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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150992/accelerated-aging-and-aging-process-in-the-brain
#1
Nickolay K Isaev, Elisaveta E Genrikhs, Maria V Oborina, Elena V Stelmashook
One of the approaches to the research of the problem of aging is the study of genetic pathologies leading to accelerated aging, such as the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Down syndrome. Probably, this approach can be used in an attempt to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying normal and pathological brain aging. The analysis of the current state of scientific knowledge about these pathologies shows that in the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and Werner syndrome, the rate of brain aging is significantly lower than the rate of whole body aging, whereas in Down syndrome, the brain ages faster than other organs due to amyloid-beta accumulation and chronic oxidative stress in the brain tissue...
November 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150696/impact-of-prolonged-overfeeding-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-in-healthy-individuals
#2
Frederico G S Toledo, Darcy L Johannsen, Jeffrey D Covington, Sudip Bajpeyi, Bret Goodpaster, Kevin E Conley, Eric Ravussin
AIMS/HYPOTHESES: Reduced mitochondrial capacity in skeletal muscle has been observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In humans, the aetiology of this abnormality is not well understood but the possibility that it is secondary to the stress of nutrient overload has been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether sustained overfeeding decreases skeletal muscle mitochondrial content or impairs function. METHODS: Twenty-six healthy volunteers (21 men, 5 women, age 25...
November 17, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150451/elucidating-mechanisms-for-insect-body-size-partial-support-for-the-oxygen-dependent-induction-of-moulting-hypothesis
#3
Sami M Kivelä, Sonja Viinamäki, Netta Keret, Karl Gotthard, Esa Hohtola, Panu Välimäki
Body size is a key life history trait and knowledge of its mechanistic basis is crucial in life history biology. Such knowledge is accumulating in holometabolous insects, whose growth is characterised and body size affected by moulting. According to the oxygen-dependent induction of moulting (ODIM) hypothesis, moult is induced at a critical mass where oxygen demand of growing tissues overrides the supply that principally grows only at moults. Support for the ODIM hypothesis is controversial partly because of a lack of proper data to explicitly test the hypothesis...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149829/the-validation-path-of-hypoxia-pet-imaging-a-focus-on-brain-tumours
#4
Natale Quartuccio, Marie-Claude Asselin
Gliomas are brain tumours arising from the glia, the supportive tissue of the central nervous system (CNS) and constitute the commonest primary malignant brain tumours. Gliomas are graded from grade I to IV according to their appearance under microscope. One of the most significant adverse features of high-grade gliomas (grade III-IV) is hypoxia, a biological phenomenon that develops when the oxygen concentration becomes insufficient to guarantee the normal functions of a tissue. Since tissue hypoxia influences negatively patient outcome and targeting hypoxia has potential therapeutic implications, there is currently great interest in imaging techniques measuring hypoxia...
November 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149638/roles-of-n-and-c-terminal-domains-in-the-ligand-binding-properties-of-cytoglobin
#5
Shumpei Hanai, Hirofumi Tsujino, Taku Yamashita, Ryo Torii, Hitomi Sawai, Yoshitsugu Shiro, Koji Oohora, Takashi Hayashi, Tadayuki Uno
Cytoglobin (Cygb) is a member of the hexacoordinated globin protein family and is expressed ubiquitously in rat and human tissues. Although Cygb is reportedly upregulated under hypoxic conditions both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a physiological function to protect cells under hypoxic/ischemic conditions by scavenging reactive oxygen species or by signal transduction, the mechanisms associated with this function have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies comparing Cygbs among several species suggest that mammalian Cygbs show a distinctly longer C-terminal domain potentially involved in unique physiological functions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149364/bioecological-aspects-and-heavy-metal-contamination-of-the-mollusk-donax-denticulatus-in-the-colombian-caribbean-coastline
#6
Juan Valdelamar-Villegas, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Donax denticulatus is a key mollusk for the ecology of sandy beaches, serving as a controller of organic matter, microorganisms, and as bioindicator of heavy metals pollution. The goal of this study was to characterize some ecological aspects of D. denticulatus and its relationship with the content of heavy metals in their tissue, in three beaches of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. The results showed the study populations were different in terms of morphological characteristics and density (Berrugas-Sucre < Cartagena-Bolívar < Riohacha-Guajira), but not in sexual proportion; although density was clearly related to beach occupancy by tourists...
November 17, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149261/glut10-maintains-the-integrity-of-major-arteries-through-regulation-of-redox-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-function
#7
Yu-Wei Syu, Hao-Wen Lai, Chung-Lin Jiang, Hong-Yuan Tsai, Chung-Chih Lin, Yi-Ching Lee
Glucose transporter 10 (GLUT10) is a member of the GLUT family of membrane transporters, and mutations in this gene cause arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS). However, the physiological role and regulation of GLUT10 in arteries remains unclear. To further understand its physiological roles in major arteries, we examined the regulatory mechanisms of GLUT10 in ASMCs and aortic tissues. Interestingly, we find that targeting of GLUT10 to mitochondria is increased in ASMCs under both stress and aging conditions, which enhances dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) uptake and maintains intracellular ascorbic acid (AA) levels...
