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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043999/study-of-global-dna-methylation-in-monozygotic-twins-with-cerebral-palsy
#1
Yuxiao Yuan
The objective of this paper is to study the global DNA Methylation in monozygotic (MZ) twins with cerebral palsy. Two pairs of twins (a cerebral palsy children, a normal child) admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were selected as subjects. The phenol-chloroform method was used to extract DNA from venous blood and micro satellite DNA genotyping technique was used to identify the eggs of the twins. DNA methylation fragments were enriched by MBD affinity column chromatography, followed by Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics analysis...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040534/macrophages-escape-klotho-gene-silencing-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-promote-muscle-growth-and-increase-satellite-cell-numbers-through-a-klotho-mediated-pathway
#2
Michelle Wehling-Henricks, Steven S Welc, Guiseppina Samengo, Chiara Rinaldi, Catherine Lindsey, Ying Wang, Jeongyoon Lee, Makoto Kuro-O, James G Tidball
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscle wasting disease in which inflammation influences the severity of pathology. We found that the onset of muscle inflammation in the mdx mouse model of DMD coincides with large increases in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα); interferon gamma (IFNγ)] and dramatic reductions of the pro-myogenic protein Klotho in muscle cells and large increases of Klotho in pro-regenerative, CD206+ macrophages. Furthermore, TNFα and IFNγ treatments reduced Klotho in muscle cells and increased Klotho in macrophages...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040223/effect-of-losartan-on-the-acute-response-of-human-elderly-skeletal-muscle-to-exercise
#3
Mette Flindt Heisterberg, Jesper L Andersen, Peter Schjerling, Jacob Bülow, Jeppe Bo Lauersen, Heidi L Roeber, Michael Kjaer, Abigail L Mackey
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) upon the response to acute heavy resistance exercise in elderly human skeletal muscle. The hypothesis was that AT1R blocking would result in a superior myogenic response accompanied by downregulation of TGF-β and upregulation of IGF-1 signalling. METHODS: 28 healthy elderly men (+64 years) were randomized into two groups, consuming either AT1R blocker (Losartan, 100mg/day) or Placebo for 18 days prior to exercise...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037777/multipotency-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-on-their-native-substrate-and-the-expression-of-connexin-43-during-adoption-of-adipogenic-and-osteogenic-fate
#4
Mohamed I Elashry, Manuela Heimann, Sabine Wenisch, Ketan Patel, Stefan Arnhold
Muscle regeneration is performed by resident muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SC). However they are multipotent, being able to adopt adipogenic and osteogenic fate under the correct stimuli. Since SC behavior can be regulated by the extra-cellular matrix, we examined the robustness of the myogenic programme of SC on their native substrate-the surface of a myofiber. We show that the native substrate supports myogenic differentiation judged by the expression of members of the Myogenic Determination Factor (MRF) family...
