro Liccardi, Marco Caminati, Gian Enrico Senna, Luigino Calzetta, Paola Rogliani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intimate behaviours may represent an unusual way of exposure to a culprit allergen, or the frame for sex-related allergies due to triggers typically linked to that situation. The present review aims at summarizing the state of the art about the topic, in order to spread the awareness and the basic know-how in the field of sexual-related allergies. RECENT FINDINGS: Kiss-related IgE-mediated reactions are caused in sensitized partners mainly by the passive transport of allergenic molecules through saliva, skin or oral mucosa...
July 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742507/severe-neurological-abnormalities-in-a-young-boy-with-impaired-thyroid-hormone-sensitivity-due-to-a-novel-mutation-in-the-mct8-gene
#4
Teresa Rego, Carmen Gomez Lado, Paloma Cabanas Rodríguez, Francisco Sousa Santos, Francisco Barros Angueira, Lidia Castro-Feijóo, Jesús Barreiro Conde, Manuel Castro-Gago
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is an active and specific thyroid hormone transporter into neurons. MCT8 mutations cause an X-linked condition known as Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and are characterized by impaired psychomotor development and typical abnormal thyroid function. We describe a 10-year-old boy with severe cognitive disability, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriplegia and sporadic dyskinetic episodes. He initially presented with thyroid dysfunction (high FT3, low rT3, low FT4 and normal TSH) and generalized retardation of the cerebral and cerebellar myelination in brain magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742396/valbenazine-for-tardive-dyskinesia
#5
Oliver Freudenreich, Gary Remington
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a clinical concern for any patient who receives an antipsychotic. While the overall risk of developing TD is lower with newer antipsychotics compared to older agents, a significant number of patients who require long-term treatment will develop TD. Recently, valbenazine (brand name Ingrezza) became the first drug to be approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment of TD. In this New Drug Review, we summarize the basic pharmacology and clinical trial results for valbenazine...
2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742369/effect-of-curcumin-addition-on-the-adsorption-and-transport-of-a-cationic-dye-across-dppg-popg-liposomes-probed-by-second-harmonic-spectroscopy
#6
Gopal K Varshney, Srinivas R Kintali, Kaustuv Das
The effect of addition of Curcumin on the adsorption and transport characteristics of a cationic dye, (LDS+), across negatively charged bilayers composed of POPG and DPPG lipids were investigated by the interface selective Second Harmonic (SH) spectroscopic technique. Curcumin induced changes in the SH electric field signal of the LDS+ ions (E2ω (LDS+)) were observed to depend critically on the bilayer acyl chain saturation/un-saturation ratio (S/U). Following earlier works, the increase in the E2ω (LDS+) signal is attributed to the release of the Na+ counter-ions present in the head-group region of the bilayer by Curcumin and the decay of the E2ω (LDS+) signal is attributed to the bilayer intercalated state of Curcumin...
July 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742362/convective-self-sustained-motion-in-mixtures-of-chemically-active-and-passive-particles
#7
Oleg Shklyaev, Henry Shum, Victor V Yashin, Anna C Balazs
We develop a model to describe the behavior of a system of active and passive particles in solution that can undergo spontaneous self-organization and self-sustained motion. The active particles are uniformly coated with a catalyst that decomposes the reagent in the surrounding fluid. The resulting variations in the fluid density give rise to a convective flow around the active particles. The generated fluid flow, in turn, drives the self-organization of both the active and passive particles into clusters that undergo self-sustained propulsion along the bottom wall of a microchamber...
July 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742355/tfsi-and-tdi-anions-probes-for-solvate-ionic-liquid-and-disproportionation-based-lithium-battery-electrolytes
#8
Piotr Jankowski, Maciej Dranka, Wladyslaw Grzegorz Wieczorek, Patrik Johansson
Highly concentrated electrolytes based on Li-salts and chelating solvents, such as glymes, are promising as electrolytes for lithium batteries. This is due to their unique properties, such as higher electrochemical stabilities, compliance with high voltage electrodes, low volatility and flammability, and inertness towards aluminium current collector corrosion. The nature of these properties originates from the molecular level structure created in either solvate ionic liquids (SILs) or the less common ionic aggregates by disproportionation reactions...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742340/structure-and-electrical-transport-relations-in-ba-zr-pr-o3-%C3%AE-perovskites
#9
Isabel Antunes, Ulises Amador, Adriana Alves, Maria Rosário Correia, Clemens Ritter, Jorge Ribeiro Frade, Domingo Pérez-Coll, Glenn C Mather, Duncan Paul Fagg
Members of the perovskite solid solution BaZr1-xPrxO3-δ (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) with potential high-temperature electrochemical applications were synthesized via mechanical activation and high-temperature annealing at 1250 °C. Structural properties were examined by Rietveld analysis of neutron powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy at room temperature, indicating rhombohedral symmetry (space group R3̅c) for members x = 0.2 and 0.4 and orthorhombic symmetry (Imma) for x = 0.6 and 0.8. The sequence of phase transitions for the complete solid solution from BaZrO3 to BaPrO3 is Pm3̅m → R3̅c → Imma → Pnma...
