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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446524/impact-of-blood-flow-restricted-bodyweight-exercise-on-skeletal-muscle-adaptations
#1
J E Jakobsgaard, M Christiansen, P Sieljacks, J Wang, T Groennebaek, F de Paoli, K Vissing
This study ascertains the ability of bodyweight blood flow-restricted (BFR) exercise training to promote skeletal muscle adaptations of significance for muscle accretion and metabolism. Six healthy young individuals (three males and three females) performed six weeks of bodyweight BFR training. Each session consisted of five sets of sit-to-stand BFR exercise to volitional failure with 30-second inter-set recovery. Prior to, and at least 72 h after training, muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis to assess changes in fibre type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell (SC) and myonuclei content and capillarization, as well as mitochondrial protein expression...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444710/a-novel-in-vitro-model-for-the-assessment-of-postnatal-myonuclear-accretion
#2
Anita Kneppers, Lex Verdijk, Chiel de Theije, Mark Corten, Ellis Gielen, Luc van Loon, Annemie Schols, Ramon Langen
BACKGROUND: Due to the post-mitotic nature of myonuclei, postnatal myogenesis is essential for skeletal muscle growth, repair, and regeneration. This process is facilitated by satellite cells through proliferation, differentiation, and subsequent fusion with a pre-existing muscle fiber (i.e., myonuclear accretion). Current knowledge of myogenesis is primarily based on the in vitro formation of syncytia from myoblasts, which represents aspects of developmental myogenesis, but may incompletely portray postnatal myogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444251/cultured-equine-satellite-cells-as-a-model-system-to-assess-leucine-stimulated-protein-synthesis-in-horse-muscle
#3
M L DeBoer, K M Martinson, M S Pampusch, A M Hansen, S M Wells, C Ward, M Hathaway
Leucine has been shown to stimulate the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway which plays numerous key regulatory roles in cell growth, survival and metabolism including protein synthesis in a number of species. However, previous work with equine satellite cells has suggested distinct species differences in regards to physiological effects and the magnitude of responses to growth factors and regulators. Because there is limited research available regarding the role of leucine in regulating equine skeletal muscle protein synthesis, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of leucine on the mTOR signaling pathway in cultured equine satellite...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444181/correction-early-and-later-phases-satellite-cell-responses-and-myonuclear-content-with-resistance-training-in-young-men
#4
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191039.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443546/akt1-deficiency-diminishes-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-by-reducing-satellite-cell-proliferation
#5
Nobuki Moriya, Mitsunori Miyazaki
Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the net dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Although the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway plays an important role in promoting protein synthesis and subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the precise molecular regulation of mTOR activity by the upstream protein kinase Akt is largely unknown. In addition, the activation of satellite cells has been indicated as a key regulator of muscle mass. However, the requirement of satellite cells for load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is still under intense debate...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436679/long-non%C3%A2-coding-rna-bc168687-small-interfering-rna-reduces-high-glucose-and-high-free-fatty-acid%C3%A2-induced-expression-of-p2x7-receptors-in-satellite-glial-cells
#6
Cheng-Long Liu, Ze-Yu Deng, Er-Rong Du, Chang-Shui Xu
Purinergic signaling contributes to inflammatory and immune responses. The activation of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) in satellite glial cells (SGCs) may be an essential component in the promotion of inflammation and neuropathic pain. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a small interfering RNA for the lncRNA BC168687 on SGC P2X7 expression in a high glucose and high free fatty acids (HGHF) environment...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435059/macc1-and-hgf-are-associated-with-survival-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#7
Guokai Dong, Man Wang, Guangfu Gu, Shanshan Li, Xiaoming Sun, Zhouru Li, Hongxing Cai, Zhengqiu Zhu
Metastasis-associsated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1), a newly identified oncogene, promotes tumor cell proliferation and invasion. In the present study, the expression of MACC1, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, MET proto-oncogene (c-Met), was investigated in human gastric cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. The association between the expression levels of the proteins and the clinicopathological parameters of the tumors were statistically analyzed. Furthermore, lentiviral particles expressing MACC1 were used to infect the hepatic satellite cell (HSC) line LX2...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434313/distributions-of-phytoplankton-carbohydrate-protein-and-lipid-in-the-world-oceans-from-satellite-ocean-colour
#8
Shovonlal Roy
Energy value of phytoplankton regulates the growth of higher trophic species, affecting the tropic balance and sustainability of marine food webs. Therefore, developing our capability to estimate and monitor, on a global scale, the concentrations of macromolecules that determine phytoplankton energy value, would be invaluable. Reported here are the first estimates of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and overall energy value of phytoplankton in the world oceans, using ocean-colour data from satellites. The estimates are based on a novel bio-optical method that utilises satellite-derived bio-optical fingerprints of living phytoplankton combined with allometric relationships between phytoplankton cells and cellular macromolecular contents...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431426/strand-displacement-amplification-reaction-on-quantum-dot-encoded-silica-bead-for-visual-detection-of-multiplex-micrornas
#9
Xiaojun Qu, Haojun Jin, Yuqian Liu, Qingjiang Sun
The combination of microbead array, isothermal amplification and molecular signaling enables the continuous development of next-generation molecular diagnostic techniques. Herein we reported the implementation of nicking endonuclease-assisted strand displacement amplification reaction on quantum dots-encoded microbead (Qbead), and demonstrated its feasibility for multiplexed miRNA assay in real sample. The Qbead featured with well-defined core-shell superstructure with dual-colored quantum dots loaded in silica core and shell, respectively, exhibiting remarkably high optical encoding stability...
