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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350115/-haemolysis-role-of-the-direct-antiglobulin-test-and-eluate
#1
H M Hamer, E A Beckers, Y M Henskens
Haemolytic anaemia is the result of an abnormal breakdown of red blood cells. The direct antiglobulin test (DAT), also known as the direct Coombs test, can be used to determine the cause of the haemolysis. The DAT distinguishes between immune and non-immune causes of haemolysis. However, the DAT should not be used in screening for haemolysis. When the DAT is performed without an indication for in vivo haemolysis, there is a high risk of false-positive results. To increase the specificity of the DAT, the eluate can be tested to determine the specificity of the autoantibodies...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348315/whole-body-biodistribution-and-dosimetry-of-the-dopamine-transporter-radioligand-18f-fe-pe2i-in-human-subjects
#2
Helena Lizana, Lennart Johansson, Jan E Axelsson, Anne Larsson Strömvall, Mattias Ögren, Jan Linder, Christer Halldin, Andrea Varrone, Susanna Jakobson Mo
18F-(E)-N-(3-iodoprop-2-enyl)-2β-carbofluoroethoxy-3β-(4'-methyl-phenyl) nortropane (18F-FE-PE2I) was recently developed and has shown adequate affinity and high selectivity for the dopamine transporter (DAT). Previous studies have shown promising results for 18F-FE-PE2I as a suitable radioligand for DAT-imaging. In this study, we investigate the whole body biodistribution and dosimetry of 18F-FE-PE2I in healthy volunteers to support the utility of it as a suitable positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for the DAT...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348190/pronounced-hyperactivity-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-bdnf-dysregulation-in-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats
#3
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Maria Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia E Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Gianni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats (DAT-knockout, DAT-KO rats) in which the gene encoding the DAT has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology (ZFN)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346583/datamed-an-open-source-discovery-index-for-finding-biomedical-datasets
#4
Xiaoling Chen, Anupama E Gururaj, Burak Ozyurt, Ruiling Liu, Ergin Soysal, Trevor Cohen, Firat Tiryaki, Yueling Li, Nansu Zong, Min Jiang, Deevakar Rogith, Mandana Salimi, Hyeon-Eui Kim, Philippe Rocca-Serra, Alejandra Gonzalez-Beltran, Claudiu Farcas, Todd Johnson, Ron Margolis, George Alter, Susanna-Assunta Sansone, Ian M Fore, Lucila Ohno-Machado, Jeffrey S Grethe, Hua Xu
Objective: Finding relevant datasets is important for promoting data reuse in the biomedical domain, but it is challenging given the volume and complexity of biomedical data. Here we describe the development of an open source biomedical data discovery system called DataMed, with the goal of promoting the building of additional data indexes in the biomedical domain. Materials and Methods: DataMed, which can efficiently index and search diverse types of biomedical datasets across repositories, is developed through the National Institutes of Health-funded biomedical and healthCAre Data Discovery Index Ecosystem (bioCADDIE) consortium...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345130/two-marine-cyanobacterial-aplysiatoxin-polyketides-neo-debromoaplysiatoxin-a-and-b-with-k-channel-inhibition-activity
#5
Bing-Nan Han, Ting-Ting Liang, Lawrence Jordan Keen, Ting-Ting Fan, Xiao-Dan Zhang, Lin Xu, Qi Zhao, Shu-Ping Wang, Hou-Wen Lin
The isolation and structure elucidation of two cyanobacterial debromoaplysiatoxin (DAT) analogues, neo-debromoaplysiatoxin A (1) and neo-debromoaplysiatoxin B (2), were reported and found to possess 6/10/6 and 6/6/6 fused-ring systems, respectively, which are rarely seen among aplysiatoxins. Both compounds exhibited potent blocking activity against Kv1.5 with IC50 values of 6.94 ± 0.26 and 0.30 ± 0.05 μM, respectively. These findings suggest the potential of aplysiatoxin analogues in modulating ionic channels and also provide links between the DAT target, protein kinase C, and cell regulation...