July 25, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742323/response-characteristics-of-hydrogen-sensors-based-on-pmma-membrane-coated-palladium-nanoparticle-films
#10
Minrui Chen, Peng Mao, Yuyuan Qin, Jue Wang, Bo Xie, Xiuzhang Wang, Deyan Han, Guo-Hong Wang, Fengqi Song, Min Han, Jun-Ming Liu, Guanghou Wang
Coating polymeric membrane for gas separation is a feasible approach to fabricate gas sensors with selectivity. In this study, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) membrane-coated palladium (Pd) nanoparticle (NP) films were fabricated for high-performance hydrogen (H2) gas sensing by carrying out gas phase cluster deposition and PMMA spin coating. No changes were induced by the PMMA spin coating in the electrical transport and H2 sensing mechanisms of the Pd NP films. Measurements of H2 sensing demonstrated that the devices were capable of detecting H2 gas within the concentration range of 0-10% at room temperature and showed high selectivity to H2 due to the filtration effect of the PMMA membrane layer...
July 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742146/immunomodulatory-effects-of-excretory-secretory-compounds-from-contracaecum-osculatum-larvae-in-a-zebrafish-inflammation-model
#11
Foojan Mehrdana, Per Walter Kania, Sasan Nazemi, Kurt Buchmann
Excretory/secretory (ES) compounds isolated from third-stage larvae of the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum parasitizing liver of Baltic cod were investigated for effects on immune gene expression in a zebrafish LPS-induced inflammation model. ES products containing a series of proteins, of which some had enzymatic activity, were injected solely or with LPS. ES proteins alone induced up-regulation of a number of immune-related genes, but generally to a lower degree compared to LPS. When co-injected with LPS, the worm products exacerbated merely expression of five genes affecting Th1, Th2, Th17 and innate responses compared to the LPS-injected group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742060/suppressed-kondo-effect-and-kosterlitz-thouless-type-phase-transition-induced-by-level-difference-in-a-triple-dot-device
#12
Yong-Chen Xiong, Hai-Ming Huang, Wen-Lei Zhao, Amel Laref
Quantum dot system provides an ideal platform for quantum information processing, within which to demonstrate the quantum states is one of the most important issue for quantum simulation and quantum computation. In this paper, we report a peculiar electron state in a parallel triple dot device where the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction is invalid when the level differences of the dots sweep into appropriate regime. This extraordinary tendency then results in an antiferromagnetic spin coupling between two of the dots and may lead to zero or full conductance, relying deeply on the relation of the two level spacings...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742046/a-fast-algorithm-for-analysis-of-molecular-communication-in-artificial-synapse
#13
Bilgesu A Bilgin, Ozgur B Akan
In this paper we analyse molecular communications (MC) in a proposed artificial synapse (AS), whose main difference from biological synapses (BSs) is that it is closed, i.e., transmitter molecules cannot diffuse out from AS. Such a setup has both advantages and disadvantages. Besides higher structural stability, being closed, AS never runs out of transmitters. Thus, MC in AS is disconnected from outer environment, which is very desirable for possible intra-body applications. On the other hand, clearance of transmitters from AS has to be achieved by transporter molecules on the presynaptic membrane of AS...
