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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346537/cerebral-mitochondrial-dysfunction-associated-with-deep-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest-in-neonatal-swine
#1
Constantine D Mavroudis, Michael Karlsson, Tiffany Ko, Marco Hefti, Javier I Gentile, Ryan W Morgan, Ross Plyler, Kobina G Mensah-Brown, Timothy W Boorady, Richard W Melchior, Tami M Rosenthal, Brandon C Shade, Kellie L Schiavo, Susan C Nicolson, Thomas L Spray, Robert M Sutton, Robert A Berg, Daniel J Licht, J William Gaynor, Todd J Kilbaugh
OBJECTIVES: Controversy remains regarding the use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in neonatal cardiac surgery. Alterations in cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics are thought to contribute to ischaemia-reperfusion injury in DHCA. The purpose of this study was to compare cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics for DHCA with deep hypothermic continuous perfusion using a neonatal swine model. METHODS: Twenty-four piglets (mean weight 3.8 kg) were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB): 10 underwent 40-min DHCA, following cooling to 18°C, 10 underwent 40 min DHCA and 10 remained at deep hypothermia for 40 min; animals were subsequently rewarmed to normothermia...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346183/near-infrared-spectroscopy-to-predict-organ-failure-and-outcome-in-sepsis-the-assessing-risk-in-sepsis-using-a-tissue-oxygen-saturation-aristos-study
#2
Stephen P J Macdonald, Frances B Kinnear, Glenn Arendts, Kwok M Ho, Daniel M Fatovich
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is acute organ dysfunction in the setting of infection. An accurate diagnosis is important to guide treatment and disposition. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) can be estimated noninvasively by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and may be an indicator of microcirculatory dysfunction in early sepsis. We aimed to determine the utility of StO2 for sepsis recognition and outcome prediction among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study recruited patients who were being admitted to hospital with infection...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346028/biophysics-model-of-heavy-ion-degradation-of-neuron-morphology-in-mouse-hippocampal-granular-cell-layer-neurons
#3
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
January 18, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345510/preliminary-evaluation-of-the-viability-of-peritoneal-drainage-catheters-implanted-in-rats-for-extended-durations
#4
Nathan Legband, Arielle Black, Craig Kreikemeier-Bower, Benjamin S Terry
Purpose/Aim: In developing a novel peritoneal oxygenation therapy, catheters implanted into the peritoneal cavity became obstructed with omental tissue and prevented the infusion and removal of fluid from the peritoneal cavity. The obstruction of peritoneal catheters is a significant failure in researching various peritoneal treatments as further fluid administration is no longer possible. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the most effective catheter design for infusion and removal of fluid into the peritoneal cavity of rats...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345434/two-photon-excited-silica-and-organosilica-nanoparticles-for-spatiotemporal-cancer-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Jonas G Croissant, Jeffrey I Zink, Laurence Raehm, Jean-Olivier Durand
Coherent two-photon-excited (TPE) therapy in the near-infrared (NIR) provides safer cancer treatments than current therapies lacking spatial and temporal selectivities because it is characterized by a 3D spatial resolution of 1 µm3 and very low scattering. In this review, the principle of TPE and its significance in combination with organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) are introduced and then studies involving the design of pioneering TPE-NIR organosilica nanomaterials are discussed for bioimaging, drug delivery, and photodynamic therapy...
January 18, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345376/role-of-negative-regulation-of-immune-signaling-pathways-in-neutrophil-function
#6
REVIEW
Veronica Azcutia, Charles A Parkos, Jennifer C Brazil
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play a critical role in host defense against infection and in the resolution of inflammation. However, immune responses mediated by PMN must be tightly regulated to facilitate elimination of invading pathogens without inducing detrimental inflammation and host tissue damage. Specific engagement of cell surface immunoreceptors by a diverse range of extracellular signals regulates PMN effector functions through differential activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Although mechanisms of PMN activation mediated via cell signaling pathways have been well described, less is known about negative regulation of PMN function by immune signaling cascades...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345346/galectin-3-type-c-self-association-on-neutrophil-surfaces-the-carbohydrate-recognition-domain-regulates-cell-function
#7
Martina Sundqvist, Amanda Welin, Jonas Elmwall, Veronica Osla, Ulf J Nilsson, Hakon Leffler, Johan Bylund, Anna Karlsson
Galectin-3 is an endogenous β-galactoside-binding lectin comprising a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) linked to a collagen-like N-domain. Both domains are required for galectin-3 to induce cellular effects; a C-terminal fragment of galectin-3, galectin-3C, containing the CRD but lacking the N-domain, binds cell surface glycoconjugates but does not induce cellular effects since cross-linking promoted by the N-domain is thought to be required. Instead, galectin-3C is proposed to antagonize the effects of galectin-3 by competing for binding sites...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344301/wst11-vascular-targeted-photodynamic-therapy-effect-monitoring-by-multispectral-optoacoustic-tomography-msot-in-mice