November 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147904/the-multifaceted-roles-of-dj-1-as-an-antioxidant
#8
Prahlad V Raninga, Giovanna Di Trapani, Kathryn F Tonissen
The DJ-1 protein was originally linked with Parkinson's disease and is now known to have antioxidant functions. The protein has three redox-sensitive cysteine residues, which are involved in its dimerisation and functional properties. A mildly oxidised form of DJ-1 is the most active form and protects cells from oxidative stress conditions. DJ-1 functions as an antioxidant through a variety of mechanisms, including a weak direct antioxidant activity by scavenging reactive oxygen species. DJ-1 also regulates a number of signalling pathways, including the inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-induced apoptosis under oxidative stress conditions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147649/knockdown-of-sirt1-suppresses-bladder-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-migration-and-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-antioxidant-response-through-foxo3a-mediated-pathways
#9
Qingxuan Hu, Gang Wang, Jianping Peng, Guofeng Qian, Wei Jiang, Conghua Xie, Yu Xiao, Xinghuan Wang
Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common tumors, but its underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. Our transcriptome analysis suggested a close link of Sirtuins, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR), cell cycle regulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, and Forkhead Box Class O (FOXO) signaling pathway in BCa. SIRT1 is a key member of Sirtuins, playing important roles in aging and energy metabolism, which has been reported to be involved in various metabolic diseases and tumors...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147009/mitochondrial-uqcrb-as-a-new-molecular-prognostic-biomarker-of-human-colorectal-cancer
#10
Hyun-Chul Kim, Junghwa Chang, Hannah S Lee, Ho Jeong Kwon
Ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is important for mitochondrial complex III stability, electron transport, cellular oxygen sensing and angiogenesis. However, its potential as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether UQCRB can be used as a diagnostic molecular marker for CRC. The correlation between the expression of three genes (UQCRB, UQCRFS1 and MT-CYB) in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III and clinico-pathological features was determined...
November 17, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146449/an-integrated-metabolic-consequence-of-hepatospora-eriocheir-infection-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#11
Zhengfeng Ding, Jing Pan, Hua Huang, Gongcheng Jiang, Jianqin Chen, Xueshen Zhu, Renlei Wang, Guohua Xu
Despite the economic and evolutionary importance of aquatic host-infecting microsporidian species, at present, limited information has been provided about the microsporidia-host interactions. This study focused on Hepatospora eriocheir, an emerging microsporidian pathogen for the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Hypertrophy of hepatopancreas cells was a common feature of H. eriocheir infection. More importantly, mitochondria of the hepatopancreas were drawn around the H. eriocheir, most likely to aid the uptake of ATP directly from the host...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146434/cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-endovascular-reperfusion-therapy-in-a-patient-with-acute-internal-carotid-artery-and-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusions
#12
Tetsuya Hashimoto, Shoji Matsumoto, Mitsushige Ando, Hideo Chihara, Atsushi Tsujimoto, Taketo Hatano
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is known to be a rare but devastating complication of carotid artery revascularization. Because patients with acute ischemic stroke due to acute major cerebral and/or cervical artery occlusion treated with endovascular reperfusion therapy may have impaired autoregulation in the cerebral vasculature, these patients may also develop CHS. Despite the growing number of endovascular reperfusion procedures for acute ischemic stroke, this complication has only rarely been reported...