July 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741996/transcriptome-changes-associated-with-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-infection-in-various-life-stages-of-its-thrips-vector-frankliniella-fusca-hinds
#14
Anita Shrestha, Donald E Champagne, Albert K Culbreath, Dorith Rotenberg, Anna E Whitfield, Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan
Persistent propagative viruses maintain intricate interactions with their arthropod vectors. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome-level responses associated with a persistent propagative phytovirus infection in various life stages of its vector using an Illumina HiSeq sequencing platform. The pathosystem components included a Tospovirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), its insect vector, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and a plant host, Arachis hypogaea (L.). We assembled (de novo) reads from three developmental stage groups of virus-exposed and non-virus-exposed F...
July 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741949/ph-dependence-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-iontronic-transport
#15
Maria Seitanidou, Juan Felipe Franco-Gonzalez, Theresia Arbring Sjöström, Igor Zozoulenko, Magnus Berggren, Daniel T Simon
The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) has been developed as an "iontronic" tool for delivery of biological signaling compounds. OEIPs rely on electrophoretically "pumping" charged compounds, either at neutral or shifted pH, through an ion-selective channel. Significant shifts in pH lead to an abundance of H(+) or OH(-), which are delivered along with the intended substance. While this method has been used to transport various neurotransmitters, the role of pH has not been explored. Here we present an investigation of the role of pH on OEIP transport efficiency using the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as the model cationic delivery substance...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741936/on-the-influence-of-lattice-polarizability-on-the-ionic-conductivity-in-the-lithium-superionic-argyrodites-li6ps5x-x-cl-br-i
#16
Marvin Kraft, Sean P Culver, Mario Calderon, Felix Boecher, Thorben Krauskopf, Anatoliy Senyshyn, Christian Dietrich, Alexandra Zevalkink, Jürgen Janek, Wolfgang G Zeier
In the search for novel solid electrolytes for solid-state batteries, thiophosphate ionic conductors have been in recent focus owing to their high ionic conductivities, which are believed to stem from a softer, more polarizable anion framework. Inspired by the oft-cited connection between a soft anion lattice and ionic transport, this work aims to provide evidence on how changing the polarizability of the anion sublattice in one structure affects ionic transport. Here, we systematically alter the anion framework polarizability of the superionic argyrodites Li6PS5X by controlling the fractional occupancy of the halide anions (X = Cl, Br, I)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741907/nutrition-status-of-children-in-latin-america
#17
C Corvalán, M L Garmendia, J Jones-Smith, C K Lutter, J J Miranda, L S Pedraza, B M Popkin, M Ramirez-Zea, D Salvo, A D Stein
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight...
July 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741686/gpr55-receptor-antagonist-decreases-glycolytic-activity-in-panc-1-pancreatic-cancer-cell-line-and-tumor-xenografts
#18
Michel Bernier, Jonathan Catazaro, Nagendra S Singh, Artur Wnorowski, Anna Boguszewska-Czubara, Krzysztof Jozwiak, Robert Powers, Irving W Wainer
The Warburg effect is a predominant metabolic pathway in cancer cells characterized by enhanced glucose uptake and its conversion to L-lactate and is associated with upregulated expression of HIF-1α and activation of the EGFR-MEK-ERK, Wnt-β-catenin and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. (R,R')-4'-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol ((R,R')-MNF) significantly reduces proliferation, survival, and motility of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition of the GPR55 receptor. We examined (R,R')-MNF's effect on glycolysis in PANC-1 cells and tumors...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741669/connecting-salt-stress-signalling-pathways-with-salinity-induced-changes-in-mitochondrial-metabolic-processes-in-c3-plants
#19
REVIEW
M Hafiz Che-Othman, A Harvey Millar, Nicolas L Taylor
Salinity exerts a severe detrimental effect on crop yields globally. Growth of plants in saline soils results in physiological stress, which disrupts the essential biochemical processes of respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration. Understanding the molecular responses of plants exposed to salinity stress can inform future strategies to reduce agricultural losses due to salinity however it is imperative that signalling and functional response processes are connected to tailor these strategies. Previous research has revealed the important role that plant mitochondria play in the salinity response of plants...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741486/rethinking-lymphatic-vessels-and-antitumor-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Amanda W Lund
Lymphatic vessels facilitate fluid homeostasis, immune cell trafficking, and lipid transport, and contribute to solid tumor progression as routes of metastasis. Given new evidence that lymphatic vessels both correlate with intratumoral lymphocytes and directly suppress immune function, I reevaluate the passive lymphatic vessel paradigm and discuss its relevance to antitumor immunity.
October 2016: Trends in Cancer
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