October 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030824/distinguishing-states-of-arrest-genome-wide-descriptions-of-cellular-quiescence-using-chip-seq-and-rna-seq-analysis
#5
Surabhi Srivastava, Hardik P Gala, Rakesh K Mishra, Jyotsna Dhawan
Regenerative potential in adult stem cells is closely associated with the establishment of-and exit from-a temporary state of quiescence. Emerging evidence not only provides a rationale for the link between lineage determination programs and cell cycle regulation but also highlights the understanding of quiescence as an actively maintained cellular program, encompassing networks and mechanisms beyond mitotic inactivity or metabolic restriction. Interrogating the quiescent genome and transcriptome using deep-sequencing technologies offers an unprecedented view of the global mechanisms governing this reversibly arrested cellular state and its importance for cell identity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030819/single-edl-myofiber-isolation-for-analyses-of-quiescent-and-activated-muscle-stem-cells
#6
Caroline E Brun, Yu Xin Wang, Michael A Rudnicki
Adult satellite cells are quiescent, but are poised for activation in response to exercise, injury, or disease allowing adult muscle growth or repair. Once activated, satellite cells proliferate extensively to produce enough myogenic progenitors in order to regenerate the muscles. In order to self-renew, a subset of activated satellite cells can resist the myogenic differentiation and return to quiescence to replenish the satellite cell pool. These cellular processes that normally occur during skeletal muscle regeneration can be recapitulated ex vivo using isolated and cultured myofibers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030569/active-gsk3%C3%AE-and-an-intact-%C3%AE-catenin-tcf-complex-are-essential-for-the-differentiation-of-human-myogenic-progenitor-cells
#7
C C Agley, F C Lewis, O Jaka, N R Lazarus, C Velloso, P Francis-West, G M Ellison-Hughes, S D R Harridge
Wnt-β-catenin signalling is essential for skeletal muscle myogenesis during development, but its role in adult human skeletal muscle remains unknown. Here we have used human primary CD56(Pos) satellite cell-derived myogenic progenitors obtained from healthy individuals to study the role of Wnt-β-catenin signalling in myogenic differentiation. We show that dephosphorylated β-catenin (active-β-catenin), the central effector of the canonical Wnt cascade, is strongly upregulated at the onset of differentiation and undergoes nuclear translocation as differentiation progresses...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030094/particulate-matter-air-pollution-physical-activity-and-systemic-inflammation-in-taiwanese-adults
#8
Zilong Zhang, Gerard Hoek, Ly-Yun Chang, Ta-Chien Chan, Cui Guo, Yuan Chieh Chuang, Jimmy Chan, Changqing Lin, Wun Kai Jiang, Yuming Guo, Roel Vermeulen, Eng-Kiong Yeoh, Tony Tam, Alexis K H Lau, Sian Griffiths, Xiang Qian Lao
BACKGROUND: The protective effects of physical activity (PA) against chronic disease can be partially ascribed to its anti-inflammatory effects. On the other hand, long-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5μm (PM2.5) may induce systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the joint effects of habitual PA and long-term exposure to PM2.5 on systemic inflammation in a large cohort of Taiwanese adults. METHODS: We studied 359,067 adult participants from a cohort consisting of Taiwanese residents who participated in a standard medical examination program from 2001 to 2014...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027940/zika-virus-persistently-and-productively-infects-primary-adult-sensory-neurons-in-vitro
#9
Brianna K Swartwout, Marta G Zlotnick, Ashley E Saver, Caroline M McKenna, Andrea S Bertke
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently surged in human populations, causing an increase in congenital and Guillain-Barré syndromes. While sexual transmission and presence of ZIKV in urine, semen, vaginal secretions, and saliva have been established, the origin of persistent virus shedding into biological secretions is not clear. Using a primary adult murine neuronal culture model, we have determined that ZIKV persistently and productively infects sensory neurons of the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, which innervate glands and mucosa of the face and the genitourinary tract, respectively, without apparent injury...
October 13, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023985/interaction-between-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-immunoreactive-neurons-and-satellite-cells-via-p2y12-r-in-the-trigeminal-ganglion-is-involved-in-neuropathic-tongue-pain-in-rats
#10
Shiori Sugawara, Shinji Okada, Ayano Katagiri, Hiroto Saito, Tatsuro Suzuki, Hiroki Komiya, Kohei Kanno, Kinuyo Ohara, Toshimitsu Iinuma, Akira Toyofuku, Koichi Iwata
The P2Y12 receptor expressed in satellite cells of the trigeminal ganglion is thought to contribute to neuropathic pain. The functional interaction between neurons and satellite cells via P2Y12 receptors and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) underlying neuropathic pain in the tongue was evaluated in this study. Expression of P2Y12 receptor was enhanced in pERK1/2-immunoreactive cells encircling trigeminal ganglion neurons after lingual nerve crush. The administration to lingual nerve crush rats of a selective P2Y12 receptor antagonist, MRS2395, attenuated tongue hypersensitivity to mechanical and heat stimulation and suppressed the increase in the relative numbers of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive neurons and neurons encircled by pERK1/2-immunoreactive cells...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023009/myogenic-satellite-cells-biological-milieu-and-possible-clinical-applications
