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Utility weights cardiovascular disease

Marie Ito, Tetsuhiro Tanaka
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), which is specifically expressed on the apical side of proximal tubular cells, is involved in the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the glomeruli, and its inhibitors are gaining publicity as potent antihyperglycemic drugs. In some clinical trials, SGLT2 inhibitors exerted cardiovascular and kidney protective effects, which appeared to be partly independent of the original glucose-lowering effect. SGLT2 inhibitors have both direct and indirect renoprotective effects...
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
Grith L Sorensen
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Yong-Deok Jeon, Sa-Haeng Kang, Kwang-Hyun Moon, Jeong-Ho Lee, Dae-Geun Kim, Wook Kim, Jong-Sung Kim, Byung-Yong Ahn, Jong-Sik Jin
The number of diabetic patients worldwide is increasing, and complications such as stroke and cardiovascular disease are becoming a serious cause of death. Diabetes mellitus is classified into two types according to the etiopathogenic mechanism and insulin dependence. Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is caused by damage and destruction of pancreatic β cells that produce insulin. It is a disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Aronia berry has been used as a medicinal food in Europe...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Justin D Smith, Cady Berkel, Neil Jordan, David C Atkins, Shrikanth S Narayanan, Carlos Gallo, Kevin J Grimm, Thomas J Dishion, Anne M Mauricio, Jenna Rudo-Stern, Mariah K Meachum, Emily Winslow, Meg M Bruening
BACKGROUND: Pediatric obesity is a multi-faceted public health concern that can lead to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and early mortality. Small changes in diet, physical activity, or BMI can significantly reduce the possibility of developing cardiometabolic risk factors. Family-based behavioral interventions are an underutilized, evidence-based approach that have been found to significantly prevent excess weight gain and obesity in children and adolescents. Poor program availability, low participation rates, and non-adherence are noted barriers to positive outcomes...
January 15, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Mark Houston
Numerous clinical trials suggest that we have reached a limit in our ability to decrease the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) utilizing the traditional diagnostic evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies for the top five cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking. About 80% of heart disease (heart attacks, angina, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure) can be prevented by optimal nutrition, optimal exercise, optimal weight and body composition, mild alcohol intake and avoiding smoking...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Mark Houston, Deanna Minich, Stephen T Sinatra, Joel K Kahn, Mimi Guarneri
One of the greatest threats to mortality in industrialized societies continues to be coronary heart disease (CHD). Moreover, the ability to decrease the incidence of CHD has reached a limit utilizing traditional diagnostic evaluations and prevention and treatment strategies for the top five cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and smoking). It is well known that about 80% of CHD can be prevented with optimal nutrition, coupled with exercise, weight management, mild alcohol intake, and smoking cessation...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
W Reid Bolus, Kristin R Peterson, Merla J Hubler, Arion J Kennedy, Marnie L Gruen, Alyssa H Hasty
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disorder that has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and leads to increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, asthma, certain cancers, and various other diseases. Obesity and its comorbidities are associated with impaired adipose tissue (AT) function. In the last decade, eosinophils have been identified as regulators of proper AT function. Our study aimed to determine whether normalizing the number of AT eosinophils in obese mice, to those of lean healthy mice, would reduce obesity and/or improve metabolic fitness...
December 16, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
Xin Zhou, Fengying Ren, Hong Wei, Liyun Liu, Tao Shen, Shijun Xu, Jiangping Wei, Jiayue Ren, Hengfan Ni
BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia characterized of elevated serum lipid levels is a prevalent disease frequently resulting in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Berberine and evodiamine are herbal products of traditional Chinese herb Coptis chinensis and Evodia rutaecarpa, which are indicated to exert regulation of lipid metabolism. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the lipid-lowering effect of berberine and evodiamine combination in hyperlipidemic rats. METHOD: The rat model of hyperlipidemia was established by providing high-fat-diet (HFD) for 4 weeks...
December 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Mary Coughlin, Catherine L Goldie, Deborah Tregunno, Joan Tranmer, Marina Kanellos-Sutton, Sarosh Khalid-Khan
The prevalence of children and adolescents using second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has increased significantly in recent years. In this population, SGAs are used to treat mood and behavioural disorders although considered 'off-label' or not approved for these indications. Metabolic monitoring is the systematic physical health assessment of antipsychotic users utilized to detect cardiovascular and endocrine side effects and prevent adverse events such as weight gain, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidemia, and arrhythmias...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Lisa Ganguzza, Calvin Ngai, Laura Flink, Kathleen Woolf, Yu Guo, Eugenia Gianos, Joseph Burdowski, James Slater, Victor Acosta, Tamsin Shephard, Binita Shah
BACKGROUND: Diet is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, dietary patterns are historically difficult to capture in the clinical setting. Healthcare providers need assessment tools that can quickly summarize dietary patterns. Research should evaluate the effectiveness of these tools, such as Rate Your Plate (RYP), in the clinical setting. HYPOTHESIS: RYP diet quality scores are associated with measures of body adiposity in patients referred for coronary angiography...
