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Sunao Mizumura, Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Akihiro Murata, Kosei Yoshimura, Nobutomo Ishii, Tadashi Kokubo, Miyako Morooka, Akiko Kajiyama, Atsuro Terahara
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the Southampton method for dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT is widely used to quantitatively evaluate striatal radioactivity. The specific binding ratio (SBR) is the ratio of specific to non-specific binding observed after placing pentagonal striatal voxels of interest (VOIs) as references. Although the method can reduce the partial volume effect, the SBR may fluctuate due to the presence of low-count areas of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), caused by brain atrophy, in the striatal VOIs...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Asghar M Razavi, George Khelashvili, Harel Weinstein
BACKGROUND: Much of the structure-based mechanistic understandings of the function of SLC6A neurotransmitter transporters emerged from the study of their bacterial LeuT-fold homologs. It has become evident, however, that structural differences such as the long N- and C-termini of the eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters are involved in an expanded set of functional properties to the eukaryotic transporters. These functional properties are not shared by the bacterial homologs, which lack the structural elements that appeared later in evolution...
March 14, 2018: BMC Biology
Hiroshige Fujishiro, Masato Okuda, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Seiko Miyata, Youta Torii, Shuji Iritani, Norio Ozaki
AIMS: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and psychiatric symptoms often antedate the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease / dementia with Lewy bodies. The purpose of this study is to investigate RBD and its relevance to Lewy body disease (LBD) in patients with late-onset psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Study subjects included 19 patients with late-onset psychiatric disorders who exhibited REM sleep without atonia (RWA), which is a hallmark of RBD on polysomnography, at our psychiatric ward...
March 14, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Alba Pablos-Tanarro, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Antonio Palomo, Francisco Casasola, Ignacio Ferre
The objective of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Iberian sows reared in extensive and intensive management conditions and to compare two serologic techniques used for diagnosis. In addition, some possible risk factors associated with the presence of serum antibodies to T. gondii were also studied. Serum samples were collected from 2492 Iberian sows on 14 pig farms. Three types of management systems were included, traditional extensive outdoor farms (five farms), intensive farms with outdoor access (n = 4), and conventional intensive indoor farms (n = 5)...
March 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Koh Tadokoro, Yasuyuki Ohta, Kota Sato, Takahiro Maeki, Ryo Sasaki, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Jingwei Shang, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Toru Yamashita, Chang Kweng Lim, Shigeru Tajima, Koji Abe
Japanese encephalitis (JE) survivors often present with nigrostriatal aftereffects with parkinsonian features. A 67-year-old woman with JE showed right-dominant clinical parkinsonism and left-dominant substantia nigra lesions after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging using123 I-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane (123 I-FP-CIT) revealed a corresponding left-dominant decrease. The present case is the first to reveal a clear match of laterality between clinical parkinsonism, MRI-based substantia nigra lesions, and impaired DAT in presynaptic dopaminergic neurons in JE...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the relationship between the sub-regional pattern of striatal dopamine depletion and cognitive impairment in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD), and determine the effect of striatal dopamine density on cognitive prognosis. METHODS: Patients with drug-naïve non-demented PD were divided into mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n = 129) and cognitively normal (PD-CogN; n = 182) groups. Using quantification of the dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in each striatal sub-region with18 F-FP-CIT PET scans, we performed inter-group comparative analysis of DAT availability and multivariate linear regression analysis to assess the association between DAT availability and cognitive performance...
March 2, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Zhongjian Cheng, Xinggui Shen, Xiaohua Jiang, Huimin Shan, Maria Cimini, Pu Fang, Yong Ji, Joon Young Park, Konstantinos Drosatos, Xiaofeng Yang, Christopher G Kevil, Raj Kishore, Hong Wang
Insufficient hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has been implicated in Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-related cardiovascular complications. We investigated the role of H2 S in T2DM and HHcy-induced endothelial dysfunction in small mesenteric artery (SMA) of db/db mice fed a high methionine (HM) diet. HM diet (8 weeks) induced HHcy in both T2DM db/db mice and non-diabetic db/+ mice (total plasma Hcy: 48.4 and 31.3 µM, respectively), and aggravated the impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh), determined by the presence of eNOS inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and prostacyclin (PGI2 ) inhibitor indomethacin (INDO), in SMA from db/db mice but not that from db/+ mice...
February 14, 2018: Redox Biology
Ryul Kim, Joongyub Lee, Yoon Kim, Aryun Kim, Mihee Jang, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon, Un Jung Kang, Stanley Fahn
INTRODUCTION: The current study was designed to determine whether the degree of presynaptic striatal dopamine depletion can predict the later development of freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 390 de novo patients with PD without FOG at baseline. The participants were divided into tertiles according to the baseline dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake of each striatal subregion, and the cumulative risk of FOG was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method...