#11
Raed S Said, Ayman G Mustafa, Hasan A Asfour, Emad I Shaqoura
Adult skeletal muscle is a post-mitotic terminally differentiated tissue that possesses an immense potential for regeneration after injury. This regeneration can be achieved by adult stem cells named satellite cells that inhabit the muscular tissue. These cells were first identified in 1961 and were described as being wedged between the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber and the surrounding basement membrane. Since their discovery, many researchers investigated their embryological origin and the exact role they play in muscle regeneration and repair...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019351/hot-news-exosomes-as-new-players-in-hiv-pathogenesis-new-data-from-the-ias-2017
#12
Eva Poveda, Michael L Freeman
Exosomes are nanovesicles that can be released into the extracellular medium by different cell types and are considered an important system of intercellular communication. In some instances, on secretion, exosomes break down and release their content into the extracellular space. Alternatively, intact exosomes can interact with other cells and discharge their content directly into the target cell cytoplasm. Exosomes are rich in endosome-associated proteins (i.e., the tetraspanin family) but also carry different molecules in their lumen including proteins, RNAs (i...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017538/hgf-potentiates-extracellular-matrix-driven-migration-of-human-myoblasts-involvement-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-mapk-erk-pathway
#13
Mariela Natacha González, Wallace de Mello, Gillian S Butler-Browne, Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa, Vincent Mouly, Wilson Savino, Ingo Riederer
BACKGROUND: The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is required for the activation of muscle progenitor cells called satellite cells (SC), plays a role in the migration of proliferating SC (myoblasts), and is present as a soluble factor during muscle regeneration, along with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. In this study, we aimed at determining whether HGF is able to interact with ECM proteins, particularly laminin 111 and fibronectin, and to modulate human myoblast migration. METHODS: We evaluated the expression of the HGF-receptor c-Met, laminin, and fibronectin receptors by immunoblotting, flow cytometry, or immunofluorescence and used Transwell assays to analyze myoblast migration on laminin 111 and fibronectin in the absence or presence of HGF...
October 10, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992061/glp-inhibits-heterochromatin-clustering-and-myogenic-differentiation-by-repressing-mecp2
#14
Min Hee Choi, Monica Palanichamy Kala, Jin Rong Ow, Vinay Kumar Rao, Sudha Suriyamurthy, Reshma Taneja
Myogenic differentiation is accompanied by alterations in the chromatin states, which permit or restrict the transcriptional machinery and thus impact distinctive gene expression profiles. The mechanisms by which higher-order chromatin remodeling is associated with gene activation and silencing during differentiation is not fully understood. In this study, we provide evidence that the euchromatic lysine methyltransferase GLP regulates heterochromatin organization and myogenic differentiation. Interestingly, GLP represses expression of the methyl-binding protein MeCP2 that induces heterochromatin clustering during differentiation...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990689/control-of-gabarap-mediated-autophagy-by-the-golgi-complex-centrosome-and-centriolar-satellites
#15
REVIEW
Justin Joachim, Sharon A Tooze
Within minutes of induction of autophagy by amino-acid starvation in mammalian cells multiple autophagosomes form throughout the cell cytoplasm. During their formation the autophagosomes sequester cytoplasmic material and deliver it to lysosomes for degradation. How these organelles can be so rapidly formed and how their formation is acutely regulated are major questions in the autophagy field. Protein and lipid trafficking from diverse cell compartments contribute membrane to, or regulate the formation of the autophagosome...
October 9, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988554/reduced-satellite-cell-density-and-myogenesis-in-wagyu-compared-with-angus-cattle-as-a-possible-explanation-of-its-high-marbling
#16
X Fu, Q Yang, B Wang, J Zhao, M Zhu, S M Parish, M Du
Mechanisms responsible for excellent marbling in Japanese black cattle, Wagyu, remain to be established. Because both muscle cells and intramuscular adipocytes are developed from mesenchymal progenitor cells during early muscle development, we hypothesized that intramuscular progenitor cells in Wagyu cattle have attenuated myogenic capacity in favor of adipogenesis, leading to high marbling but reduced muscle growth. Biceps femoris muscle biopsy samples were obtained from both Angus (n=3) and Wagyu (n=3) cattle at 12 months of age...
