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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230914/delta-like-4-activates-notch3-to-regulate-self-renewal-in-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#1
SiewHui Low, Josephine L Barnes, Peter S Zammit, Jonathan R Beauchamp
Notch signalling is essential to maintain skeletal muscle stem cells in quiescence. The precise roles of the different Notch receptors are, however, incompletely defined. Here we demonstrate a role for Notch3 in the self-renewal of muscle stem cells. We found that Notch3 is active in quiescent C2C12 reserve cells, and Notch3 over-expression and knockdown studies in C2C12 and primary satellite cells reveal a role in self-renewal. The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) is expressed by newly formed myotubes and interaction with this ligand is sufficient to maintain Notch3 activity in quiescent C2C12 reserve cells to prevent activation and progression into the cell cycle...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225183/ca2-mediates-axotomy-induced-necrosis-and-apoptosis-of-satellite-glial-cells-remote-from-the-transection-site-in-the-isolated-crayfish-mechanoreceptor
#2
Andrey Khaitin, Mikhail Rudkovskii, Anatoly Uzdensky
Severe nerve injury such as axotomy induces neuron degeneration and death of surrounding glial cells. Using a crayfish stretch receptor that consists of a single mechanoreceptor neuron enveloped by satellite glia, we showed that axotomy not only mechanically injures glial cells at the transection location, but also induces necrosis or apoptosis of satellite glial cells remote from the transection site. We studied Ca2+role in spontaneous or axotomy-induced death of remote glial cells. Stretch receptors were isolated using the original technique that kept the neuron connected to the ventral cord ganglion (control preparations)...
December 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224922/neurons-and-satellite-glial-cells-in-adult-rat-lumbar-dorsal-root-ganglia-express-connexin-36
#3
E Martha Pérez Armendariz, Monica Norcini, Beatriz Hernández-Tellez, Andrés Castell-Rodríguez, Cristina Coronel-Cruz, Raquel Guerrero Alquicira, Alexandra Sideris, Esperanza Recio-Pinto
Previous studies have shown that following peripheral nerve injury there was a downregulation of the gap junction protein connexin 36 (Cx36) in the spinal cord; however, it is not known whether Cx36 protein is expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), nor if its levels are altered following peripheral nerve injuries. Here we address these aspects in the adult rat lumbar DRG. Cx36 mRNA was detected using qRT-PCR, and Cx36 protein was identified in DRG sections using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF)...
December 7, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224337/spermidine-activated-satellite-cells-are-associated-with-hypoacetylation-in-acvr2b-and-smad3-binding-to-myogenic-genes-in-mice
#4
Luchu Zhang, Huiying Gong, Qinwei Sun, Ruqian Zhao, Yimin Jia
Spermidine is an acetyltransferase inhibitor and a specific inducer of autophagy. Recently, spermidine is identified as a potential therapeutic agent for age-related muscle atrophy and inherited myopathies. However, the effect of spermidine on non-pathological skeletal muscle remains unclear. In this study, long-term spermidine administration in mice lowered the mean cross-sectional area of the gastrocnemius muscle, and reduced the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the muscle, which was associated with ubiquitination...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#5
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215066/pharmacological-inhibition-of-rev-erb-stimulates-differentiation-inhibits-turnover-and-reduces-fibrosis-in-dystrophic-muscle
#6
Ryan D Welch, Cyrielle Billon, Aurore-Cecile Valfort, Thomas P Burris, Colin A Flaveny
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating X-linked disorder that is fatal. DMD patients lack the expression of the structural protein dystrophin caused by mutations within the DMD gene. The absence of functional dystrophin protein results in excessive damage from normal muscle use due to the compromised structural integrity of the dystrophin associated glycoprotein complex. As a result, DMD patients exhibit ongoing cycles of muscle destruction and regeneration that promote inflammation, fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell (SC) exhaustion and loss of skeletal and cardiac muscle function...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214748/alterations-in-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-regulation-of-muscle-regeneration-in-healthy-ageing-and-the-influence-of-sarcopenia
#7
Joanna Brzeszczyńska, Angelika Meyer, Robin McGregor, Alain Schilb, Simone Degen, Valentina Tadini, Neil Johns, Ramon Langen, Annemie Schols, David J Glass, Ronenn Roubenoff, James A Ross, Kenneth C H Fearon, Carolyn A Greig, Carsten Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. While all humans lose muscle with age, 2-5% of elderly adults develop functional consequences (disabilities). The aim of this study was to investigate muscle myogenesis in healthy elderly adults, with or without sarcopenia, compared with middle-aged controls using both in vivo and in vitro approaches to explore potential biomarker or causative molecular pathways associated with sarcopenic versus non-sarcopenic skeletal muscle phenotypes during ageing...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212890/starring-or-supporting-role-satellite-cells-and-skeletal-muscle-fiber-size-regulation
#8
REVIEW
