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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791756/interactions-between-insulin-and-diet-on-striatal-dopamine-uptake-kinetics-in-rodent-brain-slices
#1
Jyoti C Patel, Melissa A Stouffer, Maria Mancini, Charles Nicholson, Kenneth D Carr, Margaret E Rice
Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of striatal insulin receptors amplifies axonal dopamine release in brain slices, and regulates food preference in vivo. The effect of insulin on dopamine release is indirect, and requires striatal cholinergic interneurons that express insulin receptors. However, insulin also increases dopamine uptake by promoting dopamine transporter (DAT) surface expression, which counteracts enhanced dopamine release...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789702/parallel-descending-dopaminergic-connectivity-of-a13-cells-to-the-brainstem-locomotor-centers
#2
Sandeep Sharma, Linda H Kim, Kyle A Mayr, David A Elliott, Patrick J Whelan
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is an important integrative area for the initiation and modulation of locomotion. Recently it has been realized that dopamine (DA) projections from the substantia nigra pars compacta project to the MLR. Here we explore DA projections from an area of the medial zona incerta (ZI) known for its role in motor control onto the MLR. We provide evidence that dopaminergic (DAergic) A13 neurons have connectivity to the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) of the MLR...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788902/dystonia-deafness-syndrome-caused-by-actb-p-arg183trp-heterozygosity-shows-striatal-dopaminergic-dysfunction-and-response-to-pallidal-stimulation
#3
Inger Marie Skogseid, Oddveig Røsby, Ane Konglund, James P Connelly, Bård Nedregaard, Greg Eigner Jablonski, Nadja Kvernmo, Asbjørg Stray-Pedersen, Joel C Glover
BACKGROUND: Dystonia-deafness syndrome is a well-known clinical entity, with sensorineural deafness typically manifesting earlier than dystonia. ACTB p.Arg183Trp heterozygosity has been reported in six patients to cause combined infant-onset deafness and dystonia manifesting in adolescence or young adulthood. Three of these have received beneficial pallidal stimulation. Brain imaging to assess striatal function has not been reported previously, however. Nor has a comprehensive hypothesis been presented for how the pleiotropic manifestations of this specific beta-actin gene mutation originate developmentally...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786427/diallyl-trisulfide-induces-apoptosis-of-human-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-bcpap-cells-through-activating-mapk-signaling-pathway
#4
Jie Pan, Li Zhang, Shichen Xu, Xian Cheng, Huixin Yu, Jiandong Bao, Rong-Rong Lu
This study aimed to elucidate the potential effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells and its underling mechanisms. DATS is one of the organosulfur compounds which derived from garlic. In this study, we demonstrated that compared to the solvent control, DATS treatment at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 μΜ decreased cell survival rate of BCPAP cells to 84.51 ± 2.67%, 57.16 ± 1.18%, 41.22 ± 1.19% respectively. DATS also caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and the proportion of cells arrested in G0/G1 phase rose from 68...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782942/effects-of-light-and-dark-phase-testing-on-the-investigation-of-behavioural-paradigms-in-mice-relevance-for-behavioural-neuroscience
#5
Juliet Richetto, Marcello Polesel, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer
Different timing and light phases are critical factors in behavioural neuroscience, which can greatly affect the experimental outcomes of the performed tests. Despite the fact that time of testing is one of the most common factors that varies across behavioural laboratories, knowledge about the consequences of testing time on behavioural readouts is limited. Thus, in this study we systematically assessed the effect of this factor on the readout of a variety of elementary and recurrent behavioural paradigms in C57Bl/6 mice...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782864/are-dopamine-receptor-and-transporter-changes-in-rett-syndrome-reflected-in-mecp2-deficient-mice
#6
Dean F Wong, Mary E Blue, James R Brašić, Ayon Nandi, Heather Valentine, Kirstie H Stansfield, Olivier Rousset, Genila Bibat, Mary E Yablonski, Michael V Johnston, Albert Gjedde, SakkuBai Naidu
In the present study we tested the claim that the dopaminergic dysfunction of Rett Syndrome (RTT) also occurs in Mecp2-deficient mice that serve as a model of the syndrome. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to image dopamine D2 receptors (D2 R) and transporters (DAT) in women with RTT and in Mecp2-deficient mice, and D1 R and D2 R density was measured in postmortem human tissue by autoradiography. Results showed 1) significantly reduced D2 R density in the striatum of women with RTT compared to control subjects...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781299/anticyanobacterial-phenolic-constituents-from-the-aerial-parts-of-eupatorium-fortunei-turcz
#7
Thanh Nga Pham, Huu Dien Pham, Dinh Kim Dang, Thi Thuy Duong, Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Quang Duong Nguyen, Dat Nguyen Tien
Four thymol derivatives and two phenolic compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Eupatorium fortunei. The new structures were elucidated to be 7,8,9-trihydroxythymol (1), and 8,10-didehydro-7,9-dihydroxythymol (2) by means of MS and NMR analysis. The known compounds were identified as 8,9,10-trihydroxythymol (3), 10-acetoxy-8,9-dihydroxythymol (4), o-coumaric acid (5) and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzaldehyde (6). Compound 3 showed strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa in comparison with CuSO4 ...