October 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978719/pharmacological-dual-inhibition-of-tumor-and-tumor-induced-functional-limitations-in-transgenic-model-of-breast-cancer
#17
Ruizhong Wang, Poornima Bhat-Nakshatri, Maria B Padua, Mayuri S Prasad, Manjushree Anjanappa, Max Jacobson, Courtney Finnearty, Victoria Sefcsik, Kyle McElyea, Rachael Redmond, George E Sandusky, Narsimha Penthala, Peter A Crooks, Jianguo Liu, Teresa Zimmers, Harikrishna Nakshatri
Breast cancer progression is associated with systemic effects including functional limitations and sarcopenia without the appearance of overt cachexia. Autocrine/paracrine actions of cytokines/chemokines produced by cancer cells mediate cancer progression and functional limitations. The cytokine-inducible transcription factor NF-κB could be central to this process, as it displays oncogenic functions and is integral to the Pax7:MyoD:Pgc-1β:miR-486 myogenesis axis. We tested this possibility using the MMTV-PyMT transgenic mammary tumor model and the NF-κB inhibitor dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT)...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977426/histone-h1-depletion-triggers-an-interferon-response-in-cancer-cells-via-activation-of-heterochromatic-repeats
#18
Andrea Izquierdo-Bouldstridge, Alberto Bustillos, Carles Bonet-Costa, Patricia Aribau-Miralbés, Daniel García-Gomis, Marc Dabad, Anna Esteve-Codina, Laura Pascual-Reguant, Sandra Peiró, Manel Esteller, Matthew Murtha, Lluís Millán-Ariño, Albert Jordan
Histone H1 has seven variants in human somatic cells and contributes to chromatin compaction and transcriptional regulation. Knock-down (KD) of each H1 variant in breast cancer cells results in altered gene expression and proliferation differently in a variant specific manner with H1.2 and H1.4 KDs being most deleterious. Here we show combined depletion of H1.2 and H1.4 has a strong deleterious effect resulting in a strong interferon (IFN) response, as evidenced by an up-regulation of many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) not seen in individual nor in other combinations of H1 variant KDs...
August 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970471/dip1-modulates-stem-cell-homeostasis-in-drosophila-through-regulation-of-sisr-1
#19
Jing Ting Wong, Farzanah Akhbar, Amanda Yunn Ee Ng, Mandy Li-Ian Tay, Gladys Jing En Loi, Jun Wei Pek
Stable intronic sequence RNAs (sisRNAs) are by-products of splicing and regulate gene expression. How sisRNAs are regulated is unclear. Here we report that a double-stranded RNA binding protein, Disco-interacting protein 1 (DIP1) regulates sisRNAs in Drosophila. DIP1 negatively regulates the abundance of sisR-1 and INE-1 sisRNAs. Fine-tuning of sisR-1 by DIP1 is important to maintain female germline stem cell homeostasis by modulating germline stem cell differentiation and niche adhesion. Drosophila DIP1 localizes to a nuclear body (satellite body) and associates with the fourth chromosome, which contains a very high density of INE-1 transposable element sequences that are processed into sisRNAs...
October 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964254/fangorn-forest-f2-a-machine-learning-approach-to-classify-genes-and-genera-in-the-family-geminiviridae
#20
José Cleydson F Silva, Thales F M Carvalho, Elizabeth P B Fontes, Fabio R Cerqueira
BACKGROUND: Geminiviruses infect a broad range of cultivated and non-cultivated plants, causing significant economic losses worldwide. The studies of the diversity of species, taxonomy, mechanisms of evolution, geographic distribution, and mechanisms of interaction of these pathogens with the host have greatly increased in recent years. Furthermore, the use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) and advanced metagenomics approaches have enabled the elucidation of viromes and the identification of many viral agents in a large number of plant species...
September 30, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
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