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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344900/temporal-patterns-and-geographic-heterogeneity-of-zika-virus-zikv-outbreaks-in-french-polynesia-and-central-america
#1
Ying-Hen Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission has been reported in 67 countries/territories in the Oceania region and the Americas since 2015, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare ZIKV as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016, due to its strong association with medical complications such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). However, a substantial gap in knowledge still exists regarding differing temporal pattern and potential of transmission of ZIKV in different regions of the world...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341517/enhancement-of-bactericidal-activity-against-group-b-streptococci-with-reduced-penicillin-susceptibility-by-uptake-of-gentamicin-into-cells-resulting-from-combination-with-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics
#2
Yoshifumi Ebara, Miyuki Morozumi, Mamiko Sato, Nobuko Moritoki, Meiwa Toyofuku, Misako Takata, Mitsuru Murata, Kimiko Ubukata, Satoshi Iwata
Combined effects of penicillin (PEN) and gentamicin (GM) against Streptococcus agalactiae, i.e. group B streptococci (GBS), are known to occur, but synergy has not been examined in strains with reduced PEN susceptibility, usually called PEN-resistant GBS (PRGBS). We therefore studied combined effects of β-lactam antibiotics and GM in cultures of 3 PRGBS strains belonging to serotype Ia or III that were isolated from Japanese adults with invasive infections. Killing kinetics were determined at 2-h intervals from 0 to 6 h after exposure to ampicillin (AMP) or cefotaxime (CTX) combined with GM...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339472/vector-status-of-aedes-species-determines-geographical-risk-of-autochthonous-zika-virus-establishment
#3
Lauren Gardner, Nan Chen, Sahotra Sarkar
BACKGROUND: The 2015-16 Zika virus pandemic originating in Latin America led to predictions of a catastrophic global spread of the disease. Since the current outbreak began in Brazil in May 2015 local transmission of Zika has been reported in over 60 countries and territories, with over 750 thousand confirmed and suspected cases. As a result of its range expansion attention has focused on possible modes of transmission, of which the arthropod vector-based disease spread cycle involving Aedes species is believed to be the most important...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334284/genomic-diversity-guides-conservation-strategies-among-rare-terrestrial-orchid-species-when-taxonomy-remains-uncertain
#4
Collin W Ahrens, Megan A Supple, Nicola C Aitken, David J Cantrill, Justin O Borevitz, Elizabeth A James
Background and Aims: Species are often used as the unit for conservation, but may not be suitable for species complexes where taxa are difficult to distinguish. Under such circumstances, it may be more appropriate to consider species groups or populations as evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). A population genomic approach was employed to investigate the diversity within and among closely related species to create a more robust, lineage-specific conservation strategy for a nationally endangered terrestrial orchid and its relatives from south-eastern Australia...
March 15, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333608/morbidity-in-pregnant-women-associated-with-unverified-penicillin-allergies-antibiotic-use-and-group-b-streptococcus-infections
#5
Shilpa H Desai, Michael S Kaplan, Qiaoling Chen, Eric M Macy
CONTEXT: The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently. OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS. DESIGN: Retrospective...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333320/cross-resistance-to-lincosamides-streptogramins-a-and-pleuromutilins-in-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolates-from-the-usa
#6
Paulina A Hawkins, Caitlin S Law, Benjamin J Metcalf, Sopio Chochua, Delois M Jackson, Lars F Westblade, Robert Jerris, Bernard W Beall, Lesley McGee
Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia in neonates in the United States. GBS also causes invasive disease in older infants, pregnant women, children and young adults with underlying medical conditions, and older adults. Resistance to lincosamides in the absence of erythromycin resistance is rare in GBS, but has been previously reported in clinical isolates, both on its own or in combination with resistance to streptogramins A and pleuromutilins (L/LSA/LSAP phenotypes)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331182/construction-of-a-high-density-genetic-map-and-quantitative-trait-locus-mapping-in-the-manila-clam-ruditapes-philippinarum
#7
Hongtao Nie, Xiwu Yan, Zhongming Huo, Liwen Jiang, Peng Chen, Hui Liu, Jianfeng Ding, Feng Yang
Genetic linkage maps are indispensable tools in a wide range of genetic and genomic research. With the advancement of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods, the construction of a high-density linkage maps has become achievable in marine organisms lacking sufficient genomic resources, such as mollusks. In this study, high-density linkage map was constructed for an ecologically and commercially important clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum. For the consensus linkage map, a total of 9658 markers spanning 1926...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326082/neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-otherwise-healthy-infants-failure-of-specific-neonatal-immune-responses
#8
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Jacques Fellay
