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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914204/the-genetic-architecture-of-tristyly-and-its-breakdown-to-self-fertilization
#1
Ramesh Arunkumar, Wei Wang, Stephen I Wright, Spencer C H Barrett
The floral polymorphism tristyly involves three style morphs with a reciprocal arrangement of stigma and anther heights governed by two diallelic loci (S and M). Tristyly functions to promote cross-pollination, but modifications to stamen position commonly cause transitions to selfing. Here, we integrate whole genome sequencing and genetic mapping to investigate the genetic architecture of the M locus and the genetic basis of independent transitions to selfing in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata. We crossed independently derived semi-homostylous selfing variants of the long- and mid-styled morph fixed for alternate alleles at the M locus (ssmm and ssMM, respectively) and backcrossed the F1 to the parental ssmm genotype...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#2
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910939/real-time-pcr-based-serotyping-of-streptococcus-agalactiae
#3
Kathleen M Breeding, Bhavana Ragipani, Kun-Uk David Lee, Martin Malik, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated, gram-positive pathogen that is an important cause of neonatal invasive infections, including sepsis and meningitis. There are ten known GBS serotypes based on distinct capsule compositions (Ia, Ib, II-IX), and current candidate capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines target only a subset of these. Serotyping of GBS isolates is important for understanding local epidemiology and for monitoring for serotype replacement or capsular switching. However, serotyping generally requires either latex agglutination, multiplex PCR with analysis of band sizes, or analysis of whole genome sequences-all techniques that are either expensive or not widely available...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908907/importance-of-diagnostic-work-up-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-pregnancy
#4
Elza Pollak-Christian, Kyong-Soon Lee
We report a full-term neonate presenting with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with hepatosplenomegaly, 'blueberry muffin' rash, intracranial calcifications, thrombocytopenia and respiratory distress. Maternal history was relevant for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the first trimester of pregnancy. CMV infection is an important cause of GBS; thus, women presenting GBS during pregnancy should be screened for CMV infection. If positive, they may benefit from specialised monitoring and treatment in the antenatal period, which may decrease the risk of major neurodevelopmental sequelae of congenital CMV in the neonate...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907966/getting-rid-of-weakness-in-the-icu-an-updated-approach-to-the-acute-management-of-myasthenia-gravis-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#5
Alexis A Lizarraga, Karlo J Lizarraga, Michael Benatar
After prompt diagnosis, severe myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) usually require management in the intensive care unit. In the myasthenic patient, recognition of precipitating factors is paramount, and frequent monitoring of bulbar, upper airway, and/or respiratory muscle strength is needed to identify impending myasthenic crisis. Noninvasive ventilation can be attempted prior to intubation and mechanical ventilation in the setting of respiratory failure. Cholinesterase inhibitors should be discontinued, but resumed prior to extubation, and steroid dosage could be increased once the airway is secured...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904236/influence-of-exercise-on-patients-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#6
Nicholas Simatos Arsenault, Pierre-Olivier Vincent, Bai He Shen Yu, Robin Bastien, Aaron Sweeney
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on improving physical outcomes in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Methods: The PubMed database was searched for articles published up to and including February 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), case reports, and quasi-experimental and single-subject designs published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals that assessed the impact of physical exercise on patients with GBS were included; study quality was assessed using Sackett's rules of evidence...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902793/snp-discovery-and-qtl-mapping-of-sclerotinia-basal-stalk-rot-resistance-in-sunflower-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#7
Zahirul I Talukder, Gerald J Seiler, Qijian Song, Guojia Ma, Lili Qi
Basal stalk rot (BSR), caused by the ascomycete fungus (Lib.) de Bary, is a serious disease of sunflower ( L.) in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross HA 441 × RHA 439. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was adapted to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A genetic linkage map was developed comprised of 1053 SNP markers on 17 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 1401...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898828/population-structure-in-the-model-grass-is-highly-correlated-with-flowering-differences-across-broad-geographic-areas
#9