May 21, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780402/dark-septate-endophytic-fungi-increase-green-manure-15-n-recovery-efficiency-n-contents-and-micronutrients-in-rice-grains
#8
Carlos Vergara, Karla E C Araujo, Segundo Urquiaga, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Nivaldo Schultz, Ednaldo da Silva Araújo, Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro, Gustavo R Xavier, Jerri É Zilli
An understanding of the interaction between rice and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi, under green fertilization, may lead to sustainable agricultural practices. Nevertheless, this interaction is still poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the accumulation of macro- and micronutrients, dry matter, and protein and N recovery efficiency from Canavalia ensiformis (L.)-15 N in rice inoculated with DSE fungi. An experiment under greenhouse conditions was conducted in a randomized complete block design comprising split-plots, with five replicates of rice plants potted in non-sterilized soil...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779223/gene-editing-vectors-for-studying-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-cholinergic-transmission
#9
Can Peng, Yijin Yan, Veronica J Kim, Staci E Engle, Jennifer N Berry, J Michael McIntosh, Rachael L Neve, Ryan M Drenan
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), prototype members of the cys-loop ligand gated ion channel family, are key mediators of cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Despite their importance, technical gaps exist in our ability to dissect the function of individual subunits in the brain. To overcome these barriers, we designed CRISPR/Cas9 small guide RNA sequences (sgRNAs) for production of loss-of-function alleles in mouse nAChR genes. These sgRNAs were validated in vitro via deep sequencing...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777165/hiv-1-proteins-dysregulate-motivational-processes-and-dopamine-circuitry
#10
Sarah J Bertrand, Charles F Mactutus, Steven B Harrod, Landhing M Moran, Rosemarie M Booze
Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774458/effects-of-rs591323-on-serotonin-transporter-availability-in-healthy-male-subjects
#11
Kyoungjune Pak, Hyun-Yeol Nam, Seunghyeon Shin, Keunyoung Kim, Myung Jun Lee, Eun-Joo Kim, Jae Meen Lee, Seong-Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association between genetic factors of SNPs dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) availabilities in healthy controls. METHODS: The study population consisted of healthy controls with screening 123 I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography. Specific binding of 123 I-FP-CIT regarding DAT and SERT was calculated using a region of interest analysis. VOI template was applied to measure specific binding ratios (SBRs) of caudate nucleus, putamen, striatum, midbrain, and pons...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773949/effect-of-dual-antiplatelet-on-recurrent-stroke-in-minor-stroke-or-tia-depends-on-bodyweight
#12
Yan Ma, Ying Liu, Jie Xu, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang, Fenghe Du
Objective: To assess whether bodyweight influences the efficacy and safety of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) in male patients with minor stroke or transient ischemic attack patients. Materials and methods: All 3,420 male participants coming from the Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events trial were divided into 3 groups based on bodyweight (<65 kg, 65-75 kg, and ≥75 kg). The stroke outcomes included stroke recurrence, combined vascular events, and bleeding events during 90 days of follow-up...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772497/the-role-of-the-vasopressin-system-and-dopamine-d1-receptors-in-the-effects-of-social-housing-condition-on-morphine-reward
#13
M L Shawn Bates, Rebeca S Hofford, Michael A Emery, Paul J Wellman, Shoshana Eitan
BACKGROUND: The association with opioid-abusing individuals or even the perception of opioid abuse by peers are risk factors for the initiation and escalation of abuse. Similarly, we demonstrated that morphine-treated animals housed with only morphine-treated animals (referred to as morphine only) acquire morphine conditioned place-preference (CPP) more readily than morphine-treated animals housed with drug-naïve animals (referred to as morphine cage-mates). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still elusive...
April 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767960/comparison-of-alicyclobacillus-acidocaldarius-osbs-to-its-promiscuous-nsar-osbs-relatives
#14
Denis Odokonyero, Andrew W McMillan, Udupi A Ramagopal, Rafael Toro, Dat P Truong, Mingzhao Zhu, Mariana S Lopez, Belema Somiari, Meghann Herman, Asma Aziz, Jeffrey B Bonanno, Kenneth G Hull, Stephen K Burley, Daniel Romo, Steven C Almo, Margaret E Glasner
Studying the evolution of catalytically promiscuous enzymes like those from the N-succinylamino acid racemase/ o-succinylbenzoate synthase (NSAR/OSBS) subfamily can reveal mechanisms by which new functions evolve. Some enzymes in this subfamily only have OSBS activity, while others catalyze OSBS and NSAR reactions. We characterized several NSAR/OSBS subfamily enzymes as a step toward determining the structural basis for evolving NSAR activity. Three enzymes were promiscuous, like most other characterized NSAR/OSBS subfamily enzymes...