#8
Volker Neuschmelting, Kwanghee Kim, Jaber Malekzadeh-Najafabadi, Sylvia Jebiwott, Jaya Prakash, Avigdor Scherz, Jonathan A Coleman, Moritz F Kircher, Vasilis Ntziachristos
Objective: Monitoring emerging vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) and understanding the time-dynamics of treatment effects remains challenging. We interrogated whether handheld multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) could noninvasively monitor the effect of VTP using WST11, a vascular-acting photosensitizer, on tumor tissues over time using a renal cell cancer mouse model. We also investigated whether MSOT illumination can induce VTP, to implement a single-modality theranostic approach. Materials and Methods: Eight BalB/c mice were subcutaneously implanted with murine renal adenocarcinoma cells (RENCA) on the flank...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343048/physiology-intervention-and-outcome-three-critical-questions-about-cerebral-tissue-oxygen-saturation-monitoring
#9
Lingzhong Meng, Shaun E Gruenbaum, Feng Dai, Tianlong Wang
The balance between cerebral tissue oxygen consumption and supply can be continuously assessed by cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) monitor. A construct consisting of three sequential questions, targeting the physiology monitored, the intervention implemented, and the outcomes affected, is proposed to critically appraise this monitor. The impact of the SctO2- guided care on patient outcome was examined through a systematic literature search and meta- analysis. We concluded that the physiology monitored by SctO2 is robust and dynamic, fragile (prone to derangement), and adversely consequential when deranged...
January 17, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343040/-effect-of-picroside-%C3%A2-on-the-expression-of-mitochondrial-vdac1-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#10
S Li, T T Wang, L Zhai, W W Deng, Y L Guo, J X Jiang
Objective: To explore the effect of picroside Ⅱ on the expression of mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) in rats after cerebral ischemiareperfusion. Methods: A total of 70 Wistar rats models with middle cerebral artery occlusionreperfusion (MCAO/R) were randomly divided into the sham group, model group, picroside (Picr) group, ruthenium red (RuR) group, RuR+ Picr group, Spermine (Sper) group, Sper+ Picr group (n=10 per group). Modified neurological severity scale (mNSS) was used to evaluated the neurobehavioral function, the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in brain tissues were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the morphology of brain tissues was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, the apoptotic cells were counted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay (TUNEL), and the expressions of VDAC1 and endonuclease G (EndoG) were determined by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot...
January 9, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342982/detection-of-zro%C3%A2-nanoparticles-in-lung-tissue-sections-by-time-of-flight-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry-and-ion-beam-microscopy
#11
Lothar Veith, Julia Böttner, Antje Vennemann, Daniel Breitenstein, Carsten Engelhard, Jan Meijer, Irina Estrela-Lopis, Martin Wiemann, Birgit Hagenhoff
The increasing use of nanoparticles (NP) in commercial products requires elaborated techniques to detect NP in the tissue of exposed organisms. However, due to the low amount of material, the detection and exact localization of NP within tissue sections is demanding. In this respect, Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and Ion Beam Microscopy (IBM) are promising techniques, because they both offer sub-micron lateral resolutions along with high sensitivities. Here, we compare the performance of the non-material-consumptive IBM and material-consumptive ToF-SIMS for the detection of ZrO₂ NP (primary size 9-10 nm) in rat lung tissue...
January 15, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342097/time-domain-near-infrared-spectroscopy-device-for-monitoring-muscle-oxidative-metabolism-custom-probe-and-in-vivo-applications
#12
Rebecca Re, Ileana Pirovano, Davide Contini, Lorenzo Spinelli, Alessandro Torricelli
Measurement of muscle oxidative metabolism is of interest for monitoring the training status in athletes and the rehabilitation process in patients. Time domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD NIRS) is an optical technique that allows the non-invasive measurement of the hemodynamic parameters in muscular tissue: concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, total hemoglobin content, and tissue oxygen saturation. In this paper, we present a novel TD NIRS medical device for muscle oxidative metabolism. A custom-printed 3D probe, able to host optical elements for signal acquisition from muscle, was develop for TD NIRS in vivo measurements...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341977/elemental-composition-at-silicone-hydrogel-contact-lens-surfaces
#13
Jessica Rex, Timothy Knowles, Xueying Zhao, Jessie Lemp, Cecile Maissa, Scott S Perry
OBJECTIVES: The outermost surface composition of 11 silicone hydrogel (SiHy) lenses was measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to understand differences in wettability and potential interactions within an ocular environment. The SiHy lenses tested included balafilcon A, lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, senofilcon A, comfilcon A, and somofilcon A reusable 2-week or monthly replacement lenses and delefilcon A, samfilcon A, narafilcon A, stenfilcon A, and somofilcon A daily disposable lenses...