Only a small proportion of newborn infants exposed to a pathogenic microorganism develop overt infection. Susceptibility to infection in preterm infants and infants with known comorbidities has a likely multifactorial origin and can be often attributed to the concurrence of iatrogenic factors, environmental determinants, underlying pathogenic processes, and probably genetic predisposition. Conversely, infection occurring in otherwise healthy full-term newborn infants is unexplained in most cases. Microbial virulence factors and the unique characteristics of the neonatal immune system only partially account for the interindividual variability in the neonatal immune responses to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321367/evaluation-of-procedures-for-typing-of-group-b-streptococcus-a-retrospective-study
#9
Hans-Christian Slotved, Steen Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates two procedures for typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci; GBS) isolates, using retrospective typing data from the period 2010 to 2014 with a commercial latex agglutination test (latex test) and the Lancefield precipitation test (LP test). Furthermore, the genotype distribution of phenotypically non-typable (NT) GBS isolates is presented. We also raise the awareness, that the difference in typing results obtained by phenotypical methods and genotype based methods may have implications on vaccine surveillance in case a GBS vaccine is introduced...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320438/regulatory-t-cell-frequency-but-not-plasma-il-33-levels-represents-potential-immunological-biomarker-to-predict-clinical-response-to-intravenous-immunoglobulin-therapy
#10
Mohan S Maddur, Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, Mrinmoy Das, Praveen Prakhar, Varun K Sharma, Vikas Singh, Magalie Rabin, Jamma Trinath, Kithiganahalli N Balaji, Francis Bolgert, Jean-Michel Vallat, Laurent Magy, Srini V Kaveri, Jagadeesh Bayry
BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a polyspecific pooled immunoglobulin G preparation and one of the commonly used therapeutics for autoimmune diseases including those of neurological origin. A recent report in murine model proposed that IVIG expands regulatory T (Treg) cells via induction of interleukin 33 (IL-33). However, translational insight on these observations is lacking. METHODS: Ten newly diagnosed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients were treated with IVIG at the rate of 0...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320236/prevention-of-early-onset-group-b-streptococcal-disease-by-universal-antenatal-culture-based-screening-in-all-public-hospitals-in-hong-kong
#11
Teresa W L Ma, Viola Chan, C H So, Annie S Y Hui, C N Lee, Amelia P W Hui, P L So, C W Kong, Barbara Fung, K Y Leung
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), and early onset GBS disease (EOGBSD) after implementation of universal screening. METHODS: This was a three-year retrospective cohort study on universal antenatal rectovaginal culture-based screening and intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP) to colonized women in the public sector in Hong Kong. Routinely collected data including maternal colonization and EOGBSD were retrieved...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320169/probable-zika-virus-associated-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-challenges-with-clinico-laboratory-diagnosis
#12
Eliza Miller, Zoe Becker, Daniel Shalev, Christopher T Lee, Comana Cioroiu, Kiran Thakur
A 55year old woman in New York City presented in May 2016 with progressive weakness, ataxia, paresthesia, and areflexia, shortly after returning from the Dominican Republic. Lumbar puncture revealed cytoalbuminological dissociation. Due to her recent travel, Zika-associated Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) was suspected and she underwent evaluation for recent flavivirus exposure. Zika virus RNA was not detected in serum, but Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) was detected in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320147/malignancy-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-twelve-year-single-center-study
#13
Fu Liong Hiew, Yusuf A Rajabally
The relationship between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and malignancy is uncertain. We retrospectively analyzed data of 118 consecutive patients admitted with GBS from Birmingham, U.K. (2001-2012). We calculated relative cancer risk using different definitions and determined characteristics of malignancy-associated GBS. Malignancy was globally commoner in our GBS cohort compared to the general population (odds ratio: 2.08; CI: 1.06-3.71; p=0.036). However, this was unconfirmed if paraneoplastic criteria were applied...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317983/a-deconvoluted-pl-approach-to-probe-the-charge-carrier-dynamics-of-the-grain-interior-and-grain-boundary-of-a-perovskite-film-for-perovskite-solar-cell-applications
#14
Abdullah Al Mamun, Tanzila Tasnim Ava, Hyeon Jun Jeong, Mun Seok Jeong, Gon Namkoong
We explore a new characterization approach capable of probing the grain interior (GI) and grain boundary (GB) of a CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite thin film. In particular, we have found that the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum observed for a CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite thin film is asymmetric, and can be deconvoluted using a bi-Gaussian function, representing the ordered and disordered phases of the perovskite film. In order to understand the origin of the ordered and disordered phases of the perovskite film, two-dimensional (2D) PL mapping was performed to resolve the PL spectra at the nanoscale level...