November 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145496/insights-into-soybean-transcriptome-reconfiguration-under-hypoxic-stress-functional-regulatory-structural-and-compositional-characterization
#13
Thiago J Nakayama, Fabiana A Rodrigues, Norman Neumaier, Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Hugo B C Molinari, Thaís R Santiago, Eduardo F Formighieri, Marcos F Basso, José R B Farias, Beatriz M Emygdio, Ana C B de Oliveira, Ângela D Campos, Aluízio Borém, Frank G Harmon, Liliane M Mertz-Henning, Alexandre L Nepomuceno
Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic) or total (anoxic) oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142756/usefulness-of-central-venous-saturation-as-a-predictor-of-thiamine-deficiency-in-critically-ill-patients-a-case-report
#14
Genri Numata, Satoshi Kodera, Hiroyuki Kiriyama, Atsuko Nakayama, Eisuke Amiya, Arihiro Kiyosue, Masaru Hatano, Eiki Takimoto, Masafumi Watanabe, Issei Komuro
Background: Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) reflects the balance of oxygen delivery and consumption. Low ScvO2 indicates the presence of inadequate oxygen delivery, while high ScvO2 indicates reduced oxygen consumption and is sometimes associated with a high mortality rate in critically ill patients from dysoxia. Thiamine is an essential cofactor in cellular aerobic metabolism. Thiamine deficiency is more prevalent than was previously thought, and underlies severe conditions in critically ill patients...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142316/sedentary-behavior-and-altered-metabolic-activity-by-agnps-ingestion-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Akanksha Raj, Prasanna Shah, Namita Agrawal
Among several nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are extensively used in a wide variety of consumer products due to its unique antimicrobial property. However, dosage effect of AgNPs on behavior and metabolic activity in an in vivo condition is not well studied. Therefore, to elucidate the impact of AgNPs on behavior and metabolism, systematic and detailed dosages study of AgNPs was performed by rearing Drosophila melanogaster on food without and with AgNPs. We found that dietary intake of AgNPs at early larval stage leads to behavioral abnormalities such as poor crawling and climbing ability of larvae and adults respectively...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141882/transparent-anemone-shrimp-ancylomenes-pedersoni-become-opaque-after-exercise-and-physiological-stress-in-correlation-with-increased-hemolymph-perfusion
#16
Laura E Bagge, Stephen T Kinsey, Justin Gladman, Sönke Johnsen
Whole-body transparency, an effective camouflage strategy in many aquatic species, can be disrupted by environmental and/or physiological stressors. We found that tail-flip escape responses temporarily disrupt the transparency of the anemone shrimp Ancylomenes pedersoni After as few as three tail flips, the previously transparent abdominal muscle became cloudy. Eliciting additional tail flips to the point of exhaustion (16±1 s.e.m.; n=23) resulted in complete opacity, though the original transparency returned after 20-60 min of inactivity...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141880/divergent-respiratory-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-hypoxia-in-bar-headed-geese-and-andean-birds
#17
Sabine L Lague, Beverly Chua, Luis Alza, Graham R Scott, Peter B Frappell, Yang Zhong, Anthony P Farrell, Kevin G McCracken, Yuxiang Wang, William K Milsom
Many high-altitude vertebrates have evolved increased capacities in their oxygen transport cascade (ventilation, pulmonary diffusion, circulation and tissue diffusion), enhancing oxygen transfer from the atmosphere to mitochondria. However, the extent of interspecies variation in the control processes that dictate hypoxia responses remains largely unknown. We compared the metabolic, cardiovascular and respiratory responses to progressive decreases in inspired oxygen levels of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), birds that biannually migrate across the Himalayan mountains, with those of Andean geese (Chloephaga melanoptera) and crested ducks (Lophonetta specularioides), lifelong residents of the high Andes...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141840/cerebral-oxygenation-measurements-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-fetuses-with-and-without-heart-defects
#18
Mette H Lauridsen, Niels Uldbjerg, Tine B Henriksen, Olav B Petersen, Brian Stausbøl-Grøn, Niels B Matthiesen, David A Peters, Steffen Ringgaard, Vibeke E Hjortdal
BACKGROUND: Children with major congenital heart defects are risking impaired cerebral growth, delayed cerebral maturation, and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to compare the cerebral tissue oxygenation of fetuses with major heart defects to that of fetuses without heart defects as estimated by the magnetic resonance imaging modality T2*. T2* is low in areas with high concentrations of deoxyhemoglobin. METHODS AND RESULTS: At gestational age mean 32 weeks (early) and mean 37 weeks (late), we compared the fetal cerebral T2* in 28 fetuses without heart defects to that of 15 fetuses with major heart defects: transposition of the great arteries (n=7), coarctation of the aorta/hypoplastic aortic arch (n=5), tetralogy of Fallot (n=1), hypoplastic right heart (n=1), and common arterial trunk (n=1)...
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140967/near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-vascular-occlusion-test-for-predicting-clinical-outcome-in-pediatric-cardiac-patients-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Ji-Hyun Lee, Young-Eun Jang, In-Kyung Song, Eun-Hee Kim, Hee-Soo Kim, Jin-Tae Kim
OBJECTIVES: This study is designed to determine the feasibility and utility of vascular occlusion test variables as measured by INVOS Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) in pediatric cardiac patients. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: A tertiary children's hospital. PATIENTS: Children less than or equal to 8 years old who were scheduled for elective cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTIONS: A vascular occlusion test (3 min of ischemia and reperfusion) was performed on the calf at three time points: after induction of anesthesia (T0), during cardiopulmonary bypass (T1), and after sternal closure (T2)...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140729/gene-expression-and-gene-associations-during-the-development-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-model-of-hypertension
#20
Jeffrey Yim, Hyokeun Cho, Simon W Rabkin
Gene expression and associations were examined in a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a condition with minimal effective treatment. Genes with at least two studies showing significant changes in Dahl rat with heart failure were examined by meta-analysis. Significantly increased in expression were iNOS, p47phox, ADM, ANP, OPN, ACE, MCP-1, GP91PHOX, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, CTGF, ET-1, p22phox, ETB, BNP, ETA, MMP13, Col1a1, MMP2, TIMP1, Col3a1, Il-1β, β-MHC, ECE1, MMP14, AGT, and MMP9...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
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