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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913309/sequence-determinants-of-the-caenhorhabditis-elegansdopamine-transporter-dictating-in-vivoaxonal-export-and-synaptic-localization
#1
Sarah B Robinson, J Andrew Hardaway, Shannon L Hardie, Jane Wright, Ryan M Glynn, Daniel P Bermingham, Qiao Han, Sarah M Sturgeon, Phyllis Freeman, Randy D Blakely
The monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) acts across phylogeny to modulate both simple and complex behaviors. The presynaptic DA transporter (DAT) is a major determinant of DA signaling capacity in ensuring efficient extracellular DA clearance. In humans, DAT is also a major target for prescribed and abused psychostimulants. Multiple structural determinants of DAT function and regulation have been defined, though largely these findings have arisen from heterologous expression or ex vivo cell culture studies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909828/the-dopamine-related-polymorphisms-bdnf-comt-drd2-drd3-and-drd4-are-not-linked-with-changes-in-csf-dopamine-levels-and-frequency-of-hiv-infection
#2
Anne Horn, C Scheller, S du Plessis, R Burger, G Arendt, J Joska, S Sopper, C M Maschke, M Obermann, I W Husstedt, J Hain, P Riederer, E Koutsilieri
We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909592/effect-of-day-and-night-desflurane-anaesthesia-on-melatonin-levels-in-rats
#3
Figen Datlı Özer, Elvan Öçmen, Pınar Akan, Hale Aksu Erdost, Sezen Korkut, Ali Necati Gökmen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of day and night administration of desflurane anaesthesia on melatonin levels in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four 15-day-old rats were included in the study and were divided into four groups. The rats were anaesthetised between 19:00-01:00 (night group) and 07:00-13:00 (day group) with 5.7% desflurane concentration in 6 L min(-1) 100% oxygen. 6 L min(-1) oxygen was administered to the control groups. At the end of 6 h of anaesthesia, blood samples were taken, and rats were sacrificed...
August 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893588/suite-pet-ct-neuroimaging-for-the-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease-statistical-parametric-mapping-analysis
#4
Ruimin Wang, Baixuan Xu, Zhe Guo, Tong Chen, Jinming Zhang, Yingmao Chen, Haiyan Zhu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the topographical distribution of dopamine transporter (DAT), dopamine D2 receptor, and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD) using PET/computed tomography (CT) scanning and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Seventy-four patients (58 PD patients and 16 normal controls) underwent DAT, D2 receptor, and glucose brain PET/CT scans using C-methyl-N-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane (C-β-CFT), C-raclopride (C-RAC), and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) radiotracers for the respective scans...
November 28, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893038/targeting-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-for-the-treatment-of-mesenchymal-triple-negative-breast-cancer-evidence-from-a-phase-1-trial-of-mtor-inhibition-in-combination-with-liposomal-doxorubicin-and-bevacizumab
#5
Reva K Basho, Michael Gilcrease, Rashmi K Murthy, Thorunn Helgason, Daniel D Karp, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Kenneth R Hess, Shelley M Herbrich, Vicente Valero, Constance Albarracin, Jennifer K Litton, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor, Nuhad K Ibrahim, James L Murray, Kimberly B Koenig, David Hong, Vivek Subbiah, Razelle Kurzrock, Filip Janku, Stacy L Moulder
Importance: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) classified by transcriptional profiling as the mesenchymal subtype frequently harbors aberrations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, raising the possibility of targeting this pathway to enhance chemotherapy response. Up to 30% of mesenchymal TNBC can be classified histologically as metaplastic breast cancer, a chemorefractory group of tumors with a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal components identifiable by light microscopy...
