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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922824/impaired-energy-metabolism-of-senescent-muscle-satellite-cells-is-associated-with-oxidative-modifications-of-glycolytic-enzymes
#1
Martín A Baraibar, Janek Hyzewicz, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Carina Prip-Buus, Gillian Butler-Browne, Bertrand Friguet
Accumulation of oxidized proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging. Adult muscle stem cell (or satellite cell) replication and differentiation is compromised with age contributing to sarcopenia. However, the molecular events related to satellite cell dysfunction during aging are not completely understood. In the present study we have addressed the potential impact of oxidatively modified proteins on the altered metabolism of senescent human satellite cells. By using a modified proteomics analysis we have found that proteins involved in protein quality control and glycolytic enzymes are the main targets of oxidation (carbonylation) and modification with advanced glycation/lipid peroxidation end products during the replicative senescence of satellite cells...
December 4, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920196/regulation-of-turkey-myogenic-satellite-cell-migration-by-micrornas-mir-128-and-mir-24
#2
S G Velleman, R L Harding
Myogenic satellite cells are an adult stem cell responsible for all post-hatch muscle growth in poultry. As a stem cell population, satellite cells are highly heterogeneous, but the origin of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Heterogeneity is, in part, regulated by gene expression. One method of endogenous gene regulation that may contribute to heterogeneity is microRNAs (miRNAs). Two miRNAs previously shown to regulate poultry myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, miR-128 and miR-24, were studied to determine if they also affected satellite cell migration...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919235/geographical-distribution-of-typhoid-risk-factors-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Jung-Seok Lee, Vijayalaxmi V Mogasale, Vittal Mogasale, Kangsung Lee
BACKGROUND: While the global burden of typhoid fever has been often brought up for attention, the detailed surveillance information has only been available for the limited number of countries. As more efficacious vaccines will be available in the near future, it is essential to understand the geographically diverse patterns of typhoid risk levels and to prioritize the right populations for vaccination to effectively control the disease. METHODS: A composite index called the typhoid risk factor (TRF) index was created based on data with the Global Positioning System (GPS)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919074/epigenetic-stress-responses-induce-muscle-stem-cell-ageing-by-hoxa9-developmental-signals
#4
Simon Schwörer, Friedrich Becker, Christian Feller, Ali H Baig, Ute Köber, Henriette Henze, Johann M Kraus, Beibei Xin, André Lechel, Daniel B Lipka, Christy S Varghese, Manuel Schmidt, Remo Rohs, Ruedi Aebersold, Kay L Medina, Hans A Kestler, Francesco Neri, Julia von Maltzahn, Stefan Tümpel, K Lenhard Rudolph
The functionality of stem cells declines during ageing, and this decline contributes to ageing-associated impairments in tissue regeneration and function. Alterations in developmental pathways have been associated with declines in stem-cell function during ageing, but the nature of this process remains poorly understood. Hox genes are key regulators of stem cells and tissue patterning during embryogenesis with an unknown role in ageing. Here we show that the epigenetic stress response in muscle stem cells (also known as satellite cells) differs between aged and young mice...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918914/transformation-of-jaw-muscle-satellite-cells-to-cardiomyocytes
#5
Randall S Daughters, Susan A Keirstead, Jonathan M W Slack
In the embryo a population of progenitor cells known as the second heart field forms not just parts of the heart but also the jaw muscles of the head. Here we show that it is possible to take skeletal muscle satellite cells from jaw muscles of the adult mouse and to direct their differentiation to become heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). This is done by exposing the cells to extracellular factors similar to those which heart progenitors would experience during normal embryonic development. By contrast, cardiac differentiation does not occur at all from satellite cells isolated from trunk and limb muscles, which originate from the somites of the embryo...
December 2, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914789/long-term-effects-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-satellite-glial-cells-in-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglia
#6
E Blum, P Procacci, V Conte, P Sartori, M Hanani
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been used extensively to study neuroinflammation, but usually its effects were examined acutely (24h <). We have shown previously that a single intraperitoneal LPS injection activated satellite glial cells (SGCs) in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and altered several functional parameters in these cells for at least one week. Here we asked whether the LPS effects would persist for 1 month. We injected mice with a single LPS dose and tested pain behavior, assessed SGCs activation in DRG using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining, and injected a fluorescent dye intracellularly to study intercellular coupling...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910868/relationship-between-nanotopographical-alignment-and-stem-cell-fate-with-live-imaging-and-shape-analysis
#7
Peter Newman, Jorge Luis Galenano-Niño, Pamela Graney, Joselito M Razal, Andrew I Minett, João Ribas, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Maté Biro, Hala Zreiqat
The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908291/muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-modulates-satellite-cell-number-and-proliferation-by-remodeling-the-stem-cell-niche
#8
Ivana Dinulovic, Regula Furrer, Markus Beer, Arnaud Ferry, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin
BACKGROUND: The myogenic capacity of satellite cells (SCs), adult muscle stem cells, is influenced by aging, exercise, and other factors. In skeletal muscle, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of oxidative metabolism and endurance training adaptation. However, a link between PGC-1α and SC behavior remains unexplored. METHODS: We have now studied SC function in a PGC-1α fiber-specific gain-of-function animal model...