November 23, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
Meghan Rombeek, Stefanie De Jesus, Luis Altamirano-Diaz, Eva Welisch, Harry Prapavessis, Jamie A Seabrook, Kambiz Norozi
Background: Both obesity and congenital heart disease (CHD) are risk factors for the long-term cardiovascular health of children and adolescents. The addition of smart mobile technology to conventional lifestyle counseling for weight management offers great potential to appeal to technologically literate youth and can address a large geographical area with minimal burden to participants. This pilot study seeks to examine the influence of a 1-year lifestyle intervention on nutrition and physical activity-related health outcomes in overweight or obese children and adolescents with CHD...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Chao He, Shiyan Wu, Yingying Zhao, Zheng Li, Yanyan Zhang, Jia Le, Lei Wang, Siyang Wan, Changqing Li, Yindong Li, Xinying Sun
BACKGROUND: Being overweight and obese are major risk factors for noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high throughout the world and these issues are very serious in the Shunyi District in China. As mobile technologies have rapidly developed, mobile apps such as WeChat are well accepted and have the potential to improve health behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile app (WeChat) as an intervention on weight loss behavior...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
James Murphy, Marianna Gaca, Frazer Lowe, Emmanuel Minet, Damien Breheny, Krishna Prasad, Oscar Camacho, Ian M Fearon, Chuan Liu, Christopher Wright, Kevin McAdam, Christopher Proctor
Cigarette smoking causes many human diseases including cardiovascular disease, lung disease and cancer. Novel tobacco products with reduced yields of toxicants compared to cigarettes, such as tobacco-heating products, snus and electronic cigarettes, hold great potential for reducing the harms associated with tobacco use. In the UK several public health agencies have advocated a potential role for novel products in tobacco harm reduction. Public Health England has stated that "The current best estimate is that e-cigarettes are around 95% less harmful than smoking" and the Royal College of Physicians has urged public health to "Promote e-cigarettes widely as substitute for smoking"...
September 22, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Peita Price, Mark Tacey, Voula Koufariotis, Daniela Stramandinoli, Ruth Vincent, Leeanne Grigg, Dominica Zentner
BACKGROUND: The Hospital Admission Risk Program (HARP) Cardiac Coach Program at Royal Melbourne Hospital has evolved to include a Greek and Italian service, developed in response to the diverse local community and supported by evidence that Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) groups both perceive health and respond to health care services and information, differently. This paper aims to evaluate if a phone-based cardiac coaching program can be adapted to the Greek and Italian populations using the English cohort as a comparator...
August 14, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Sanjeewa Kularatna, Joshua Byrnes, Yih Kai Chan, Chantal F Ski, Melinda Carrington, David Thompson, Simon Stewart, Paul A Scuffham
PURPOSE: Multi-attribute utility instruments (MAUIs) are widely used to measure utility weights. This study sought to compare utility weights of two popular MAUIs, the EQ-5D-3L and the SF-6D, and inform researchers in the selection of generic MAUI for use with cardiovascular (CVD) patients. METHODS: Data were collected in the Young@Heart study, a randomised controlled trial of a nurse-led multidisciplinary home-based intervention compared to standard usual care...
December 2017: Quality of Life Research
Linmu Chen, Jun Zhang, Xiao Deng, Yan Liu, Xi Yang, Qiong Wu, Chao Yu
The leading cause of morbidity and mortality is the result of cardiovascular disease, mainly atherosclerosis. The formation of macrophage foam cells by ingesting ox-LDL and focal retention in the subendothelial space are the hallmarks of the early atherosclerotic lesion. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is a low-molecular weight lysophospholipid enriched in oxidized LDL, exerts a range of effects on the cardiovascular system. Previous reports show that LPA increases the uptake of ox-LDL to promote the formation of foam cells...
September 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Faisal Saed Alharthi, Jamilah Saad Alrahimi, Abdulrahman Ali Alotaibi, Daniah Ahmed Alhamdi, Bashair Mohammed Ibrahim, Yasmina Aymen Badeeb
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the first leading cause of death worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, CVDs are the major killers with a mortality rate of 46%. CVD risk factors are not exclusive to old populations. Thus, the purpose of this study was to approximately find the prevalence of these risk factors, particularly high blood pressure (HBP), high blood glucose (HBG), obesity, and smoking. METHODS: This cross-sectional was conducted in May 2016 and took place in the Ambulatory Care Center of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah...
June 2017: Cardiology Research
Giles Bruno Sioen, Makiko Sekiyama, Toru Terada, Makoto Yokohari
Background: Post-earthquake studies from around the world have reported that survivors relying on emergency food for prolonged periods of time experienced several dietary related health problems. The present study aimed to quantify the potential nutrient production of urban agricultural vegetables and the resulting nutritional self-sufficiency throughout the year for mitigating post-disaster situations. Methods: We estimated the vegetable production of urban agriculture throughout the year. Two methods were developed to capture the production from professional and hobby farms: Method I utilized secondary governmental data on agricultural production from professional farms, and Method II was based on a supplementary spatial analysis to estimate the production from hobby farms...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lili Wang, Andrew J Palmer, Petr Otahal, Fiona Cocker, Kristy Sanderson
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to understand the patterns of health care service utilization in employees with multimorbidity. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2011 to 2012 cross-sectional Australian National Health Survey. Past-month health care service utilization was collected for each chronic condition from a pre-specified list. Descriptive, logistic, and Poisson regression analyses were used. The data were weighted to produce nationally representative estimates...
August 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Baskaran Thyagarajan, Michelle T Foster
An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Adiposity associated with obesity progressively causes inflammation, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Excessive dietary intake of fat results in its accumulation and storage in the white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas energy expenditure by fat utilization and oxidation predominately occurs in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recently, the presence of a third type of fat, referred to as beige or brite (brown in white), has been recognized in certain kinds of WAT depots...
June 23, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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