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Visual field

Clive R Rosenthal, Indira Mallik, Cesar Caballero-Gaudes, Martin I Sereno, David Soto
Learning and memory are supported by a network involving the medial temporal lobe and linked neocortical regions. Emerging evidence indicates that primary visual cortex (i.e., V1) may contribute to recognition memory, but this has been tested only with a single visuospatial sequence as the target memorandum. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether human V1 can support the learning of multiple, concurrent, and complex visual sequences involving discontinous (second-order) associations...
June 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Yaxing Li, Pengyu Lv, Christian Diddens, Huanshu Tan, Herman Wijshoff, Michel Versluis, Detlef Lohse
Droplet evaporation of multicomponent droplets is essential for various physiochemical applications, e.g., in inkjet printing, spray cooling, and microfabrication. In this work, we observe and study the phase segregation of an evaporating sessile binary droplet, consisting of a miscible mixture of water and a surfactantlike liquid (1,2-hexanediol). The phase segregation (i.e., demixing) leads to a reduced water evaporation rate of the droplet, and eventually the evaporation process ceases due to shielding of the water by the nonvolatile 1,2-hexanediol...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Lulu Liu, Andrea Di Donato, Vincent Ginis, Simon Kheifets, Arman Amirzhan, Federico Capasso
Recently, it was shown that a Mie particle in an evanescent field ought to experience optical forces that depend on the helicity of the totally internally reflected beam. As yet, a direct measurement of such helicity-dependent forces has been elusive, as the widely differing force magnitudes in the three spatial dimensions place stringent demands on a measurement's sensitivity and range. In this study, we report the simultaneous measurement of all components of this polarization-dependent optical force by using a 3D force spectroscopy technique with femtonewton sensitivity...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ho-Seok Ee, You-Shin No, Jinhyung Kim, Hong-Gyu Park, Min-Kyo Seo
We present an integration of a single Ag nanowire (NW) with a graphene photodetector and demonstrate an efficient and compact detection of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Atomically thin graphene provides an ideal platform to detect the evanescent electric field of SPPs extremely bound at the interface of the Ag NW and glass substrate. Scanning photocurrent microscopy directly visualizes a polarization-dependent excitation and detects the SPPs. The SPP detection responsivity is readily controlled up to ∼17  mA/W by the drain-source voltage...
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Alison B Callahan, Ashley A Campbell, Susel Oropesa, Aryeh Baraban, Michael Kazim
PURPOSE: Diagnosing thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON) is challenging, particularly in cases lacking a relative afferent pupillary defect. Large case series of TED-CON patients and accessible diagnostic tools are lacking in the current literature. This study aims to create a mathematical formula that accurately predicts the presence or absence of CON based on the most salient clinical measures of optic neuropathy. METHODS: A retrospective case series compares 108 patients (216 orbits) with either unilateral or bilateral TED-CON and 41 age-matched patients (82 orbits) with noncompressive TED...
June 13, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Stephen Ramanoël, Sylvie Chokron, Ruxandra Hera, Louise Kauffmann, Christophe Chiquet, Alexandre Krainik, Carole Peyrin
In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the processing of fine details in a visual scene, based on a high spatial frequency processing, is impaired, while the processing of global shapes, based on a low spatial frequency processing, is relatively well preserved. The present fMRI study aimed to investigate the residual abilities and functional brain changes of spatial frequency processing in visual scenes in AMD patients. AMD patients and normally sighted elderly participants performed a categorization task using large black and white photographs of scenes (indoors vs...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Rujuta A Katkar, Satyashankara Aditya Tadinada, Bennett T Amaechi, Daniel Fried
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic technique providing cross-sectional images of biologic structures based on the differences in tissue optical properties. OCT has been widely used in numerous clinical applications and is becoming popular as a promising technology in dentistry. Today, dental hard (tooth) and soft (hard palate mucosa and gingiva mucosa) tissues are visualized with OCT. With new developments in technology, the applications of OCT are being investigated in various fields in dentistry, such as to detect microleakage around restoration, tooth cracks/fractures, examination of periodontal tissues/pockets, early detection of oral cancerous tissues, and in endodontics for location of pulp canal...
July 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
Christophe Habas, Mario Manto
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive neuroimaging tool assessing the organization of white-matter tracts and brain microstructure in vivo. The technique takes into account the three-dimensional (3D) direction of diffusion of water in space, the brownian movements of water being constrained by the brain microstructure. The main direction of diffusion in the brain is extracted to obtain the principal direction of axonal projection within a given voxel. Overall, the diffusion tensor is a mathematic analysis of the magnitude/directionality (anisotropy) of the movement of water molecules in 3D space...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jisu Hu, Ming Li, Yakang Dai, Chen Geng, Baotong Tong, Zhiyong Zhou, Xue Liang, Wen Yang, Bing Zhang
BACKGROUND: In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) using single-shot echo planar imaging (ss-EPI), both reduced field-of-view (FOV) excitation and sensitivity encoding (SENSE) alone can increase in-plane resolution to some degree. However, when the two techniques are combined to further increase resolution without pronounced geometric distortion, the resulted images are often corrupted by high level of noise and artifact due to the numerical restriction in SENSE. Hence, this study is aimed to provide a reconstruction method to deal with this problem...