January 18, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343767/blockade-of-trpv1-inhibits-methamphetamine-induced-rewarding-effects
#6
Yu-Hua Tian, Shi-Xun Ma, Kwang-Wook Lee, Sunmee Wee, George F Koob, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Methamphetamine (MAP) is the most widely used psychostimulant in the world, but the exact mechanisms underlying MAP addiction are not yet fully understood. Recent studies have identified the distribution of TRPV1 in several brain regions that are related to drug addiction, including nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum (DSt). In the present study, we performed conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration tests to examine the effects of capsazepine (CPZ) and SB366791 (SB) on MAP reward. We found that both CPZ and SB significantly inhibited MAP-induced CPP and self-administration; in contrast, TRPV1 knock-out (KO) mice did not develop MAP-induced CPP...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339100/genetic-variation-in-the-dopamine-system-influences-intervention-outcome-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
Rochellys Diaz Heijtz, Rita Almeida, Ann Christin Eliasson, Hans Forssberg
BACKGROUND: There is large variation in treatment responses in children with cerebral palsy. Experimental and clinical results suggest that dopamine neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling are involved in motor learning and plasticity, which are key factors in modern habilitation success. We examined whether naturally occurring variations in dopamine and BDNF genes influenced the treatment outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-three children (18-60months of age) with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy were enrolled in the study...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332269/behavioral-biochemical-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-using-the-neurotoxin-2-ch3-mptp-a-novel-approach
#8
Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Agihane Rodrigues Almeida, Sarah Martins Presti-Silva, Evaldo Vitor Pereira, Filipe Andrich, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires, Cristina Martins-Silva
The neurotoxin MPTP has long been used to create a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, several MPTP analogues have been developed, including 2'-CH3-MPTP, which was shown to induce nigrostriatal DA neuronal depletion more potently than MPTP. However, no study on behavioral and molecular alterations in response to 2'-CH3-MPTP has been carried out so far. In the present work, 2'-CH3-MPTP was administered to mice (2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/kg per injection, once a day, 5 days) and histological, biochemical, molecular and behavioral alterations were evaluated...
January 13, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329781/dopamine-transporter-trafficking-is-regulated-by-neutral-sphingomyelinase-2-ceramide-kinase
#9
Jong Hoon Won, Seok Kyun Kim, In Chul Shin, Hae Chan Ha, Ji Min Jang, Moon Jung Back, Dae Kyong Kim
Dopamine (DA) reuptake is the primary mechanism to terminate dopaminergic transmission in the synaptic cleft. The dopamine transporter (DAT) has an important role in the regulation of DA reuptake. This study provides anatomical and physiological evidence that DAT recycling is regulated by ceramide kinase via the sphingomyelin pathway. First, the results show that DAT and neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) were successfully co-precipitated from striatal samples and were colocalized in the mouse striatum or PC12 cells...