December 2, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906115/established-cell-surface-markers-efficiently-isolate-highly-overlapping-populations-of-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-by-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting
#9
Claire C Maesner, Albert E Almada, Amy J Wagers
BACKGROUND: Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) has enabled the direct isolation of highly enriched skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell, populations from postnatal tissue. Several distinct surface marker panels containing different positively selecting surface antigens have been used to distinguish muscle satellite cells from other non-myogenic cell types. Because functional and transcriptional heterogeneity is known to exist within the satellite cell population, a direct comparison of results obtained in different laboratories has been complicated by a lack of clarity as to whether commonly utilized surface marker combinations select for distinct or overlapping subsets of the satellite cell pool...
November 8, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906112/chromatin-wide-and-transcriptome-profiling-integration-uncovers-p38%C3%AE-mapk-as-a-global-regulator-of-skeletal-muscle-differentiation
#10
Jessica Segalés, Abul B M M K Islam, Roshan Kumar, Qi-Cai Liu, Pedro Sousa-Victor, F Jeffrey Dilworth, Esteban Ballestar, Eusebio Perdiguero, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves
BACKGROUND: Extracellular stimuli induce gene expression responses through intracellular signaling mediators. The p38 signaling pathway is a paradigm of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family that, although originally identified as stress-response mediator, contributes to establishing stem cell differentiation fates. p38α is central for induction of the differentiation fate of the skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) through not fully characterized mechanisms. METHODS: To investigate the global gene transcription program regulated by p38α during satellite cell differentiation (myogenesis), and to specifically address whether this regulation occurs through direct action of p38α on gene promoters, we performed a combination of microarray gene expression and genome-wide binding analyses...
March 15, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906106/loss-of-niche-satellite-cell-interactions-in-syndecan-3-null-mice-alters-muscle-progenitor-cell-homeostasis-improving-muscle-regeneration
#11
Addolorata Pisconti, Glen B Banks, Farshad Babaeijandaghi, Nicole Dalla Betta, Fabio M V Rossi, Jeffrey S Chamberlain, Bradley B Olwin
BACKGROUND: The skeletal muscle stem cell niche provides an environment that maintains quiescent satellite cells, required for skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Syndecan-3, a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed in satellite cells, supports communication with the niche, providing cell interactions and signals to maintain quiescent satellite cells. RESULTS: Syndecan-3 ablation unexpectedly improves regeneration in repeatedly injured muscle and in dystrophic mice, accompanied by the persistence of sublaminar and interstitial, proliferating myoblasts...
October 4, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906101/characterization-of-a-dmd-egfp-reporter-mouse-as-a-tool-to-investigate-dystrophin-expression
#12
Mina V Petkova, Susanne Morales-Gonzales, Karima Relizani, Esther Gill, Franziska Seifert, Josefine Radke, Werner Stenzel, Luis Garcia, Helge Amthor, Markus Schuelke
BACKGROUND: Dystrophin is a rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein that provides sarcolemmal stability as a structural link between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix via the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC). Mutations in the dystrophin-encoding DMD gene cause X-linked dystrophinopathies with variable phenotypes, the most severe being Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) characterized by progressive muscle wasting and fibrosis. However, dystrophin deficiency does not only impair the function of skeletal and heart muscle but may also affect other organ systems such as the brain, eye, and gastrointestinal tract...
July 5, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906065/dystrophin-deficient-dogs-with-reduced-myostatin-have-unequal-muscle-growth-and-greater-joint-contractures
#13
Joe N Kornegay, Daniel J Bogan, Janet R Bogan, Jennifer L Dow, Jiahui Wang, Zheng Fan, Naili Liu, Leigh C Warsing, Robert W Grange, Mihye Ahn, Cynthia J Balog-Alvarez, Steven W Cotten, Monte S Willis, Candice Brinkmeyer-Langford, Hongtu Zhu, Joe Palandra, Carl A Morris, Martin A Styner, Kathryn R Wagner
BACKGROUND: Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition...
