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Usha Panchapakesan, Carol Pollock
Drug repurposing, is the re-tasking of known medications for new clinical indications. Advantages, compared to de novo drug development, include reduced cost and time to market plus the added benefit of a known pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. Suitable drug candidates are identified through serendipitous observations, data mining, or increased understanding of disease mechanisms. This review highlights drugs suited for repurposing in kidney disease. The main cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease is cardiovascular disease...
April 6, 2018: Kidney International
Xin Zhao, Jinyu Liu, Shijun Yang, Dandan Song, Chen Wang, Chen Chen, Chengcheng Wang, Feifei Pu, Runmei Yang, Xiaoya Li, Qiuting Wang, Shasha Ge, Yulin Lin, Xiuhua Liu, Dayong Cai
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the common cognitive disorder derived mainly from lacunar stroke. The neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction involves in its pathogenesis. VaD lacks suitable animal models for developing preventive therapies. This study aimed to confirm a model for preventing VaD via maintaining NVC sensitivity in rats. The model was replicated with autologous microthrombi against the background of hypercholesterolemia. A phosphodiesterase inhibitor (pentoxyfylline) was preventively administrated to confirm the role of NVC sensitivity...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Deepali Singh, Vinod Kumar, Chetna Singh
Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) provoke oxidative stress-mediated cell damage. Role of xanthine oxidase (XO) in oxidative stress and its association with nitric oxide (NO)/NO synthase (NOS) have been widely reported. While inducible NOS (iNOS) is implicated in MB+PQ-induced toxicity in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), role of XO and its alliance with iNOS have not yet been established. The study investigated the role of XO in MB+PQ-induced oxidative stress in rat PMNs and its regulation by iNOS and inflammatory cytokines...
March 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ratree Sawangjit, Bunchai Chongmelaxme, Pochamana Phisalprapa, Surasak Saokaew, Ammarin Thakkinstian, Kris V Kowdley, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has significantly increased over the last decades. Despite existence of several interventions, there remains unclear which interventions work the best. METHODS: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing efficacy of all treatment options in NAFLD were performed to determine comparative efficacy and safety of interventions in the management of NAFLD. Several electronic databases were searched up to Nov 15, 2015...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nameer K Al-Sudany
Primary perniosis is an annoying cold-induced dermatosis. Many therapeutic agents have been tried with either unsatisfactory or controversial results. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral pentoxyfylline in the treatment of primary perniosis. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized therapeutic study conducted in dermatology department of Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq during four winter seasons between 2010 and 2014. The patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups: group A patients were given oral pentoxyfylline 400 mg thrice daily whereas patients in group B were given an identical placebo tablet thrice daily for 3 weeks...
July 2016: Dermatologic Therapy
Flávio A Amaral, Leandro F S Bastos, Thiago H C Oliveira, Ana C F Dias, Vívian L S Oliveira, Lívia D Tavares, Vivian V Costa, Izabela Galvão, Frederico M Soriani, David E Szymkowski, Bernhard Ryffel, Danielle G Souza, Mauro M Teixeira
Gout manifests as recurrent episodes of acute joint inflammation and pain due to the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals within the affected tissue in a process dependent on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The synthesis, activation, and release of IL-1β are crucial for MSU-induced inflammation. The current study evaluated the mechanism by which TNF-α contributed to MSU-induced inflammation. Male C57BL/6J or transgenic mice were used in this study and inflammation was induced by the injection of MSU crystals into the joint...
January 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Hitesh M Soni, Praful P Patel, Savan Patel, Akshyaya C Rath, Aviseka Acharya, Harshkant D Trivedi, Mukul R Jain
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate the nephroprotective effect of combination of aliskiren (ASK), a direct renin inhibitor and pentoxifylline (PTX), inhibitor of tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in rat remnant kidney model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nephrectomized (NPX) rats were treated with ASK (10 mg/kg, p.o.), PTX (100 mg/kg, p.o.), and combination of PTX + ASK once daily for 28 days. We have performed analysis of various renal injury parameters after 4 weeks of treatment...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
E B Mitchel, J E Lavine
BACKGROUND: Paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health concern given the recent increase in its prevalence and link to obesity and other metabolic comorbidities. Current treatment strategies involve lifestyle changes. Other surgical and pharmacologic interventions have been proposed; however, limited randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the paediatric population restrict their use. AIM: To review the current management of paediatric NAFLD, including lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions, and to formulate recommendations for study design for future studies...
November 2014: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mehrdad Hashemi
Ischemia Reperfusion injury is the tissue damage caused when blood supply returns to the tissue after a period of ischemia or lack of oxygen. In this study, the effect of pentoxyfylline on BCL-2 gene expression changes and cell injury in kidney of rat following Ischemia Reperfusion were evaluated. In this experimental study, 20 male wistar rats with average weight of 250-300 g were selected and then were accidently divided them on two tenth group of control and treatment groups. In the control group, celiotomy was performed by ventral midline incision...
2014: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Venkatesh Rewale, Kiran Ravi Prabhakar, Anjali M Chitale
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers are estimated to affect 15% of all diabetics and precede almost 85% of foot amputations. Pentoxyfylline a substituted xanthenes' derivative has been reported to increase the blood flow to the microcirculation and enhances tissue oxygenation. It has been widely used in the treatment of intermittent claudication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pentoxyfylline is known to decrease the rouleaux formation of RBC and hence helps in improving the microcirculation...
