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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454224/the-consonant-vowel-pattern-determines-the-structure-of-orthographic-representations-in-the-left-fusiform-gyrus
#1
Fabienne Chetail, Mariagrazia Ranzini, Xavier De Tiège, Vincent Wens, Alain Content
Recent findings demonstrated readers' sensitivity to the distinction between consonant and vowel letters. Especially, the way consonants and vowels are organised within written words determines their perceptual structure. The present work attempted to overcome two limitations of previous studies by examining the neurophysiological correlates of this perceptual structure through magnetoencephalography (MEG). One aim was to establish that the extraction of vowel-centred units takes place during early stages of processing...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454223/attention-as-the-glue-for-object-integration-in-parietal-extinction
#2
Markus Conci, Julia Groß, Ingo Keller, Hermann J Müller, Kathrin Finke
Patients with unilateral, parietal brain damage frequently show visual extinction, which manifests in a failure to identify contralesional stimuli when presented simultaneously with other, ipsilesional stimuli (but full awareness for single stimulus presentations). Extinction reflects an impairment of spatial selective attention, leaving basic preattentive processing unaffected. For instance, access to bilaterally grouped objects is usually spared in extinction, suggesting that grouping occurs at a stage preceding (in the patients: abnormally biased) spatial-attentional selection...
January 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453957/automatic-detection-of-the-duration-of-visual-static-and-dynamic-stimuli
#3
Szonya Durant, István Sulykos, István Czigler
The perception of the passing of time is fundamental to conscious experience. The duration of a sensory stimulus is one of its defining attributes, but it is not clear how this is encoded in the brain. This work explores whether the duration of a visual stimulus is an attribute that the brain can automatically adapt to and use to predict future stimulus durations. Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is an ERP component elicited, even when the stimuli are unattended, when an 'unexpected' visual stimulus appears amongst a series of expected stimuli in an 'oddball' paradigm...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451998/predicting-the-integrated-visual-field-with-wide-scan-optical-coherence-tomography-in-glaucoma-patients
#4
Masaaki Yoshida, Shiho Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Kazuko Omodaka, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: This study aimed to calculate a predicted integrated visual field (IVF) based on predicted monocular visual fields (MVFs) derived, with a new method, from wide-scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Visual field testing used the central (6 × 4) 24 points of the Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2 program. OCT scans of a corresponding retinal area, centered on the fovea, were divided into a 6 × 4 grid. The thickness of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), and mRNFL + GCIPL (GCC) was measured in each grid area...
February 16, 2018: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451992/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-the-peripapillary-retina-in-normal-tension-glaucoma-and-chronic-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#5
Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Luca Agnifili, Enrico Borrelli, Vincenzo Fasanella, Lorenza Brescia, Luca Di Antonio, Leonardo Mastropasqua
PURPOSE: To analyze the retinal radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients with NTG, 22 patients with unilateral chronic NAION, and 23 age-matched controls were enrolled. Patients underwent OCTA to obtain en face angiograms of the peripapillary region. The main outcome measures were as follows: (1) the whole en face image perfusion density (WPD) and (2) the circumpapillary perfusion density (CPD)...
February 16, 2018: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451953/using-quantitative-tissue-phenotype-to-assess-the-margins-of-surgical-samples-from-a-pan-canadian-surgery-study
#6
Martial Guillaud, Calum E MacAulay, Kenneth W Berean, Martin Bullock, Kelly Guggisberg, Hagen Klieb, Lakshmi Puttagunta, Carla Penner, Keith Kwan, Miriam P Rosin, Catherine F Poh
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to use quantitative tissue phenotype (QTP) to assess the surgical margins to examine if a fluorescence visualization-guided surgical approach produces a shift in the surgical field by sparing normal tissue while catching high-risk tissue. METHODS: Using our QTP to calculate the degree of nuclear chromatin abnormalities, Nuclear Phenotypic Score (NPS), we analyzed 1290 biopsy specimens taken from surgical samples of 248 patients enrolled in the Efficacy of Optically-guided Surgery in the Management of Early-staged Oral Cancer (COOLS) trial...