April 4, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906051/the-lysine-methyltransferase-ehmt2-g9a-is-dispensable-for-skeletal-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#14
Regan-Heng Zhang, Robert N Judson, David Y Liu, Jürgen Kast, Fabio M V Rossi
BACKGROUND: Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (G9a/Ehmt2) is the main enzyme responsible for the apposition of H3K9 di-methylation on histones. Due to its dual role as an epigenetic regulator and in the regulation of non-histone proteins through direct methylation, G9a has been implicated in a number of biological processes relevant to cell fate control. Recent reports employing in vitro cell lines indicate that Ehmt2 methylates MyoD to repress its transcriptional activity and therefore its ability to induce differentiation of activated myogenic cells...
May 27, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899900/fiber-type-specific-satellite-cell-content-in-cyclists-following-heavy-training-with-carbohydrate-and-carbohydrate-protein-supplementation
#15
Alec I McKenzie, Andrew C D'Lugos, Michael J Saunders, Keith D Gworek, Nicholas D Luden
The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO). In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n = 8) performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto "control" condition) and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT-120% increase in average training duration) followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT-reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898654/effect-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-satellite-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-immobilization-induced-muscle-atrophy-in-rats
#16
Tie-Shan Li, Hao Shi, Lin Wang, Chuanzhu Yan
BACKGROUND Muscle atrophy due to disuse occurs along with adverse physiological and functional changes, but bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) may be able to act as muscle satellite cells to restore myofibers. Thus, we investigated whether MSCs could enhance the proliferation of satellite cells and suppress myonuclear apoptosis during immobilization. MATERIAL AND METHODS We isolated, purified, amplified, and identified MSCs. Rats (n=48) were randomized into 3 groups: WB group (n=16), IM-PBS group (n=16), and IM-MSC (n=16)...
November 29, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897408/muscle-fibre-capillarization-is-a-critical-factor-in-muscle-fibre-hypertrophy-during-resistance-exercise-training-in-older-men
#17
Tim Snijders, Joshua P Nederveen, Sophie Joanisse, Marika Leenders, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon, Gianni Parise
BACKGROUND: Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895556/neurosensory-differentiation-and-innervation-patterning-in-the-human-fetal-vestibular-end-organs-between-the-gestational-weeks-8-12
#18
Lejo Johnson Chacko, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Helga Fritsch, Helge Rask-Andersen, Michael J F Blumer, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Rudolf Glueckert
Balance orientation depends on the precise operation of the vestibular end organs and the vestibular ganglion neurons. Previous research on the assemblage of the neuronal network in the developing fetal vestibular organ has been limited to data from animal models. Insights into the molecular expression profiles and signaling moieties involved in embryological development of the human fetal inner ear have been limited. We present an investigation of the cells of the vestibular end organs with specific focus on the hair cell differentiation and innervation pattern using an uninterrupted series of unique specimens from gestational weeks 8-12...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893298/replication-checkpoint-suppression-and-structure-of-centromeric-dna
#19
Francesco Romeo, Lucia Falbo, Vincenzo Costanzo
Human centromeres contain large amounts of repetitive DNA sequences known as α satellite DNA, which can be difficult to replicate and whose functional role is unclear. Recently, we have characterized protein composition, structural organization and checkpoint response to stalled replication forks of centromeric chromatin reconstituted in Xenopus laevis egg extract. We showed that centromeric DNA has high affinity for SMC2-4 subunits of condensins and for CENP-A, it is enriched for DNA repair factors and suppresses the ATR checkpoint to ensure its efficient replication...
November 28, 2016: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889452/an-rb-ezh2-complex-mediates-silencing-of-repetitive-dna-sequences
#20
Charles A Ishak, Aren E Marshall, Daniel T Passos, Carlee R White, Seung J Kim, Matthew J Cecchini, Sara Ferwati, William A MacDonald, Christopher J Howlett, Ian D Welch, Seth M Rubin, Mellissa R W Mann, Frederick A Dick
Repetitive genomic regions include tandem sequence repeats and interspersed repeats, such as endogenous retroviruses and LINE-1 elements. Repressive heterochromatin domains silence expression of these sequences through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) utilizes a cell-cycle-independent interaction with E2F1 to recruit enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) to diverse repeat sequences. These include simple repeats, satellites, LINEs, and endogenous retroviruses as well as transposon fragments...
November 12, 2016: Molecular Cell
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