February 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429962/the-satellite-cell-niche-regulates-the-balance-between-myoblast-differentiation-and-self-renewal-via-p53
#10
Valentina Flamini, Rachel S Ghadiali, Philipp Antczak, Amy Rothwell, Jeremy E Turnbull, Addolorata Pisconti
Satellite cells are adult muscle stem cells residing in a specialized niche that regulates their homeostasis. How niche-generated signals integrate to regulate gene expression in satellite cell-derived myoblasts is poorly understood. We undertook an unbiased approach to study the effect of the satellite cell niche on satellite cell-derived myoblast transcriptional regulation and identified the tumor suppressor p53 as a key player in the regulation of myoblast quiescence. After activation and proliferation, a subpopulation of myoblasts cultured in the presence of the niche upregulates p53 and fails to differentiate...
February 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427106/the-neuropathology-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-machado-joseph-disease
#11
Arnulf H Koeppen
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA-3)/Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), the most common autosomal dominant ataxia, affects many regions of the brain and spinal cord. Similar to SCA-1, SCA-2, SCA-6, SCA-7, and SCA-17, the mutation consists of a pathogenic translated cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat expansion. Almost invariably, the substantia nigra and the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum bear the brunt of the disease, and these lesions account for the Parkinsonian and ataxic phenotypes. Lesions of motor nuclei in the brain stem cause the complex disturbance of ocular motility and weakness of the tongue...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426367/pip5k1%C3%AE-promotes-myogenic-differentiation-via-akt-activation-and-calcium-release
#12
Xiaofan Chen, Jun Wan, Bo Yu, Yarui Diao, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle satellite cell-derived myoblasts are mainly responsible for postnatal muscle growth and injury-induced regeneration. Many intracellular signaling pathways are essential for myogenic differentiation, while a number of kinases are involved in this modulation process. Type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5KI) was identified as one of the key kinases involved in myogenic differentiation, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: PIP5K1α was quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and western blot assay...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416665/baicalin-hydrate-inhibits-cancer-progression-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-affecting-genome-instability-and-splicing
#13
Weiwei Lai, Jiantao Jia, Bin Yan, Yiqun Jiang, Ying Shi, Ling Chen, Chao Mao, Xiaoli Liu, Haosheng Tang, Menghui Gao, Ya Cao, Shuang Liu, Yongguang Tao
Baicalin hydrate (BH), a natural compound, has been investigated for many years because of its traditional medicinal properties. However, the anti-tumor activities of BH and its epigenetic role in NPC have not been elucidated. In this study, we identified that BH inhibits NPC cell growth in vivo and in vitro by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. BH epigenetically regulated genome instability by up-regulating the expression of satellite 2 (Sat2), alpha satellite (α-Sat), and major satellite (Major-Sat)...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413384/advection-of-karenia-brevis-blooms-from-the-florida-panhandle-towards-mississippi-coastal-waters
#14
Inia M Soto, Mustafa Kemal Cambazoglu, Adam D Boyette, Kristina Broussard, Drew Sheehan, Stephan D Howden, Alan M Shiller, Brian Dzwonkowski, Laura Hode, Patrick J Fitzpatrick, Robert A Arnone, Paul F Mickle, Kimberly Cressman
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis have been documented along coastal waters of every state bordering the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Some Gulf Coast locations, such as Florida and Texas, suffer from recurrent intense and spatially large blooms, while others such as Mississippi seem to rarely observe them. The main objective of this work is to understand the dynamics that led to the K. brevis bloom in Mississippi coastal waters in fall 2015. Blooms of K. brevis from the Florida Panhandle region are often advected westward towards the Mississippi-Alabama coast; however there is interannual variability in their presence and intensity in Mississippi coastal waters...