January 9, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329285/a-direct-interaction-of-cholesterol-with-the-dopamine-transporter-prevents-its-out-to-inward-transition
#10
Talia Zeppelin, Lucy Kate Ladefoged, Steffen Sinning, Xavier Periole, Birgit Schiøtt
Monoamine transporters (MATs) carry out neurotransmitter reuptake from the synaptic cleft, a key step in neurotransmission, which is targeted in the treatment of neurological disorders. Cholesterol (CHOL), a major component of the synaptic plasma membrane, has been shown to exhibit a modulatory effect on MATs. Recent crystal structures of the dopamine transporter (DAT) revealed the presence of two conserved CHOL-like molecules, suggesting a functional protein-CHOL direct interaction. Here, we present extensive atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of DAT in an outward-facing conformation...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321352/genetic-analysis-of-55-northern-vietnamese-patients-with-wilson-disease-seven-novel-mutations-in-atp7b
#11
Le Anh Tuan Pham, Trong Tue Nguyen, Hoang Bich Nga Le, Dat Quoc Tran, Cam Tu Ho, Thinh Huy Tran, Van Thanh Ta, The Hung Bui, Van Khanh Tran
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. The gene responsible for WD was discovered in 1993 and is located on chromosome 13 at 13q14.3. It encodes a copper-specific transporting P-type ATPase. Early diagnosis can improve treatment outcome and decrease the rate of disability or even mortality.We used Sanger sequencing to identify mutation hot spots in 55 northern Vietnamese with a clinical diagnosis of WD. Mutations were screened and detected by direct DNA sequencing. A total of 26 different ATP7B gene mutations were identified, including seven novel mutations (five nonsense and two missense mutations)...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317720/root-morphological-traits-and-spatial-distribution-under-different-nitrogen-treatments-and-their-relationship-with-grain-yield-in-super-hybrid-rice
#12
Ke Liu, Aibin He, Chang Ye, Shaowen Liu, Jian Lu, Mengtao Gao, Youzhong Fan, Bilin Lu, Xiaohai Tian, Yunbo Zhang
Succeeding in breeding super hybrid rice has been considered as a great progress in rice production in China. This on-farm study was conducted with Minirhizotron techniques to identify dynamic root morphological traits and distribution (0-30 cm) under different nitrogen treatments. Five elite super hybrid rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu (LYPJ), Yliangyou 1(YLY1), Yliangyou 2(YLY2), Yliangyou 900(YLY900) and Super 1000(S1000), were grown at four N levels: 0 kg ha-1 (N1), 210 kg ha-1 (N2), 300 kg ha-1 (N3) and 390 kg ha-1 (N4) in 2015 and 2016...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317605/non-invasive-modulation-reduces-repetitive-behavior-in-a-rat-model-through-the-sensorimotor-cortico-striatal-circuit
#13
Henriette Edemann-Callesen, Bettina Habelt, Franziska Wieske, Mark Jackson, Niranjan Khadka, Daniele Mattei, Nadine Bernhardt, Andreas Heinz, David Liebetanz, Marom Bikson, Frank Padberg, Ravit Hadar, Michael A Nitsche, Christine Winter
Involuntary movements as seen in repetitive disorders such as Tourette Syndrome (TS) results from cortical hyperexcitability that arise due to striato-thalamo-cortical circuit (STC) imbalance. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a stimulation procedure that changes cortical excitability, yet its relevance in repetitive disorders such as TS remains largely unexplored. Here, we employed the dopamine transporter-overexpressing (DAT-tg) rat model to investigate behavioral and neurobiological effects of frontal tDCS...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317500/macrocyclic-%C3%AE-defensins-suppress-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-tnf-%C3%AE-shedding-by-inhibition-of-tnf-%C3%AE-converting-enzyme
#14
Justin B Schaal, Thorsten Maretzky, Dat Q Tran, Patti A Tran, Prasad Tongaonkar, Carl P Blobel, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Theta-defensins (θ-defensins) are macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in granulocytes and selected epithelia of Old World monkeys.  They contribute to anti-pathogen host defense responses by directly killing a diverse range of microbes.  Of note, θ-defensins also modulate microbe-induced inflammation by affecting the production of soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF) and other proinflammatory cytokines.  Here, we report that natural rhesus macaque θ-defensin (RTD) isoforms regulate sTNF cellular release by inhibiting TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE; also known as a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17; ADAM17), the primary pro-TNF sheddase...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310855/identification-of-r-selective-%C3%AF-aminotransferases-by-exploring-evolutionary-sequence-space
#15
Eun-Mi Kim, Joon Ho Park, Byung-Gee Kim, Joo-Hyun Seo
Several (R)-selective ω-aminotransferases (R-ωATs) have been reported. The existence of additional R-ωATs having different sequence characteristics from previous ones is highly expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that R-ωATs are variants of aminotransferase group III. Based on these backgrounds, sequences in RefSeq database were scored using family profiles of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT) and d-alanine aminotransferase (DAT) to predict and identify putative R-ωATs. Sequences with two profile analysis scores were plotted on two-dimensional score space...