Ludmila Tyler, Scott J Lee, Nelson D Young, Gregory A DeIulio, Elena Benavente, Michael Reagon, Jessica Sysopha, Riccardo M Baldini, Angelo Troìa, Samuel P Hazen, Ana L Caicedo
The small, annual grass (L.) Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L.) and barley ( L.), is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898821/development-of-a-high-density-linkage-map-and-tagging-leaf-spot-resistance-in-pearl-millet-using-genotyping-by-sequencing-markers
#10
Somashekhar M Punnuri, Jason G Wallace, Joseph E Knoll, Katie E Hyma, Sharon E Mitchell, Edward S Buckler, Rajeev K Varshney, Bharat P Singh
Pearl millet [ (L.) R. Br; also (L.) Morrone] is an important crop throughout the world but better genomic resources for this species are needed to facilitate crop improvement. Genome mapping studies are a prerequisite for tagging agronomically important traits. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) markers can be used to build high-density linkage maps, even in species lacking a reference genome. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population was developed from a cross between the lines 'Tift 99DB' and 'Tift 454'...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898819/genotyping-by-sequencing-analysis-for-determining-population-structure-of-finger-millet-germplasm-of-diverse-origins
#11
Anil Kumar, Divya Sharma, Apoorv Tiwari, J P Jaiswal, N K Singh, Salej Sood
Finger millet [ (L.) Gaertn.] is grown mainly by subsistence farmers in arid and semiarid regions of the world. To broaden its genetic base and to boost its production, it is of paramount importance to characterize and genotype the diverse gene pool of this important food and nutritional security crop. However, as a result of nonavailability of the genome sequence of finger millet, the progress could not be made in realizing the molecular basis of unique qualities of the crop. In the present investigation, attempts have been made to characterize the genetically diverse collection of 113 finger millet accessions through whole-genome genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), which resulted in a genome-wide set of 23,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) segregating across the entire collection and several thousand SNPs segregating within every accession...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898818/a-consensus-map-in-cultivated-hexaploid-oat-reveals-conserved-grass-synteny-with-substantial-subgenome-rearrangement
#12
Ashley S Chaffin, Yung-Fen Huang, Scott Smith, Wubishet A Bekele, Ebrahiem Babiker, Belaghihalli N Gnanesh, Bradley J Foresman, Steven G Blanchard, Jeremy J Jay, Robert W Reid, Charlene P Wight, Shiaoman Chao, Rebekah Oliver, Emir Islamovic, Frederic L Kolb, Curt McCartney, Jennifer W Mitchell Fetch, Aaron D Beattie, Åsmund Bjørnstad, J Michael Bonman, Tim Langdon, Catherine J Howarth, Cory R Brouwer, Eric N Jellen, Kathy Esvelt Klos, Jesse A Poland, Tzung-Fu Hsieh, Ryan Brown, Eric Jackson, Jessica A Schlueter, Nicholas A Tinker
Hexaploid oat ( L., 2 = 6 = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family and has a large genome (∼12.5 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs from three ancestral genomes. Physical rearrangements among parental genomes have hindered the development of linkage maps in this species. The objective of this work was to develop a single high-density consensus linkage map that is representative of the majority of commonly grown oat varieties. Data from a cDNA-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) were collected from the progeny of 12 biparental recombinant inbred line populations derived from 19 parents representing oat germplasm cultivated primarily in North America...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898812/a-high-density-linkage-map-of-the-ancestral-diploid-strawberry-constructed-with-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-markers-from-the-istraw90-array-and-genotyping-by-sequencing
#13
Lise L Mahoney, Daniel J Sargent, F Abebe-Akele, Dave J Wood, Judson A Ward, Nahla V Bassil, James F Hancock, Kevin M Folta, Thomas M Davis
Makino is recognized as an ancestor of the octoploid strawberry species, which includes the cultivated strawberry, × Duchesne ex Rozier. Here we report the construction of the first high-density linkage map for . The linkage map (Fii map) is based on two high-throughput techniques of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping: the IStraw90 Array (hereafter "Array"), and genotyping by sequencing (GBS). The F generation mapping population was derived by selfing hybrid F1D, the product of a cross between two divergent accessions collected from Hokkaido, Japan...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898767/genotyping-by-sequencing-on-pooled-samples-and-its-use-in-measuring-segregation-bias-during-the-course-of-androgenesis-in-barley
#14
Sébastien Bélanger, Patricio Esteves, Isabelle Clermont, Martine Jean, François Belzile
Estimation of allelic frequencies is often required in breeding but genotyping many individuals at many loci can be expensive. We have developed a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach for estimating allelic frequencies on pooled samples (Pool-GBS) and used it to examine segregation distortion in doubled haploid (DH) populations of barley ( L.). In the first phase, we genotyped each line individually and exploited these data to explore a strategy to call single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on pooled reads...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898759/establishment-and-optimization-of-genomic-selection-to-accelerate-the-domestication-and-improvement-of-intermediate-wheatgrass