Kevin A Murach, Christopher S Fry, Tyler J Kirby, Janna R Jackson, Jonah D Lee, Sarah H White, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden, John J McCarthy, Charlotte A Peterson
Recent loss-of-function studies show that satellite cell depletion does not promote sarcopenia or unloading-induced atrophy, and does not prevent regrowth. Although overload-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy is normally associated with satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion, hypertrophic adaptation proceeds in the absence of satellite cells in fully grown adult mice, but not in young growing mice. Emerging evidence also indicates that satellite cells play an important role in remodeling the extracellular matrix during hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211294/single-cell-analysis-using-hyperspectral-imaging-modalities
#9
Nishir Mehta, Shahensha Shaik, Ram Devireddy, Manas Gartia
Almost a decade ago, Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) was employed by the NASA in satellite imaging applications such as remote sensing technology. This technology has since been extensively used in the exploration of minerals, agricultural purposes, water resources, and urban development needs. Due to recent advancements in optical re-construction and imaging, HSI can now be appliedtranslated down to micro- and nano-meter scales possibly allowing for exquisite control and analysis of single cell to complex biological systems...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209817/analysis-of-road-development-and-associated-agricultural-land-use-change
#10
Hakan Alphan
Development of road network is one of the strongest drivers of habitat fragmentation. It interferes with ecological processes that are based on material and energy flows between landscape patches. Therefore, changes in temporal patterns of roads may be regarded as important landscape-level environmental indicators. The aim of this study is to analyze road development and associated agricultural land use change near the town of Erdemli located in the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The study area has witnessed an unprecedented development of agriculture since the 2000s...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208068/in-vitro-supplementation-with-the-porcine-plasma-product-betagro%C3%A2-stimulates-activity-of-porcine-fetal-myoblasts-and-neonatal-satellite-cells-in-a-divergent-manner
#11
M A Vaughn, K J Phelps, J M Gonzalez
Two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of betaGRO® supplementation on in vitro porcine fetal myoblasts (PFM) and porcine satellite cells (PSC) proliferation, fusion and myotube thickness. The PFM and PSC were isolated from the m. longissimus dorsi of day 60 of gestation fetuses and piglets within 24 h of birth, respectively. Proliferation assays were conducted as 4×3 factorial arrangements with time of culture (24, 48, 72, 96 h) and media treatment (standard porcine media supplemented with 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum (HS); HS without 10% fetal bovine serum (LS); and LS supplemented with 10 mg/ml betaGRO® (BG)) as main effects...
December 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204832/plasticity-of-the-muscle-stem-cell-microenvironment
#12
Ivana Dinulovic, Regula Furrer, Christoph Handschin
Satellite cells (SCs) are adult muscle stem cells capable of repairing damaged and creating new muscle tissue throughout life. Their functionality is tightly controlled by a microenvironment composed of a wide variety of factors, such as numerous secreted molecules and different cell types, including blood vessels, oxygen, hormones, motor neurons, immune cells, cytokines, fibroblasts, growth factors, myofibers, myofiber metabolism, the extracellular matrix and tissue stiffness. This complex niche controls SC biology-quiescence, activation, proliferation, differentiation or renewal and return to quiescence...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202822/the-p75ntr-mediated-effect-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-l6c5-myogenic-cells
#13
Alessandra de Perini, Ivan Dimauro, Guglielmo Duranti, Cristina Fantini, Neri Mercatelli, Roberta Ceci, Luigi Di Luigi, Stefania Sabatini, Daniela Caporossi
OBJECTIVE: During muscle development or regeneration, myocytes produce nerve growth factor (NGF) as well as its tyrosine-kinase and p75-neurotrophin (p75NTR) receptors. It has been published that the p75NTR receptor could represent a key regulator of NGF-mediated myoprotective effect on satellite cells, but the precise function of NGF/p75 signaling pathway on myogenic cell proliferation, survival and differentiation remains fragmented and controversial. Here, we verified the role of NGF in the growth, survival and differentiation of p75NTR-expressing L6C5 myogenic cells, specifically inquiring for the putative involvement of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) αB-crystallin and Hsp27 in these processes...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201256/neuropeptides-and-atp-signaling-in-the-trigeminal-ganglion
#14
REVIEW
Tetsuya Goto, Haruki Iwai, Eriko Kuramoto, Atsushi Yamanaka
Peripheral nociceptive stimuli from orofacial structures are largely transmitted by the trigeminal nerve. According to the peripheral noxious stimuli, neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) produce neuropeptides such as substance P, and calcitonin-gene-related peptide, etc. Beside the production of neuropeptides, there exists unique non-synaptic interaction system between maxillary and mandibular neurons in the TG. Neurons in the TG are surrounded by satellite glial cells (SGCs), which initially receive the signal from TG neurons...