February 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404727/combined-use-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-bm-mscs-and-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-stimulates-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-myoblasts-in-vitro-new-therapeutic-perspectives-for-skeletal-muscle-repair-regeneration
#15
Chiara Sassoli, Larissa Vallone, Alessia Tani, Flaminia Chellini, Daniele Nosi, Sandra Zecchi-Orlandini
Satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle repair/regeneration is compromised in cases of extended damage. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) hold promise for muscle healing but some criticisms hamper their clinical application, including the need to avoid animal serum contamination for expansion and the scarce survival after transplant. In this context, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could offer advantages. Here, we compare the effects of PRP or standard culture media on C2C12 myoblast, satellite cell and BM-MSC viability, survival, proliferation and myogenic differentiation and evaluate PRP/BM-MSC combination effects in promoting myogenic differentiation...
February 5, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401629/resistance-training-prevents-muscle-fibrosis-and-atrophy-via-down-regulation-of-c1q-induced-wnt-signaling-in-senescent-mice
#16
Naoki Horii, Masataka Uchida, Natsuki Hasegawa, Shumpei Fujie, Eri Oyanagi, Hiromi Yano, Takeshi Hashimoto, Motoyuki Iemitsu
Increased complement component 1q (C1q) secretion with aging leads to muscle fibrosis and atrophy whereas resistance training attenuates circulating C1q levels. This study aimed to clarify whether resistance exercise-induced reduction of C1q secretion contributes to the inhibition of fibrosis and atrophy in aged muscles. Young (13-wk-old) and aged (38-wk-old) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 1 mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a young or aged sedentary control group, or a young or aged resistance training (climbing a ladder 3 d/wk for 12 wk) group...
January 30, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401383/metabolomic-dark-matter-dependent-on-peroxisomal-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Alexander B Artyukhin, Ying Kitty Zhang, Allison E Akagi, Oishika Panda, Paul W Sternberg, Frank C Schroeder
Peroxisomal β-oxidation (pβo) is a highly conserved fat metabolism pathway involved in the biosynthesis of diverse signaling molecules in animals and plants. In Caenorhabditis elegans, pβo is required for the biosynthesis of the ascarosides, signaling molecules that control development, lifespan, and behavior in this model organism. Via comparative mass spectrometric analysis of pβo mutants and wildtype, we show that pβo in C. elegans and the satellite model P. pacificus contributes to life stage-specific biosynthesis of several hundred previously unknown metabolites...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397577/aging-affects-the-in%C3%A2-vivo-regenerative-potential-of-human-mesoangioblasts
#18
Alessio Rotini, Ester Martínez-Sarrà, Robin Duelen, Domiziana Costamagna, Ester Sara Di Filippo, Giorgia Giacomazzi, Hanne Grosemans, Stefania Fulle, Maurilio Sampaolesi
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. Although the role of human satellite cells (SCs) as adult skeletal muscle stem cells has been deeply investigated, little is known about the impact of aging on muscle interstitial stem cells. Here, we isolated the non-SC CD56- fraction from human muscle biopsies of young and elderly subjects. The elderly interstitial cell population contained a higher number of CD15+ and PDGFRα+ cells when compared to young samples. In addition, we found that the CD56- /ALP+ cells were well represented as a multipotent stem cell population inside the CD56- fraction...
February 4, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395054/inhibition-of-methyltransferase-setd7-allows-the-in-vitro-expansion-of-myogenic-stem-cells-with-improved-therapeutic-potential
#19
Robert N Judson, Marco Quarta, Menno J Oudhoff, Hesham Soliman, Lin Yi, Chih Kai Chang, Gloria Loi, Ryan Vander Werff, Alissa Cait, Mark Hamer, Justin Blonigan, Patrick Paine, Linda T N Doan, Elena Groppa, WenJun He, Le Su, Regan H Zhang, Peter Xu, Christine Eisner, Marcela Low, Ingrid Barta, Coral-Ann B Lewis, Colby Zaph, Mohammad M Karimi, Thomas A Rando, Fabio M Rossi
The development of cell therapy for repairing damaged or diseased skeletal muscle has been hindered by the inability to significantly expand immature, transplantable myogenic stem cells (MuSCs) in culture. To overcome this limitation, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms regulating the transition between activated, proliferating MuSCs and differentiation-primed, poorly engrafting progenitors is needed. Here, we show that methyltransferase Setd7 facilitates such transition by regulating the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in proliferating MuSCs...
February 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394360/the-roles-of-muscle-stem-cells-in-muscle-injury-atrophy-and-hypertrophy
#20
So-Ichiro Fukada
Skeletal muscle is composed of multinuclear cells called myofibers. Muscular dystrophy (a genetic muscle disorder) induces instability in the cell membrane of myofibers and eventually causes myofiber damage. Non-genetic muscle disorders, including sarcopenia, diabetes, bedridden immobility, and cancer cachexia, lead to atrophy of myofibers. In contrast, resistance training induces myofiber hypertrophy. Thus, myofibers exhibit a plasticity that is strongly affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. There is no doubt that muscle stem cells (MuSCs, also known as muscle satellite cells) are indispensable for muscle repair/regeneration, but their contributions to atrophy and hypertrophy are still controversial...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
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