January 2014: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Gihan S Labib, Ragwa M Farid
The aim of this study was to formulate Pentoxyfylline drug (PTX) as a local bioadhesive Carbopol (Cbp) based gels for the aid of bone induction around an endosseus oral implant. The local delivery of the drug will probably avoid most of the problems associated with its systemic use including; disturbances in gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. Two concentrations of 1% and 3% Cbp containing 1% PTX were prepared. The gels were investigated for their physicochemical properties. Cbp based gels were found to be translucent with good homogeneity, uniform distribution of the drug and absence of any lumps...
July 22, 2015: Drug Delivery
Abhishek Vijayakumar, Rahul Tiwari, Vinod Kumar Prabhuswamy
Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a nonatherosclerotic, segmental inflammatory disease that most commonly affects the small and medium-sized arteries and veins in the upper and lower extremities. Cigarette smoking has been implicated as the main etiology of the disease. In eastern parts of the world TAO forms 40-60% of peripheral vascular diseases. Clinical features and angiographic finding are the basis of early diagnosis of TAO. Abstinence from smoking is the only definitive treatment to prevent disease progression...
2013: International Journal of Inflammation
William M Mendenhall, Brian T McKibben, Bradford S Hoppe, Romaine C Nichols, Randal H Henderson, Nancy P Mendenhall
The optimal management of radiation proctitis is ill defined. A variety of alternatives are available and include topical agents (ie, sucralfate enemas, formalin), oral agents (ie, pentoxyfylline, vitamin A), hyperbaric oxygen, and endoscopic interventions (ie, argon plasma coagulation). It is prudent to manage patients conservatively and to intervene only when necessary with the option least likely to exacerbate the proctitis. Rectal biopsies should be avoided as they may precipitate a complication. More aggressive measures, such as argon laser coagulation, should be employed only when more conservative approaches fail...
October 2014: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
C Burkart, T Linder, M Gärtner
BACKGROUND: Therapy for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss is still controversial. Although there are no evidenced-based studies, therapy with systemic steroids is widely accepted as the gold standard. Intratympanic administration of steroids appears to be an alternative or additional method of management without the disadvantage of systemic side effects and, therefore, makes therapy accessible for patients with contraindication for systemic steroids. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis compares the audiometric results of 25 patients who were treated with standard therapy (prednisolone, hydroxyethyl starch, pentoxyfylline) with 23 patients who additionally received intratympanic steroids (IT group)...
February 2013: HNO
Vinayak P Sant, Mangal S Nagarsenker
The objective of the present study was to synthesize monomethoxypolyethyleneglycol-5000 cholesteryl ester [PEG-CH] as a cost-effective substitute for polyethyleneglycol-phosphatidylethanolamine and to evaluate the influence of its incorporation in liposomal bilayers for surface modification. PEG-CH was synthesized and characterized by infrared (IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. Influence of incorporation of PEG-CH in liposomes was evaluated on various parameters such as zeta potential, DSC, and encapsulation efficiency of a hydrophilic drug pentoxyfylline...
December 2011: AAPS PharmSciTech
Ajay Duseja
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as an important cause of liver disease in India. Epidemiological studies suggest prevalence of NAFLD in around 9% to 32% of general population in India with higher prevalence in those with overweight or obesity and those with diabetes or prediabetes. Clinicopathological studies show that NAFLD is an important cause of unexplained rise in hepatic transaminases, cryptogenic cirrhosis and cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma in Indian patients. There is high prevalence of insulin resistance and nearly half of Indian patients with NAFLD have evidence of full-blown metabolic syndrome...
November 2010: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Santanu Acharya, Ephia Yasmin, Adam H Balen
An optimal thickness of the endometrium is considered to be one of the prerequisites for successful implantation of the embryo. A retrospective analysis was carried out to investigate the use of Pentoxyfylline and tocopherol in improving the endometrial thickness in cases that are unresponsive to conventional therapy. Twenty women with thin endometrium (<6 mm) undergoing either ovulation induction or frozen embryo transfer cycles were prescribed 800 mg of PTX and 1000 IU of Vit E daily. In 11 cases, the etiology for thin endometrium was unknown...
December 2009: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Adil A Noaimi, Basman M Fadheel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pentoxyfylline in treatment of perniosis in comparison with prednisolone plus topical clobetasol ointment. METHODS: This is an open comparative therapeutic trial conducted in the Department of Dermatology, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq between January and March 2008. Forty patients with perniosis were enrolled in this study, and divided randomly into 2 equal groups, according to the sort of treatment...
December 2008: Saudi Medical Journal
Tai-Fai Fok
Whereas oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and mechanical ventilation are the mainstays of treatment of pulmonary conditions in newborns, there are a number of adjunctive therapies that may improve the pulmonary function of these infants. These include the use of bronchodilators and diuretics given either systemically or through the inhaled route, mucolytic agents, and anti-inflammatory agents. This chapter gives an overview of the use of the most-studied agents including aerosolized bronchodilators, systemic and inhaled diuretics, and systemic and inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment and prevention of, where appropriate, respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and meconium aspiration syndrome...
February 2009: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
H S Brand, F F van Beusichem, A van Nieuw Amerongen
Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder, characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulceration and uveitis. Additionally, skin lesions, vasculitis, and arthritis may occur. The disease is chronic, with exacerbations and remissions. Treatment of Behcet's disease is symptomatic depending on the symptoms and their severity. Oral ulcers are seen in 98% of patients with Behçet's disease. Some aspects of oral health, such as the amount of plaque and the presence of periodontal disease, and possibly also caries, are more prevalent in patients with the disease when compared to healthy persons...
June 2008: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
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