November 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200998/attenuation-of-the-infiltration-of-angiotensin-ii-expressing-cd3-t-cells-and-the-modulation-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-lumbar-dorsal-root-ganglia-a-possible-mechanism-underpinning-analgesia-produced-by-ema300-an-angiotensin-ii-type-2-at2-receptor-antagonist
#15
Nemat Khan, Arjun Muralidharan, Maree T Smith
Recent preclinical and proof-of-concept clinical studies have shown promising analgesic efficacy of selective small molecule angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonists in the alleviation of peripheral neuropathic pain. However, their cellular and molecular mechanism of action requires further investigation. To address this issue, groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with fully developed unilateral hindpaw hypersensitivity, following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, received a single intraperitoneal bolus dose of the small molecule AT2 receptor antagonist, EMA300 (10 mg kg-1), or vehicle...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200997/connexin43-hemichannels-in-satellite-glial-cells-can-they-influence-sensory-neuron-activity
#16
REVIEW
Mauricio A Retamal, Manuel A Riquelme, Jimmy Stehberg, Julio Alcayaga
In this review article, we summarize the current insight on the role of Connexin- and Pannexin-based channels as modulators of sensory neurons. The somas of sensory neurons are located in sensory ganglia (i.e., trigeminal and nodose ganglia). It is well known that within sensory ganglia, sensory neurons do not form neither electrical nor chemical synapses. One of the reasons for this is that each soma is surrounded by glial cells, known as satellite glial cells (SGCs). Recent evidence shows that connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels and probably pannexons located at SGCs have an important role in paracrine communication between glial cells and sensory neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198308/payload-hardware-and-experimental-protocol-development-to-enable-future-testing-of-the-effect-of-space-microgravity-on-the-resistance-to-gentamicin-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-%C3%AF-s-deficient-mutant
#17
A C Matin, J-H Wang, Mimi Keyhan, Rachna Singh, Michael Benoit, Macarena P Parra, Michael R Padgen, Antonio J Ricco, Matthew Chin, Charlie R Friedericks, Tori N Chinn, Aaron Cohen, Michael B Henschke, Timothy V Snyder, Matthew P Lera, Shannon S Ross, Christina M Mayberry, Sungshin Choi, Diana T Wu, Ming X Tan, Travis D Boone, Christopher C Beasley, Matthew E Piccini, Stevan M Spremo
Human immune response is compromised and bacteria can become more antibiotic resistant in space microgravity (MG). We report that under low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), stationary-phase uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) become more resistant to gentamicin (Gm), and that this increase is dependent on the presence of σs (a transcription regulator encoded by the rpoS gene). UPEC causes urinary tract infections (UTIs), reported to afflict astronauts; Gm is a standard treatment, so these findings could impact astronaut health...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197032/mir-221-modulates-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-proliferation-and-differentiation
#18
Buwei Liu, Yu Shi, Hongbing He, Mingcheng Cai, Wudian Xiao, Xue Yang, Shiyi Chen, Xianbo Jia, Jie Wang, Songjia Lai
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, which play important roles in animals by targeting mRNA transcripts for translational repression. Many recent studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in the control of muscle development. In this study, the expression levels of miR-221 in different tissues and during rabbit skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs) differentiation were detected. Gene ontology term enrichment was used to predict the potential biological roles of miR-221. A synthetic miR-221 mimic and a miR-221 inhibitor were used to investigate the functions of miR-221 during SMSCs proliferation and differentiation to further verify the functions of miR-221 in muscle development...
December 1, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196559/remarkable-evolutionary-plasticity-of-centromeric-chromatin
#19
Steven Henikoff, Jitendra Thakur, Sivakanthan Kasinathan, Paul B Talbert
Centromeres were familiar to cell biologists in the late 19th century, but for most eukaryotes the basis for centromere specification has remained enigmatic. Much attention has been focused on the cenH3 (CENP-A) histone variant, which forms the foundation of the centromere. To investigate the DNA sequence requirements for centromere specification, we applied a variety of epigenomic approaches, which have revealed surprising diversity in centromeric chromatin properties. Whereas each point centromere of budding yeast is occupied by a single precisely positioned tetrameric nucleosome with one cenH3 molecule, the "regional" centromeres of fission yeast contain unphased presumably octameric nucleosomes with two cenH3s...
December 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193437/silencing-of-gelatinase-expression-delays-myoblast-differentiation-in-vitro
#20
Nowak Eliza, Gawor Marta, Ciemerych Maria Anna, Zimowska Malgorzata
Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration relies on the activation of muscle specific stem cells, i.e. satellite cells. The activation and differentiation of satellite cells into myoblasts, as well as their migration, proliferation, and fusion of mononuclear myoblasts into a functional, multi-nucleated muscle fiber, are associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) protein synthesis and degradation. The extracellular environment is dynamically adapting to the changes accompanying skeletal muscle growth or repair...
November 28, 2017: Cell Biology International
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