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Peta-Gaye Gillian Burnett, Lester Warren Young, Clara Marisa Olivia, Pramodkumar Dinkar Jadhav, Denis Paskal Okinyo-Owiti, Martin John Tarsisius Reaney
BACKGROUND: Flaxseed orbitides are homodetic plant cyclic peptides arising from ribosomal synthesis and post-translation modification (N to C cyclization), and lacking cysteine double bonds (Nat Prod Rep 30:108-160, 2013). Screening for orbitide composition was conducted on the flax core collection (FCC) grown at both Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and Morden, Manitoba over three growing seasons (2009-2011). Two flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions 'Hollandia' (CN 98056) and 'Z 11637' (CN 98150) produce neither [1-9-NαC]-linusorb B2 (3) nor [1-9-NαC]-linusorb B3 (1)...
May 21, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Ramin Ansari, Mohammad Mehdi Zarshenas, Amir Hossein Dadbakhsh
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Linum usitatissimum L., known as common Flax or linseed, from the family Linnaceae, has long been cultivated in different nations due to its applications in medicine and industry. The present study aims to collect nearly all available information about chemical constituents of Flax, as well as pharmacological properties and confirmed clinical usages of it. METHODS: We searched through databases such as Scopus and PubMed for relevant literatures using the keywords: (Linum usitatissimum), (pharmacology) and (phytochemical) from the beginning to 13 Aug 2017...
May 20, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Jennifer Yourkavitch, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Valerie L Flax, Elialilia S Okello, John Kadzandira, Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Alister C Munthali, James C Thomas
Retention in care remains an important issue for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs according to WHO guidelines, formerly called the "Option B+" approach. The objective of this study was to examine how poverty, gender, and health system factors interact to influence women's participation in PMTCT services. We used qualitative research, literature, and hypothesized variable connections to diagram causes and effects in causal loop models. We found that many factors, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, service design and quality, stigma, disclosure, spouse/partner influence, decision-making autonomy, and knowledge about PMTCT, influence psychosocial health, which in turn affects women's participation in PMTCT services...
2018: PloS One
N Kobyliak, T Falalyeyeva, N Boyko, O Tsyryuk, T Beregova, L Ostapchenko
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial interaction between the microbiota and humans is how bacteria contained within the gut 'talk' to the immune system and in this landscape, probiotics and nutraceuticals play a major role. The study aims to determine whether probiotics plus nutraceuticals such as smectite or omega-3 are superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity model in rats. METHODS: Totally, 75 rats divided into five groups were included (n=15, in each)...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Camille Bénard, Sébastien Acket, Yannick Rossez, Olivier Fernandez, Thierry Berton, Yves Gibon, Cécile Cabasson
The way plants are grown and samples are harvested, prepared, and extracted has a profound impact on the output of a metabolomics experiment. In this chapter, we detail the experimental procedures from plant cultivation to extract preparation, in order to avoid difficulties that could result in contamination or undesired changes of the analytes. Two plant organs are mentioned as examples: tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum). Extractions designed for the untargeted analysis of semipolar compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and targeted analysis of fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) are described...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
María B Garavaglia, Vanesa Rodríguez García, María E Zapata, Alicia Rovirosa, Verónica González, Florencia Flax Marcó, Esteban Carmuega
The availability of food and beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) has increased in recent years. OBJECTIVES: To estimate NNSs consumption among children and adolescents in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, the prevalence of a daily intake higher than acceptable, and the main food and beverages contributing to it. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive study about the information collected in the First Food and Nutritional/Nutrition Survey of Buenos Aires City, which was conducted in 2011 and included 2664 children and adolescents aged 2-18 years...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Cyrielle Corbin, Samantha Drouet, Lucija Markulin, Daniel Auguin, Éric Lainé, Laurence B Davin, John R Cort, Norman G Lewis, Christophe Hano
Identification of DIR encoding genes in flax genome. Analysis of phylogeny, gene/protein structures and evolution. Identification of new conserved motifs linked to biochemical functions. Investigation of spatio-temporal gene expression and response to stress. Dirigent proteins (DIRs) were discovered during 8-8' lignan biosynthesis studies, through identification of stereoselective coupling to afford either (+)- or (-)-pinoresinols from E-coniferyl alcohol. DIRs are also involved or potentially involved in terpenoid, allyl/propenyl phenol lignan, pterocarpan and lignin biosynthesis...
April 30, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Guilherme Apolinario Testoni, Sihwan Kim, Anurag Pisupati, Chung Hae Park
We propose a new model for the capillary rise of liquid in flax fibers whose diameter is changed by liquid absorption. Liquid absorption into the flax fibers is taken into account in a new modified Washburn equation by considering the mass of the liquid absorbed inside the fibers as well as that imbibed between the fibers. The change of permeability and hydraulic radius of pores in a fibrous medium due to the fiber swelling is modeled by a statistical approach considering a non-uniform distribution of flax fiber diameter...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Olga N Makshakova, Dzhigangir A Faizullin, Polina V Mikshina, Tatyana A Gorshkova, Yuriy F Zuev
Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), a polysaccharide found in different types of plant cell walls, fulfills specific functions, the structural basis of which remains unclear. Generalized 2D correlation FTIR spectroscopy with dehydration was employed to reveal the structure and interactions in flax RG-I solution and microwave treated gel. Varying water content allowed emphasizing a role of solvent in maintaining different structures. In the gel, 2D correlation maps prove the existence of a conformationally uniform highly hydrated structure...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Frank M You, Jin Xiao, Pingchuan Li, Zhen Yao, Gaofeng Jia, Liqiang He, Tingting Zhu, Ming-Cheng Luo, Xiue Wang, Michael K Deyholos, Sylvie Cloutier
Genomes of varying sizes have been sequenced with next generation sequencing platforms. However, most reference sequences include draft unordered scaffolds containing chimera caused by mis-scaffolding. A BioNano genome (BNG) optical map was constructed to improve the previously sequenced flax genome (Linum usitatissimum L., 2n=30, ~373 Mb), which consisted of 3,852 scaffolds larger than 1 kb and totalling 300.6 Mb. The high resolution BNG map of cv. CDC Bethune totalled 317 Mb and consisted of 251 BNG contigs with an N50 of 2...