May 16, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764377/transcriptome-display-during-tilapia-sex-determination-and-differentiation-as-revealed-by-rna-seq-analysis
#15
Wenjing Tao, Jinlin Chen, Dejie Tan, Jing Yang, Lina Sun, Jing Wei, Matthew A Conte, Thomas D Kocher, Deshou Wang
BACKGROUND: The factors determining sex in teleosts are diverse. Great efforts have been made to characterize the underlying genetic network in various species. However, only seven master sex-determining genes have been identified in teleosts. While the function of a few genes involved in sex determination and differentiation has been studied, we are far from fully understanding how genes interact to coordinate in this process. RESULTS: To enable systematic insights into fish sexual differentiation, we generated a dynamic co-expression network from tilapia gonadal transcriptomes at 5, 20, 30, 40, 90, and 180 dah (days after hatching), plus 45 and 90 dat (days after treatment) and linked gene expression profiles to both development and sexual differentiation...
May 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749948/a-population-based-cohort-study-evaluating-outcomes-and-costs-for-syncope-presentations-to-the-emergency-department
#16
Roopinder K Sandhu, Dat T Tran, Robert S Sheldon, Padma Kaul
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine outcomes and costs of patients with syncope admitted and discharged from the emergency department (ED). BACKGROUND: ED visits for syncope are common, yet the impact on health care utilization is relatively unknown. METHODS: A total of 51,831 consecutive patients presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of syncope (International Classification of Diseases-9 code 780.2 and International Classification of Diseases-10 code R55) in Alberta, Canada from 2006 to 2014...
February 2018: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748936/semi-quantitative-dopamine-transporter-standardized-uptake-value-in-comparison-with-conventional-specific-binding-ratio-in-123i-fp-cit-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-datscan
#17
Yuichi Wakabayashi, Ryuichi Takahashi, Tomonori Kanda, Feibi Zeng, Munenobu Nogami, Kazunari Ishii, Takamichi Murakami
PURPOSE: We developed a new analytical method to quantify the dopamine transporter (DAT) radiation dose in the striatum on [123 I] FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This method is based on the dopamine transporter standardized uptake value (DaTSUV). The purpose of this study was to compare DaTSUV with the classical specific binding ratio (SBR) in the discrimination of dopaminergic neurodegenerative diseases (dNDD) from non-dNDD. METHOD: Seventy-seven consecutive patients who underwent DaTscan were included...
May 10, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748111/dat-spect-imaging-in-cases-of-drug-induced-parkinsonism-in-a-specialty-movement-disorders-practice
#18
Jacob Yomtoob, Kimberly Koloms, Danny Bega
OBJECTIVE: Compare clinical characteristics and outcomes in cases where DAT-SPECT imaging is used to distinguish Parkinson's disease from Drug-Induced Parkinsonsim. BACKGROUND: Clinical uncertainty in diagnosing Parkinson's disease is common when patients are on dopamine-blocking medications. DAT-SPECT imaging can improve diagnostic certainty but little data are available on clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with normal and abnormal scan results. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients seen at a movement disorders center between 2011 and 2017 where DAT-SPECT was ordered to distinguish Parkinson's disease from Drug-induced Parkinsonism...
May 5, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744803/prediction-of-future-weight-change-with-the-dopamine-transporter
#19
Kyoungjune Pak, Keunyoung Kim, Myung Jun Lee, Jae Meen Lee, Bum Soo Kim, Seong-Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
The brain plays a critical role in controlling and inhibiting pre-potent responses to foods. We investigated the predictive value of dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in the striatum of healthy subjects using 123 I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In total, 84 participants with available data on their weight for the 60 months after SPECT were included. Specific binding of 123 I-FP-CIT to DAT was calculated using region-of-interest analysis, and the putamen-to-caudate nucleus ratio (PCR) was determined...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739866/region-specific-regulation-of-presynaptic-dopamine-homeostasis-by-d2-autoreceptors-shapes-the-in-vivo-impact-of-the-neuropsychiatric-disease-associated-dat-variant-val559
#20
Raajaram Gowrishankar, Paul J Gresch, Gwynne L Davis, Rania M Katamish, Justin R Riele, Adele M Stewart, Roxanne A Vaughan, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Disruptions of dopamine (DA) signaling contribute to a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Despite evidence that risk for these disorders derives from heritable variation in DA-linked genes, a better understanding is needed of the molecular and circuit context through which gene variation drives distinct disease traits. Previously, we identified the DA transporter (DAT) variant Val559 in subjects with ADHD and established that the mutation supports anomalous DAT-mediated DA efflux (ADE)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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