March 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315021/clinical-strains-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-carry-two-different-variants-of-pathogenicity-island-xii
#15
Eugenia Kuleshevich, Joseph Ferretti, Ilda Santos Sanches, Natesan Balasubramanian, Barbara Spellerberg, Androulla Efstratiou, Paula Kriz, Kornelia Grabovskaya, Olga Arjanova, Alevtina Savitcheva, Valentin Shevchenko, Anton Rysev, Alexander Suvorov
Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B streptococci (GBS) are a common cause of serious diseases of newborns and adults. GBS pathogenicity largely depends on genes located on the accessory genome including several pathogenicity islands (PAI). The present paper is focused on the structure and molecular epidemiological analysis of one of the GBS pathogenicity islands-the pathogenicity island PAI XII (Glaser et al. Mol Microbiol 45(6):1499-1513, 2002). This PAI was found to be composed of three different mobile genetic elements: a composite transposon (PAI-C), a genomic islet (PAI-B), and a pathogenicity island associated with gene sspB1 (PAI-A)...
March 18, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306183/flavivirus-cross-reactivity-in-serological-tests-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-a-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patient-a-case-report
#16
Sonia M Raboni, Carmem Bonfim, Bernardo M Almeida, Camila Zanluca, Andrea C Koishi, Paula R V P Rodrigues, Claudia K Kay, Lisandro L Ribeiro, Rosana H Scola, Claudia N Duarte Dos Santos
Serological diagnosis of flavivirus infection is a challenge, particularly in the context of a disease associated with immune response enhancement in a transplant patient, where aspects such as previous flavivirus infections may be involved with the outcome. We report a case of a pediatric patient who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after matched-unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The patient lives in a Brazilian region that is experiencing an epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV)...
March 17, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304326/group-b-streptococcus-colonization-and-hiv-in-pregnancy-a-cohort-study-in-nigeria
#17
R Biobaku Oluwafunmilola, O Olaleye Atinukek, F Adefusi Olorunwa, A Adeyemi Babalola, O Onipede Anthony, M Loto Olabisi, O Imaralu John
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity. HIV is prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria. AIM: To determine the rates of anogenital GBS colonization in our institution and compare GBS colonization rates between HIV positive and negative pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted over 6 months. Patients were separated according to their HIV status: positive and negative...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298874/a-new-kind-of-bernstein-schurer-stancu-kantorovich-type-operators-based-on-q-integers
#18
Ruchi Chauhan, Nurhayat Ispir, P N Agrawal
Agrawal et al. (Boll. Unione Mat. Ital. 8:169-180, 2015) introduced a Stancu-type Kantorovich modification of the operators proposed by Ren and Zeng (Bull. Korean Math. Soc. 50(4):1145-1156, 2013) and studied a basic convergence theorem by using the Bohman-Korovokin criterion, the rate of convergence involving the modulus of continuity, and the Lipschitz function. The concern of this paper is to obtain Voronoskaja-type asymptotic result by calculating an estimate of fourth order central moment for these operators and discuss the rate of convergence for the bivariate case by using the complete and partial moduli of continuity and the degree of approximation by means of a Lipschitz-type function and the Peetre K-functional...
2017: J Inequal Appl
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295891/molecular-serotyping-virulence-gene-profiling-and-pathogenicity-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolated-from-tilapia-farms-in-thailand-by-multiplex-pcr
#19
Korntip Kannika, Duangjai Pisuttharachai, Prapansak Srisapoome, Janenuj Wongtavatchai, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono, Sasimanas Unajak, Nontawith Areechon
AIMS: This study aimed to biotype Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia farms in Thailand based on molecular biotyping methods and to determine the correlation between the serotype and virulence of bacteria. In addition to a biotyping (serotyping) technique based on multiplex PCR of cps genes, in this study, we developed multiplex PCR typing of Group B streptococcus (GBS) virulence genes to examine 3 clusters of virulence genes and their correlation to the pathogenicity of S...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289955/atomistic-simulation-study-of-tensile-deformation-in-nanocrystalline-and-single-crystal-au
#20
Cheng-Da Wu, Hsing-Wei Tsai
The effect of notch size (r) on nanocrystalline (NC) and single-crystal (SC) Au at a temperature of 300 K under tension testing is studied using molecular dynamics simulations based on the many-body embedded-atom potential. The effect is investigated in terms of atomic trajectories, common neighbor analysis, and the stress-strain curve. The simulation results show that for the NC samples, stacking faults nucleate at grain boundaries (GBs), propagate inside grains, and eventually are terminated by GBs or transect them...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
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