April 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Katarzyna Siegel-Hertz, Véronique Edel-Hermann, Emilie Chapelle, Sébastien Terrat, Jos M Raaijmakers, Christian Steinberg
Disease-suppressive soils are soils in which specific soil-borne plant pathogens cause only limited disease although the pathogen and susceptible host plants are both present. Suppressiveness is in most cases of microbial origin. We conducted a comparative metabarcoding analysis of the taxonomic diversity of fungal and bacterial communities from suppressive and non-suppressive (conducive) soils as regards Fusarium wilts sampled from the Châteaurenard region (France). Bioassays based on Fusarium wilt of flax confirmed that disease incidence was significantly lower in the suppressive soil than in the conducive soil...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marcin Andrzej Kurek, Jarosław Wyrwisz, Sabina Karp, Agnieszka Wierzbicka
In this study, some dietary fiber (DF) sources were investigated as fortifiers of wheat bread: oat (OB), flax (FB), and apple (AB). Adding oat and flax fibers to bread significantly changed the fatty acid profiles. OB was highest in oleic acid (33.83% of lipids) and linoleic acid (24.31% of lipids). Only in FB, γ-linolenic fatty acid was present in a significant amount-18.32%. The bioaccessibility trails revealed that the DF slow down the intake of saturated fatty acids. PUFA were least bioaccessible from all fatty acids groups in the range of (72% in OB to 87% in FB)...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yong-Bi Fu, Zaheer Ahmed, Hui Yang, Carolee Horbach
In a search for useful seed aging signals as biomarkers for seed viability prediction, we conducted an experiment using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to analyze morphological and molecular changes in naturally aged (NA) and artificially aged (AA) flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds. A total of 2546 sections were performed from 112 seeds of 12 NA and AA seed samples with variable germination rates...
April 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Paushali Chaudhury, Patrick Tripp, Sonja-Verena Albers
The archaellum assembly machinery and its filament consist of seven proteins in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. We have so far expressed, purified, and biochemically characterized four of these archaellum subunits, namely, FlaX, FlaH, FlaI, and FlaF. FlaX, FlaH, and FlaI tightly interact and form the archaellum motor complex important for archaellum assembly and rotation. We have previously shown that FlaH forms an inner ring within a very stable FlaX ring, and therefore FlaX is believed to provide the scaffold for the assembly of the archaellum motor complex...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Edward P Manning, Priti L Mishall, Maxwell D Weidmann, Herschel Flax, Sam Lan, Mark Erlich, William B Burton, Todd R Olson, Sherry A Downie
Medical students are expected to perform common procedures such as suturing on patients during their third-year clerkships. However, these experiences are often viewed by medical students as stressors rather than opportunities for learning. The source of this stress is the lack of instruction on common procedures prior to being asked to observe or perform the procedure on a patient. First-time exposures to procedures in stressful environments may result in decreased confidence in medical students and decrease the frequency with which they perform these procedures in the future...
March 30, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Raúl Domínguez-Perles, Ángel Abellán, Daniel León, Federico Ferreres, Alexander Guy, Camille Oger, Jean Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Ángel Gil-Izquierdo
Phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) are prostaglandin-like compounds, contributing to defense signaling and prevention of cellular damage. These plant oxylipins result from autoxidation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and have been proposed as new bioactive compounds due to their structural analogies with isoprostanes (IsoPs) and prostanoids derived from arachidonic acid in mammals, which have demonstrated diverse biological activities. The present work assesses a wide range of vegetable oils - including extra virgin olive oils (n = 7) and flax, sesame, argan, safflower seed, grapeseed, and palm oils - for their content of PhytoPs and PhytoFs...
May 2018: Food Research International
Aleksandra Boba, Kamil Kostyn, Marta Preisner, Wioleta Wojtasik, Jan Szopa, Anna Kulma
Previously we described flax plants with expression of Arabidopsis lycopene β-cyclase (lcb) gene in which decreased expression of the endogenous lcb and increased resistance to fungal pathogen was observed. We suggested that co-suppression was responsible for the change. In this study we investigated the molecular basis of the observed effect in detail. We found that methylation changes in the Lulcb gene body might be responsible for repression of the gene. Treatment with azacitidine (DNA methylation inhibitor) confirmed the results...
March 21, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Robert G Elkin, Alexandra N Kukorowski, Yun Ying, Kevin J Harvatine
Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX)...
March 22, 2018: Lipids
Elías López-Alba, Sebastian Schmeer, Francisco Díaz
The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack) made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials...
March 13, 2018: Materials
Gurudatt Pavagada Sudarshan, Manoj Kulkarni, Leonid Akhov, Paula Ashe, Hamid Shaterian, Sylvie Cloutier, Gordon Rowland, Yangdou Wei, Gopalan Selvaraj
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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