February 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Stefano Cinque, Francesca Zoratto, Anna Poleggi, Damiana Leo, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Enrico Alleva, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jared W Young, Zackary A Cope, Benedetto Romoli, Esther Schrurs, Aniek Joosen, Jordy van Enkhuizen, Richard F Sharp, Davide Dulcis
Developing novel therapeutics for bipolar disorder (BD) has been hampered by limited mechanistic knowledge how sufferers switch between mania and depression-how the same brain can switch between extreme states-described as the "holy grail" of BD research. Strong evidence implicates seasonally-induced switching between states, with mania associated with summer-onset, depression with winter-onset. Determining mechanisms of and sensitivity to such switching is required. C57BL/6J and dopamine transporter hypomorphic (DAT-HY 50% expression) mice performed a battery of psychiatry-relevant behavioral tasks following 2-week housing in chambers under seasonally relevant photoperiod extremes...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
P Ortiz-Sanchez, F Mulas, L Abad-Mas, P Roca, R Gandia-Beneto
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impairments in executive function, language, emotional function, and social function. Its anatomofunctional substrate is related to a disorganization of the brain's functional connections. The aim is to investigate the cerebral connections in subjects with ASD through the analysis of the interhemispheric coherence (IHC) of the quantified electroencephalogram and its changes after dolphin assisted therapy (DAT) versus therapeutical intervention without dolphins (TIWD)...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Jessika C Bridi, Frank Hirth
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by intracellular inclusions of aggregated and misfolded α-Synuclein (α-Syn), and the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the brain. The resulting motor abnormalities mark the progression of PD, while non-motor symptoms can already be identified during early, prodromal stages of disease. Recent studies provide evidence that during this early prodromal phase, synaptic and axonal abnormalities occur before the degenerative loss of neuronal cell bodies. These early phenotypes can be attributed to synaptic accumulation of toxic α-Syn...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Andreas Rieckmann, Charlotte C Tamason, Emily S Gurley, Naja Hulvej Rod, Peter Kjær Mackie Jensen
An increased risk for cholera was witnessed during both droughts and floods in sub-Saharan Africa; these findings call for increased preparedness and surveillance during droughts in addition to floods. Cholera outbreaks in Africa have been attributed to both droughts and floods, but whether the risk of a cholera outbreak is elevated during droughts is unknown. We estimated the risk of cholera outbreaks during droughts and floods compared with drought- and flood-free periods in 40 sub-Saharan African countries during 1990-2010 based on data from EM-DAT: the OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database (www...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Francesca Romana Rizzo, Mauro Federici, Nicola Biagio Mercuri
An increase of extracellular dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the psychostimulant properties of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Although this drug has been reported to affect the DA uptake transporter (DAT), it might activate other mechanisms to regulate the outflow of DA in the brain. Our aim was to examine the overall effects of MDMA on the release of DA in the striatum. We studied the effect of MDMA on stimulus-evoked synaptic DA release in dorsal striatal slices of mice using in vitro amperometric techniques...
March 3, 2018: Neuroscience
Shazia Moeen, Nazish Farooq, Romana Irshad, Muhammad Ashfaq, Umer Farooq, Muhammad Idris
BACKGROUND: Lifelong transfusions are life savers for thalassaemia patients but are associated with many complications. Alloimmunization is a major problem for blood banks. Antigens of foreign red blood cells induce the formation of antibodies in patients suffering from thalassaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of red cell alloantibodies and to express the type of these antibodies in thalassaemia patients. METHODS: Patients that have received multiple transfusions were included in this study...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Jee-Young Lee, Nicholas P Lao-Kaim, Jacopo Pasquini, Günther Deuschl, Nicola Pavese, Paola Piccini
BACKGROUND: s: Over recent years there have been some conflicting reports upon the role of pallidal dopaminergic denervation in rest tremor in Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVES: To clarify this issue we analyzed the clinical and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT data of a large cohort of early Parkinson's disease patients enrolled in the PPMI study. METHODS: Pallidal and striatal dopamine transporter uptake ratios were calculated in 382 patients (120 no-tremor, 60 tremor-dominant, and 202 indeterminate) and 150 controls...
February 24, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Patrick Neiens, Angela De Simone, Anna Ramershoven, Georg Höfner, Lars Allmendinger, Klaus T Wanner
MS Binding Assays represent a label free alternative to radioligand binding assays. In this study, we present an LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of (R,R)-4-(2-benzhydryloxyethyl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)piperidin-3-ol ((R,R)-D-84, (R,R)-1), (S,S)-reboxetine ((S,S)-2), and (S)-citalopram ((S)-3) employed as highly selective nonlabelled reporter ligands in MS Binding Assays addressing the dopamine (DAT, (R,R)-D-84), the norepinephrine (NET, (S,S)-reboxetine), and the serotonin transporter (SERT, (S)-citalopram), respectively...
March 3, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
S Jongen, E F P M Vuurman, J G Ramaekers, A Vermeeren
OBJECTIVE: Screening of drug-induced performance impairment is needed to provide meaningful information for users and prescribers regarding the impact of drugs on driving. The main objective was to assess the effects of oxazepam 10 mg (OXA10), oxazepam 30 mg (OXA30), and diazepam 10 mg (DIA10) on standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) in a highway driving test in actual traffic and to determine the ability of eight neurocognitive tests to detect comparable effects. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy volunteers participated in a four-way double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study...
March 2, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Catherine R Linnen, Claire T O'Quin, Taylor Shackleford, Connor R Sears, Carita Lindstedt
Pigmentation has emerged as a premier model for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution, and a growing catalog of color loci is starting to reveal biases in the mutations, genes, and genetic architectures underlying color variation in the wild. However, existing studies have sampled a limited subset of taxa, color traits, and developmental stages. To expand the existing sample of color loci, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses on two types of larval pigmentation traits that vary among populations of the redheaded pine sawfly ( Neodiprion lecontei ): carotenoid-based yellow body color and melanin-based spotting pattern...
March 1, 2018: Genetics
Dat Tien Nguyen, Tuyen Danh Pham, Na Rae Baek, Kang Ryoung Park
Although face recognition systems have wide application, they are vulnerable to presentation attack samples (fake samples). Therefore, a presentation attack detection (PAD) method is required to enhance the security level of face recognition systems. Most of the previously proposed PAD methods for face recognition systems have focused on using handcrafted image features, which are designed by expert knowledge of designers, such as Gabor filter, local binary pattern (LBP), local ternary pattern (LTP), and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)...
February 26, 2018: Sensors
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