November 23, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890676/combined-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches-to-the-assessment-of-stimulant-properties-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-the-case-of-the-benzofuran-5-mapb
#6
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, George Khelashvili, Vincenzo Barrese, Neelakshi Dutta, Harel Weinstein, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are increasingly prevalent world-wide although their pharmacological characteristics are largely unknown; those with stimulant properties, due to interactions with the dopamine transporter (DAT), have addictive potential which their users may not realise. We evaluated the binding of 1-(1-benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (5-MAPB) to rat striatal DAT by means of quantitative autoradiography with [(125)I]RTI-121, and the effects of 5-MAPB on electrically-evoked dopamine efflux by fast-cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883923/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor-gene
#7
Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Gesa Loeber, Alexandra Kotsiari, Linda Müller-Engling, Helge Frieling
Several lines of evidence support a "dopaminergic hypothesis" in the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time epigenetic changes in DNA methylation in different dopamine genes in adult patients with TS. We included 51 well characterized adult patients with TS (41 males, 10 females, mean age = 35 ± 12.6 years, range, 18-71 years) and compared results with data from a group of 51 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Bisulfite sequencing was used to measure peripheral DNA methylation of the dopamine transporter (DAT), the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879654/early-antipsychotic-treatment-in-juvenile-rats-elicits-long-term-alterations-to-the-dopamine-neurotransmitter-system
#8
Michael De Santis, Jiamei Lian, Xu-Feng Huang, Chao Deng
Prescription of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to children has substantially increased in recent years. Whilst current investigations into potential long-term effects have uncovered some alterations to adult behaviours, further investigations into potential changes to neurotransmitter systems are required. The current study investigated potential long-term changes to the adult dopamine (DA) system following aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone treatment in female and male juvenile rats. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphorylated-TH (p-TH), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and D₁ and D₂ receptors were measured via Western blot and/or receptor autoradiography...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875758/beyond-the-lymph-nodes-fdg-pet-ct-in-primary-extranodal-lymphoma
#9
REVIEW
Kin Man Sin, Stanton King Dat Ho, Brian Yung Kong Wong, Harry Gill, Pek-Lan Khong, Elaine Yuen Phin Lee
Extranodal lymphoma can be the primary presentation or secondary to systemic involvement of lymphoma. 2-(fluorine-18) fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography with computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is useful in detecting extranodal sites during staging, treatment response assessment or recurrence detection in patients with lymphoma. In this article, we reviewed the imaging features and FDG avidity of primary extranodal lymphoma of various organs and systems on FDG-PET/CT, demonstrating the pearls and pitfalls of FDG-PET/CT in evaluating this disease entity and cross-referencing to other imaging modalities that aid in diagnosis and management...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871051/aging-modifies-the-effect-of-gch1-rs11158026-on-dat-uptake-and-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-severity
#10
Joseph Webb, Auriel A Willette
Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms within Parkinson's disease (PD) can predict disease risk, but their influence on clinical, cognitive, and neurobiological indices remains unexplored. We investigated differences between functional polymorphisms at RS11158026 coding for guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GCH1), an essential enzyme for dopamine production in nigrostriatal cells. Among newly diagnosed, untreated PD subjects and age-matched controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, T allele carriers showed higher PD risk (odds ratio = 1...
October 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866858/clinical-variables-and-biomarkers-in-prediction-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-parkinson-s-disease-a-cohort-study
#11
Anette Schrag, Uzma Faisal Siddiqui, Zacharias Anastasiou, Daniel Weintraub, Jonathan M Schott
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is associated with an increased incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia. Predicting who is at risk of cognitive decline early in the disease course has implications for clinical prognosis and for stratification of participants in clinical trials. We assessed the use of clinical information and biomarkers as predictive factors for cognitive decline in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease. METHODS: The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study is a cohort study in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease...
November 17, 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860344/combined-simulation-and-mutation-studies-to-elucidate-selectivity-of-unsubstituted-amphetamine-like-cathinones-at-the-dopamine-transporter
#12
Amir Seddik, Daan P Geerke, Thomas Stockner, Marion Holy, Oliver Kudlacek, Nicholas V Cozzi, Arnold E Ruoho, Harald H Sitte, Gerhard F Ecker
The dopamine and serotonin transporter proteins (DAT, SERT) play a vital role in behavior and mental illness. Although their substrate transport has been studied extensively, the molecular basis of their selectivity is not completely understood yet. In this study, we exploit molecular dynamics simulations combined with mutagenesis studies to shed light on the driving factors for DAT-over-SERT selectivity of a set of cathinones. Results indicate that these compounds can adopt two binding modes of which one is more favorable...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858891/pediatric-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-northwest-of-iran
#13
Babak Abdinia, Mohammad Oliaei-Motlagh, Amir Teimouri-Dereshki
Leishmaniasis is one of the major health problems in Iran. Although the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported almost everywhere, the northwestern Iran is one of the major endemic regions.To do this study, clinical, laboratory as well as disease characteristics of children admitted to Children Cure and Health Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, were examined as the reference hospital for the treatment of VL in northwestern Iran.In this study, 156 children hospitalized in a pediatric hospital from 2000 to 2015 for VL were included...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857045/long-term-pharmacotherapy-by-methylfenidate-or-atomoxetine-dat-1-10-10-adhd-children-in-correlation-with-results-of-the-imaging-methods
#14
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: ADHD is one of the most significant diagnostic units in child and adolescent psychiatry. The occurrence in children is 5-6% and 50-80% continued to adult age. The presence of individual genes (polymorphism) on particular symptoms and processes in ADHD are not known. It is estimated that ADHD symptoms are up to 80% to genetic. The higher density of resultant DAT 1 protein was observed in ADHD patients in comparison with controls. The question was if DAT 1 10/10 predicted bad prognoses in long term therapy...