February 16, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451872/differences-in-neural-responses-to-ipsilateral-stimuli-in-wide-view-fields-between-face-and-house-selective-areas
#7
Bin Wang, Ting Li, Yan Niu, Jie Xiang, Junjie Cheng, Bo Liu, Hui Zhang, Tianyi Yan, Susumu Kanazawa, Jinglong Wu
Category-selective brain areas exhibit varying levels of neural activity to ipsilaterally presented stimuli. However, in face- and house-selective areas, the neural responses evoked by ipsilateral stimuli in the peripheral visual field remain unclear. In this study, we displayed face and house images using a wide-view visual presentation system while performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The face-selective areas (fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA)) exhibited intense neural responses to ipsilaterally presented images, whereas the house-selective areas (parahippocampal place area (PPA) and transverse occipital sulcus (TOS)) exhibited substantially smaller and even negative neural responses to the ipsilaterally presented images...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451292/multifunctional-luminescent-magnetic-cryocooler-in-a-gd-5-mn-2-pyramidal-complex
#8
Wei Huang, Shuaidan Huang, Ming Zhang, Yancong Chen, Gui-Lin Zhuang, Yao Li, Ming-Liang Tong, Juan Yong, Yujie Li, Dayu Wu
Magnetic cooling is a highly efficient refrigeration technique with the potential of replacing expensive and rare helium-3 in the field of ultra-low temperature cooling. However, the visualization of a cryogen at an extremely low temperature and in a strong magnetic field is challenging, but it is crucial for the precise positioning and in situ thermal probe measurements in potential practical applications. Here, the activation of a red-emissive Mn(ii) ion using 3d/4f chemistry produces a luminescent molecule cooler, [Gd 5 Mn 2 (L OMe ) 2 (OH) 4 (Ac) 6 (MeOH) 10 Cl 2 ]Cl 3 ·2MeOH (1), with the core of an Mn(ii)-anchored heptanuclear [GdMn] pyramid...
February 16, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451118/a-spatial-memory-signal-shows-that-the-parietal-cortex-has-access-to-a-craniotopic-representation-of-space
#9
Mulugeta Semework, Sara C Steenrod, Michael E Goldberg
Humans effortlessly establish a gist-like memory of their environment whenever they enter a new place, a memory that can guide action even in the absence of vision. Neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of the monkey exhibit a form of this environmental memory. These neurons respond when a monkey makes a saccade that brings the spatial location of a stimulus that appeared on a number of prior trials, but not on the present trial, into their receptive fields (RFs). The stimulus need never have appeared in the neuron's RF...
February 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450913/in-situ-repair-of-2d-chalcogenides-under-electron-beam-irradiation
#10
Yuting Shen, Tao Xu, Xiaodong Tan, Longbing He, Kuibo Yin, Neng Wan, Litao Sun
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) and bismuth telluride (Bi 2 Te 3 ) are the two most common types of structures adopted by 2D chalcogenides. In view of their unique physical properties and structure, 2D chalcogenides have potential applications in various fields. However, the excellent properties of these 2D crystals depend critically on their crystal structures, where defects, cracks, holes, or even greater damage can be inevitably introduced during the preparation and transferring processes. Such defects adversely impact the performance of devices made from 2D chalcogenides and, hence, it is important to develop ways to intuitively and precisely repair these 2D crystals on the atomic scale, so as to realize high-reliability devices from these structures...
February 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450870/early-and-long-period-follow-up-results-of-low-glycemic-index-diet-for-migraine-prophylaxis
#11
Gökhan Evcili, Uygar Utku, Muhammed Nur Öğün, Gökhan Özdemir
OBJECTIVES: The role of dietary restriction in the management of patients with migraine is still a controversial topic in the headache field. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dietary restriction on migraine attacks. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with migraine without aura according to the International Classification of Headaches were enrolled. Our study included 350 migraine patients evaluated at the neurology headache outpatient clinic. They were randomly divided into two groups: diet group as the study group and medication group as the control group...
January 2018: Aǧrı: Ağrı (Algoloji) Derneği'nin Yayın Organıdır, the Journal of the Turkish Society of Algology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450832/perceptual-modification-of-the-built-environment-to-influence-behavior-associated-with-physical-activity-quasi-experimental-field-studies-of-a-stair-banister-illusion
#12
Rich Masters, Catherine Capio, Jamie Poolton, Liis Uiga
BACKGROUND: Re-engineering the built environment to influence behaviors associated with physical activity potentially provides an opportunity to promote healthier lifestyles at a population level. Here we present evidence from two quasi-experimental field studies in which we tested a novel, yet deceptively simple, intervention designed to alter perception of, and walking behavior associated with, stairs in an urban area. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine whether adjusting a stair banister has an influence on perceptions of stair steepness or on walking behavior when approaching the stairs...
February 15, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450622/comparison-of-retinal-microvascular-changes-in-eyes-with-high-tension-glaucoma-or-normal-tension-glaucoma-a-quantitative-optic-coherence-tomography-angiographic-study
#13
Huan Xu, Ruyi Zhai, Yuan Zong, Xiangmei Kong, Chunhui Jiang, Xinghuai Sun, Yi He, Xiqi Li
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine and compare the changes in the retinal vasculature in eyes with high-tension glaucoma (HTG) or normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS: The right eyes of 43 HTG subjects, 33 NTG subjects, and 51 age- and sex-matched normal subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. Signals were projected from the internal limiting membrane to retinal pigment epithelium. The retinal perfused vessel densities in the peripapillary and parafoveal regions were measured automatically with optic coherence tomography angiography and the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm...