#15
Xiaofei Zhang, Ahmad Sallam, Liangliang Gao, Traci Kantarski, Jesse Poland, Lee R DeHaan, Donald L Wyse, James A Anderson
Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) is a perennial species and has edible and nutritious grain and desirable agronomic traits, including large seed size, high grain yield, and biomass. It also has the potential to provide ecosystem services and an economic return to farmers. However, because of its allohexaploidy and self-incompatibility, developing molecular markers for genetic analysis and molecular breeding has been challenging. In the present study, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology, 3436 genome-wide markers discovered in a biparental population with 178 genets, were mapped to 21 linkage groups (LG) corresponding to 21 chromosomes of IWG...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898754/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-wheat-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#16
Marcio P Arruda, Patrick Brown, Gina Brown-Guedira, Allison M Krill, Carrie Thurber, Keith R Merrill, Bradley J Foresman, Frederic L Kolb
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important wheat ( L.) diseases worldwide, and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the midwestern and eastern regions of the United States to identify chromosomal regions associated with FHB resistance. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used to identify 19,992 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering all 21 wheat chromosomes. Marker-trait associations were performed with different statistical models, the most appropriate being a compressed mixed linear model (cMLM) controlling for relatedness and population structure...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894447/differentiating-familial-neuropathies-from-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Brett J Bordini, Priya Monrad
Differentiating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) from inherited neuropathies and other acquired peripheral neuropathies requires understanding the atypical presentations of GBS and its variant forms, as well as historical and physical features suggestive of inherited neuropathies. GBS is typically characterized by the acute onset of ascending flaccid paralysis, areflexia, and dysesthesia secondary to peripheral nerve fiber demyelination. The disorder usually arises following a benign gastrointestinal or respiratory illness, is monophasic, reaches a nadir with several weeks, and responds to immunomodulatory therapy...
February 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888275/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-following-campylobacter-jejuni-gastroenteritis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Simone Marziali, Eliseo Picchi, Francesca Di Giuliano, Simone Altobelli, Giorgia Mataluni, Girolama Marfia, Francesco Garaci, Roberto Floris
We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with a diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni, which is implicated in various human pathologies regarding the central nervous system (CNS) with acute course like Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BEE), acute transverse myelitis (ATM) as well as ADEM. These conditions are caused by cross-reactivity between Campylobacter's epitopes and cells of the CNS that causes an immunomediated inflammatory demyelination of the CNS...
November 25, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886294/the-formation-of-h-bubbles-at-small-angle-tilt-grain-boundaries-in-w-films
#19
Zhihai He, H Y He, R Ding, B C Pan, J L Chen
The accumulation of H at the small-angle tilt grain boundary (GB) in the W(001) surface is investigated, on the basis of the first-principles calculations. By exploring the solution and diffusion behaviors of H at the GB, we find that the small-angle GB can capture the H atoms nearby, serving as a nucleation site of H bubbles. With the increasing number of trapped H atoms, the GB expands gradually, and the GBs can be unripped with an areal density of H up to 5.0 × 10(15) H atoms per cm(2), leading to the formation of H bubbles...
November 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885699/strains-of-group-b-streptococci-from-septic-patients-induce-platelet-activation-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#20
Xiaoyan Liu, Hongyun Liu, Xianming Luo, Ping Zhang, Yanmin Gao, Shuangfeng Xie, Kang Xu, Jianxing Chang, Liping Ma
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes life-threatening bacterial sepsis, especially in newborns and pregnant women. Patients suffering from sepsis often display low platelet counts, characterized by thrombocytopenia, because of platelet activation. In the present study, the roles of six GBS strains from septic patients in platelet aggregation, as well as the underlying mechanisms, were investigated. Incubation of platelets with three of the strains induced platelet aggregation, increased the secretion of cellular adhesin molecule CD62P and activation of GPIIb/IIIa...
November 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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