January 15, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341964/renal-decapsulation-prevents-intrinsic-renal-compartment-syndrome-in-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury-a-physiologic-approach
#14
Pablo Cruces, Pablo Lillo, Camila Salas, Tatiana Salomon, Felipe Lillo, Carlos González, Alejandro Pacheco, Daniel E Hurtado
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury is a serious complication with unacceptably high mortality that lacks of specific curative treatment. Therapies focusing on the hydraulic behavior have shown promising results in preventing structural and functional renal impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain understudied. Our goal is to assess the effects of renal decapsulation on regional hemodynamics, oxygenation, and perfusion in an ischemic acute kidney injury experimental model. METHODS: In piglets, intra renal pressure, renal tissue oxygen pressure, and dysoxia markers were measured in an ischemia-reperfusion group with intact kidney, an ischemia-reperfusion group where the kidney capsule was removed, and in a sham group...
February 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341849/factors-affecting-occlusion-pressure-and-ischemic-preconditioning
#15
Henry Brown, Martyn J Binnie, Brian Dawson, Nicola Bullock, Brendan R Scott, Peter Peeling
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of limb selection (upper/lower), cuff width (small (6 cm)/medium (13 cm) upper; medium/large (18 cm) lower) and anthropometry on arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) in ischemic preconditioning (IPC). METHODS: Twenty athletes (10 females and 10 males) had surface anthropometry and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessments before using Doppler ultrasound to confirm AOP for each limb. Subsequently, 5 min of occlusion occurred, with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measuring muscle oxygenation changes...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341828/biosensors-for-spatiotemporal-detection-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cells-and-tissues
#16
Marie Erard, Sophie Dupre-Crochet, Oliver Nusse
Redox biology has become a major issue in numerous areas of physiology. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a broad range of roles from signal transduction to growth control and cell death. To understand the nature of these roles, accurate measurement of the reactive compounds is required. An increasing number of tools for ROS detection is available; however, specificity and sensitivity of these tools are often insufficient. Furthermore, their specificity has been rarely evaluated in complex physiological conditions...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340626/suppression-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-by-oral-treatment-with-sulforaphane-alleviates-acute-gouty-inflammation
#17
Gabsik Yang, Sang Hyeon Yeon, Hye Eun Lee, Han Chang Kang, Yong Yeon Cho, Hye Suk Lee, Joo Young Lee
Objective: The aetiology of gout is closely linked to the deposition of monosodium uric acid (MSU) crystals and the consequent activation of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of an NLRP3 inhibitor would be effective to attenuate the symptoms of gout. Methods: The effects of oral administration with sulforaphane (SFN) were examined in two mouse models of acute gout induced by injection of MSU crystals into footpads or air pouch...
January 10, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340130/mechanism-action-of-platelets-and-crucial-blood-coagulation-pathways-in-hemostasis
#18
REVIEW
Mercy Halleluyah Periayah, Ahmad Sukari Halim, Arman Zaharil Mat Saad
Blood is considered to be precious because it is the basic necessity for health; our body needs a steady provision of oxygen, supplied via blood, to reach billions of tissues and cells. Hematopoiesis is the process that generates blood cells of all lineages. However, platelets are the smallest blood component produced from the very large bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes and they play a fundamental role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelets contribute their hemostatic capacity via adhesion, activation and aggregation, which are triggered upon tissue injury, and these actions stimulate the coagulation factors and other mediators to achieve hemostasis...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339192/tissue-specific-differences-in-mitochondrial-dna-maintenance-and-expression
#19
Elena Herbers, Nina J Kekäläinen, Anu Hangas, Jaakko L Pohjoismäki, Steffi Goffart
The different cell types of multicellular organisms have specialized physiological requirements, affecting also their mitochondrial energy production and metabolism. The genome of mitochondria is essential for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) and thus plays a central role in many human mitochondrial pathologies. Disorders affecting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance are typically resulting in a tissue-specific pattern of mtDNA deletions and rearrangements. Despite this role in disease as well as a biomarker of mitochondrial biogenesis, the tissue-specific parameters of mitochondrial DNA maintenance have been virtually unexplored...
January 12, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338907/new-photodynamic-molecular-beacons-pmb-as-potential-cancer-targeted-agents-in-pdt
#20
Aurélie Stallivieri, Ludovic Colombeau, Jérôme Devy, Nicolas Etique, Carine Chaintreuil, Bauyrzhan Myrzakhmetov, Mathilde Achard, Francis Baros, Philippe Arnoux, Régis Vanderesse, Céline Frochot
Further improvements in Photodynamic therapy (PDT) necessitate that the dye targets more selectively tumour tissues or neovascularization than healthy cells. Different enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in tumour areas. Among these MMPs, gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and its activator MMP-14 are known to play a key role in tumour angiogenesis and the growth of many cancers such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive malignant tumour of the brain. These last years, the concept of photodynamic molecular beacons (PMB) became interesting for controlling the photosensitizer's ability to generate singlet oxygen (1O2) close to target biomolecules as MMPs...
December 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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