February 15, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450542/optical-properties-influence-visual-cortical-functional-resolution-after-cataract-surgery-and-both-dissociate-from-subjectively-perceived-quality-of-vision
#14
Ângela Sofia Cardoso Miranda, Andreia de Faria Martins Rosa, Miguel José Patrício Dias, Ben M Harvey, Maria Fátima Loureiro da Silva, Miguel de Sá E Sousa Castelo-Branco, Joaquim Carlos Neto Murta
Purpose: To investigate the relation between optical properties, population receptive fields (pRFs), visual function, and subjectively perceived quality of vision after cataract surgery. Methods: The study includes 30 patients who had recently undergone bilateral sequential cataract surgery. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and pRF modelling methods to assess pRF sizes across visual cortical regions (V1-V3). Subjects also performed a complete ophthalmologic and psychophysical examination and answered a quality of vision questionnaire...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450497/detection-of-glaucoma-progression-in-individuals-of-african-descent-compared-with-those-of-european-descent
#15
Carolina P B Gracitelli, Linda M Zangwill, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Ricardo Y Abe, Christopher A Girkin, Robert N Weinreb, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Felipe A Medeiros
Importance: Individuals of African descent have been reported to be at higher risk for becoming visually impaired from glaucoma compared with individuals of European descent. Objective: To investigate racial differences in longitudinal visual field variability and their impact on time to detect visual field progression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter prospective observational cohort study included 236 eyes of 173 individuals of European descent and 235 eyes of 171 individuals of African descent followed up for a mean (SD) time of 7...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450474/visual-field-progression-is-more-complicated-than-meets-the-eye
#16
Eve J Higginbotham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450401/non-parametric-tests-in-detecting-glaucoma-progression
#17
Anca Pantalon, Crenguța Feraru
Automated perimetry still represents the gold standard in long term glaucoma monitoring. On a daily practice basis, glaucoma progression analysis could be difficult due to the long time needed to detect, confirm, and quantify the progression rate. Moreover, "trend" and "event" analysis require a good theoretical basis to perform and interpret. Aim of study was to present an alternative method to conventional Glaucoma Progression Analysis (Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer, Carl Zeiss® Inc...
July 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450384/plateau-iris-therapeutic-options-and-functional-results-after-treatment
#18
Crenguța Feraru, Andrei Bâlha, Victor Aursulesei, Andrei Filip, Anca Pantalon
We present the therapeutic options and functional results in patients with plateau iris (syndrome or configuration) in consecutive case series. Material and method: Our study included newly diagnosed patients with acute angle closure by "plateau iris" (configuration or syndrome), between June 2016 and April 2017. Series of 8 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria, all being females. All the patients underwent an individualized treatment according to the underlying mechanism and evolution...
April 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450378/ocular-posterior-pole-pathological-modifications-related-to-complicated-pregnancy-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Vanessa Andrada Păun, Zamfir-Radu Ionescu, Liliana Voinea, Monica Cîrstoiu, Alexandru Baroș, Ștefan Pricopie, Radu Ciuluvică
Ocular posterior pole modification are a pathological manifestation in complicated pregnancies, especially when pregnancy induced hypertension is present (PIH), as well as in preeclampsia (PE) or eclampsia. Nonetheless, as the pregnancy evolves, the possibility for an aggravated evolution with HELLP syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura may have an ocular manifestation that, mainly, implies a loss of visual field or acuity, that, left unattended, may constitute a permanent impairment...
April 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449656/ultrasound-beam-steering-of-oxygen-nanobubbles-for-enhanced-bladder-cancer-therapy
#20
Pushpak Bhandari, Gloriia Novikova, Craig J Goergen, Joseph Irudayaraj
New intravesical treatment approaches for bladder cancer are needed as currently approved treatments show several side effects and high tumor recurrence rate. Our study used MB49 murine urothelial carcinoma model to evaluate oxygen encapsulated cellulosic nanobubbles as a novel agent for imaging and ultrasound guided drug delivery. In this study, we show that oxygen nanobubbles (ONB) can be propelled (up to 40 mm/s) and precisely guided in vivo to the tumor by an ultrasound beam. Nanobubble velocity can be controlled by altering the power of the ultrasound Doppler beam, while nanobubble direction can be adjusted to different desired angles by altering the angle of the beam...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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