March 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305270/the-protective-effect-of-diallyl-trisulfide-on-cytopenia-induced-by-benzene-through-modulating-benzene-metabolism
#16
Wenting Han, Shuo Wang, Ming Li, Lulu Jiang, Xujing Wang, Keqin Xie
It has been known that metabolism of benzene is necessary for its toxicity. The purpose of our study is to investigate the effect of diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on attenuating cytopenia in peripheral blood introduced by benzene through regulating benzene metabolism in rats. We established benzene poisoning model with benzene (1.3 g/kg), while the DATS treatment groups were treated with DATS plus benzene (15 or 30 mg/kg) for 28 days, respectively. The results of blood parameters and concentration of metabolites of benzene (t, t-MA and SPMA) determination in urine showed that DATS could effectively attenuate the cytopenia induced by benzene through regulating benzene metabolism...
January 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302043/heme-oxygenase-1-genetic-variants-and-the-conundrum-of-hyperbilirubinemia-in-african-american-newborns
#17
David L Schutzman, Erica Gatien, Samuel Ajayi, Ronald J Wong
BACKGROUND: African-American (AA) infants are known to have, overall, lower bilirubin levels than infants of other ethnicities during their birth hospitalization. However, they are known to have a higher incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia and are over represented in the US Kernicterus Registry. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO) is the rate limiting enzyme in heme metabolism leading to the equimolar production of bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO) and free iron (Fe). Short (S) (GT)n repeats (<25) in the promoter region of the gene encoding the inducible HO-1 isozyme augment its expression, while long (L) repeats (>33) lead to an attenuation, modulating the production of bilirubin and CO...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299388/individual-differences-in-eeg-correlates-of-recognition-memory-due-to-dat-polymorphisms
#18
Paolo Medrano, Erika Nyhus, Andrew Smolen, Tim Curran, Robert S Ross
Introduction: Although previous research suggests that genetic variation in dopaminergic genes may affect recognition memory, the role dopamine transporter expression may have on the behavioral and EEG correlates of recognition memory has not been well established. Objectives: The study aims to reveal how individual differences in dopaminergic functioning due to genetic variations in the dopamine transporter gene influences behavioral and EEG correlates of recognition memory...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296844/potential-impact-of-complement-regulator-deficiencies-on-hemolytic-reactions-due-to-minor-abo-mismatched-transfusions
#19
Priyanka Pandey, Waseem Q Anani, Jerome L Gottschall, Gregory A Denomme
Minor ABO-mismatched transfusions are a common occurrence, although infrequent transfusion reactions occur. We sought to investigate the regulation of complement C3 activation induced by anti-A. In vitro complement C3 activation was observed with 10 of 30 group O samples and correlated with immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-A titers. We developed an in vitro paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) model of hemolysis in which group A1 red blood cells (RBCs) were chemically treated with 2-aminoethylisothiouronium (AET) to alter regulators of complement C3 activation...
October 24, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289701/dopamine-transporter-knockdown-mice-in-the-behavioral-pattern-monitor-a-robust-reproducible-model-for-mania-relevant-behaviors
#20
Molly A Kwiatkowski, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Zackary A Cope, Arpi Minassian, William Perry, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
Efforts to replicate results from both basic and clinical models have highlighted problems with reproducibility in science. In psychiatry, reproducibility issues are compounded because the complex behavioral syndromes make many disorders challenging to model. We develop translatable tasks that quantitatively measure psychiatry-relevant behaviors across species. The behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) was designed to analyze exploratory behaviors, which are altered in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), especially during mania episodes...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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