June 15, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Paola Conigliaro, Paola Triggianese, Gianluca Draghessi, Claudia Canofari, Gianluca Aloe, Maria Sole Chimenti, Claudia Valeri, Carlo Nucci, Roberto Perricone, Massimo Cesareo
BACKGROUND: Retinal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren syndrome (SS) may be subclinical and thus underdiagnosed. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at evaluating morphological and functional visual abnormalities in a cohort of SLE and SS patients in the absence of an overt clinical visual impairment. We also investigated potential associations between retinal disorders and disease activity, organ involvement, and treatment with steroid and/or hydroxychloroquine...
June 14, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Maxwell Elia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Yuji Nozaki, Takamichi Nakamoto
Recent studies on machine learning technology have reported successful performances in some visual and auditory recognition tasks, while little has been reported in the field of olfaction. In this paper we report computational methods to predict the odor impression of a chemical from its physicochemical properties. Our predictive model utilizes nonlinear dimensionality reduction on mass spectra data and performs the clustering of descriptors by natural language processing. Sensory evaluation is widely used to measure human impressions to smell or taste by using verbal descriptors, such as "spicy" and "sweet"...
2018: PloS One
Camille Choufani, Olivier Barbier, Aurélie Mayet, Sylvain Rigal, Laurent Mathieu
Introduction: A deployed military orthopedic surgeon is a trauma surgeon working in austere conditions. The first aim of this study was to analyze the current activity of French military orthopedic surgeons in the field and to identify the differences of the combat zone with their daily practice. The second aim was to assess the adequacy of the preparedness they received before their deployment and to identify additional needs that could be addressed in future training. Methods: An evaluation survey was sent to all French military orthopedic surgeons deployed in theaters of operations between 2004 and 2014...
June 13, 2018: Military Medicine
Sandy Wenting Zhou, Audrey Yuan Ching Pang, Eugenie Wei Ting Poh, Chee Fang Chin
BACKGROUND: To describe an unusual case of traumatic globe luxation with optic chiasmal avulsion and review the existing literature on this rare condition for further discussion of mechanisms, diagnosis, and management. METHODS: Case report and review of existing case reports and case series identified through literature search. RESULTS: A 28-year-old woman, with no previous medical history, had left globe luxation and optic chiasm avulsion after being stabbed directly into the left orbit with the use of the stiletto high heel of a shoe...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Chelsea Guymer, John Pm Wood, Glyn Chidlow, Robert J Casson
Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is currently the only evidence-based treatment strategy for glaucoma. However, IOP control in some individuals is challenging. Despite optimal treatment, a significant proportion of individuals will progress, with loss of visual field, loss of driving vision, and impaired quality of life. A new modality that could augment current treatment and reduce the rate of neurodegeneration to preserve vision throughout life would be a major breakthrough. A vast number of studies have reported effective neuroprotection in animal models of glaucoma; however, translation to the clinic remains a major hurdle...
June 13, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Michał Tomaszewski, Bogdan Ruszczak, Paweł Michalski
Electrical insulators are elements of power lines that require periodical diagnostics. Due to their location on the components of high-voltage power lines, their imaging can be cumbersome and time-consuming, especially under varying lighting conditions. Insulator diagnostics with the use of visual methods may require localizing insulators in the scene. Studies focused on insulator localization in the scene apply a number of methods, including: texture analysis, MRF (Markov Random Field), Gabor filters or GLCM (Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix) [1], [2]...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Jakob Nikolas Kather, Anna Sophie Berghoff, Dyke Ferber, Meggy Suarez-Carmona, Constantino Carlos Reyes-Aldasoro, Nektarios A Valous, Rodrigo Rojas-Moraleda, Dirk Jäger, Niels Halama
Cancer immunotherapy has fundamentally changed the landscape of oncology in recent years and significant resources are invested into immunotherapy research. It is in the interests of researchers and clinicians to identify promising and less promising trends in this field in order to rationally allocate resources. This requires a quantitative large-scale analysis of cancer immunotherapy related databases. We developed a novel tool for text mining, statistical analysis and data visualization of scientific literature data...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Hans Strasburger, Jörg Huber, David Rose
Towards the end of the 19th Century, Hering and Helmholtz were arguing about the fineness of visual acuity. In a talk given in 1899, Hering finally established beyond reasonable doubt that humans can see spatial displacements smaller than the diameter of a foveal cone receptor, an ability we nowadays call 'hyperacuity' and still the topic of active research. Hering suggested that this ability is made manifest by averaging across the range of locations stimulated during miniature eye movements. However, this idea was made most clear only in a footnote to this (not well known) publication of his talk and so was missed by many subsequent workers...
May 2018: I-Perception
Marco A Petilli, Daniela C Trisolini, Roberta Daini
Sustained attention is a fundamental prerequisite for all cognitive functions and its impairment is a common aftermath of both developmental and acquired neurological disorders. To date, all the sustained attention tasks rely heavily on selective attention to external stimuli. The interaction between selective and sustained attention represents a limit in the field of assessment and may mislead researchers or distort conclusions. The aim of the present perspective study was to propose a sustained version of the Paced Finger Tapping (S-PFT) test as a novel approach to measure sustained attention that does not leverage external stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Basel Turki Baarah, Raed Ali Shatnawi, Ahmed Essa Khatatbeh
PURPOSE: To report the causes of permanent severe visual impairment and blindness among Jordanian blind people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 1422 legally blind or worse vision people of all ages who attended the ophthalmic division of a medical committee for evaluation of disabled persons from July 2013 through November 2014. They were divided into two age groups: adult group (998 cases) and childhood group (<16 years, 424 cases). Patients presented reports from their ophthalmologists detailing their eye examination including best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examinations, and if applicable, intraocular pressure, dilated ophthalmoscopy, and visual field and the primary cause of visual impairment...
January 2018: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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