September 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856628/analysis-of-extrastriatal-123i-fp-cit-binding-contributes-to-the-differential-diagnosis-of-parkinsonian-diseases
#15
Merijn Joling, Chris Vriend, Odile A Van den Heuvel, Pieter G H M Raijmakers, Paul A Jones, Henk W Berendse, Jan Booij
: (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT can visualise and quantify striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in vivo. In addition, (123)I-FP-CIT has modest affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), predominantly represented in extrastriatal binding. Based on previous imaging studies that have suggested more pronounced degeneration of other monoaminergic systems in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) than in Parkinson's disease (PD), we hypothesised that, in addition to striatal DAT binding, there would be differences in extrastriatal (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT binding to SERT between MSA, PSP and PD...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847277/influence-of-surfactants-on-depsipeptide-submicron-particle-formation
#16
Nadia Brunacci, Christian Wischke, Toufik Naolou, Axel T Neffe, Andreas Lendlein
Surfactants are required for the formation and stabilization of hydrophobic polymeric particles in aqueous environment. In order to form submicron particles of varying sizes from oligo[3-(S)-sec-butylmorpholine-2,5-dione]diols ((OBMD)-diol), different surfactants were investigated. As new surfactants, four-armed star-shaped oligo(ethylene glycol)s of molecular weights of 5-20kDa functionalized with desamino-tyrosine (sOEG-DAT) resulted in smaller particles with lower PDI than with desaminotyrosyl tyrosine (sOEG-DATT) in an emulsion/solvent evaporation method...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836487/phosphorylation-mechanisms-in-dopamine-transporter-regulation
#17
REVIEW
James D Foster, Roxanne A Vaughan
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane phosphoprotein that actively translocates extracellular dopamine (DA) into presynaptic neurons. The transporter is the primary mechanism for control of DA levels and subsequent neurotransmission, and is the target for abused and therapeutic drugs that exert their effects by suppressing reuptake. The transport capacity of DAT is acutely regulated by signaling systems and drug exposure, providing neurons the ability to fine-tune DA clearance in response to specific conditions...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830575/neuropharmacology-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-its-metabolites-and-related-analogs
#18
Michael H Baumann, Mohammad O Bukhari, Kurt R Lehner, Sebastien Anizan, Kenner C Rice, Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive component of so-called bath salts products that has caused serious medical consequences in humans. In this chapter, we review the neuropharmacology of MDPV and related analogs, and supplement the discussion with new results from our preclinical experiments. MDPV acts as a potent uptake inhibitor at plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) in nervous tissue. The MDPV formulation in bath salts is a racemic mixture, and the S isomer is much more potent than the R isomer at blocking DAT and producing abuse-related effects...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821514/autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-at-diagnosis-differences-between-pediatric-and-adult-patients
#19
N W S Gormezano, D Kern, O L Pereira, G C X Esteves, A M E Sallum, N E Aikawa, R M R Pereira, C A Silva, E Bonfá
OBJECTIVE: To determine the overall prevalence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), and to compare clinical and laboratory features in a large population of children and adult lupus patients at diagnosis. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the medical charts of 336 childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) and 1830 adult SLE (aSLE) patients followed in the same tertiary hospital. Demographic data, clinical features and disease activity were recorded...
November 7, 2016: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819136/low-humic-acids-promote-in-vitro-lily-bulblet-enlargement-by-enhancing-roots-growth-and-carbohydrate-metabolism
#20
Yun Wu, Yi-Ping Xia, Jia-Ping Zhang, Fang Du, Lin Zhang, Yi-di Ma, Hong Zhou
Bulblet development is a problem in global lily bulb production and carbohydrate metabolism is a crucial factor. Micropropagation acts as an efficient substitute for faster propagation and can provide a controllable condition to explore bulb growth. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of humic acid (HA) on bulblet swelling and the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in Lilium Oriental Hybrids 'Sorbonne' under in vitro conditions. HA greatly promoted bulblet growth at 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 mg/L, and pronounced increases in bulblet sucrose, total soluble sugar, and starch content were observed for higher HA concentrations (≥2...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
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