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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793039/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-context-of-the-syrian-conflict-drivers-before-and-after-the-onset-of-conflict-and-key-recommendations
#1
REVIEW
Aula Abbara, Timothy M Rawson, Nabil Karah, Wael El-Amin, James Hatcher, Bachir Tajaldin, Osman Dar, Omar Dewachi, Ghassan Abu Sitta, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Annie Sparrow
Current evidence describing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the context of the Syrian conflict is of poor quality and sparse in nature. In this paper we explore and report the major drivers of AMR that were present in Syria pre-conflict and those that have emerged since its onset in March 2011. Drivers which existed before the conflict included a lack of enforcement of existing legislation to regulate over the counter antibiotics and notification of communicable diseases. This contributed to a number of drivers of AMR after the onset of conflict which were also compounded by the exodus of trained staff, the increase in overcrowding and unsanitary conditions, the increase in injuries and economic sanctions limiting the availability of required laboratory medical materials and equipment...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790058/the-synergistic-effect-of-organic-acids-phytochemicals-and-a-permeabilizing-complex-reduces-salmonella-typhimurium-1-4-5-12-i-shedding-in-pigs
#2
Ruggeri Jessica, Foresti Fabio, Pavesi Roberta, Terrini Alessia, Giudici Francesca, Padoan Diego, Corradi Attilio, Ossiprandi Maria Cristina, Pasquali Paolo, Alborali Giovanni Loris
Salmonella Typhimurium (including S.Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i-) and other enteric pathogens cause acute infection in pigs during the weaning stage, often evolving into chronic infections responsible for the introduction of zoonotic bacteria into the slaughterhouse and thus determining carcass contamination. In addition to being zoonotic hazards, these pathogens are responsible for economic losses in affected farms. Traditionally, antibiotic treatments have been largely administered in order to reduce the infection burden but it favored, as a direct consequence, an increase in the number of multi-drug resistance strains...
May 22, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789175/macrolide-resistance-in-cases-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department
#3
John P Haran, Gregory A Volturo
BACKGROUND: Emergency physicians are under pressure to prescribe an antibiotic early in the treatment course of a patient with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Macrolides are recommended first-line empirical therapy for the outpatient treatment of CAP in patients without associated comorbidities; however, resistance rates to macrolides in the United States are on the rise. OBJECTIVE: This review considers macrolide use for CAP in the emergency department by reviewing the microbiologic environment in the United States and whether macrolides can overcome in vitro resistance during actual clinical use...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779917/antimicrobial-resistance-among-migrants-in-europe-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Laura B Nellums, Hayley Thompson, Alison Holmes, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Jonathan A Otter, Marie Norredam, Jon S Friedland, Sally Hargreaves
BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings...
May 17, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777927/patient-related-determinants-of-antibiotic-use-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
V Zanichelli, G Tebano, I C Gyssens, V Vlahović-Palčevski, A A Monnier, M Stanic Benic, S Harbarth, M Hulscher, C Pulcini, B D Huttner
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess patient-related determinants potentially influencing antibiotic use. METHODS: Studies published in MEDLINE until 30/09/2015 were searched. We included: (1) qualitative studies describing patients' self-reported determinants of antibiotic use; (2) quantitative studies on either self-reported or objectively assessed determinants associated with antibiotic use. Whenever possible, reported determinants were categorized as "barriers" or "facilitators" of responsible antibiotic use...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777591/bioengineering-triacetic-acid-lactone-production-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-pogostone-synthesis
#6
James Yu, Jenny Landberg, Farbod Shavarebi, Virginia Bilanchone, Adam Okerlund, Umayangani Wanninayake, Le Zhao, George Kraus, Suzanne Sandmeyer
Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast that is recognized for its ability to accumulate high levels of lipids, which can serve as precursors to biobased fuels and chemicals. Polyketides such as triacetic acid lactone (TAL) can also serve as a precursor for diverse commodity chemicals. This study used Y. lipolytica as a host organism for the production of TAL via expression of the 2-pyrone synthase gene from Gerbera hybrida. Induction of lipid biosynthesis by nitrogen-limited growth conditions increased TAL titers...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772736/exploring-the-effect-of-phage-therapy-in-preventing-vibrio-anguillarum-infections-in-cod-and-turbot-larvae
#7
Nanna Rørbo, Anita Rønneseth, Panos G Kalatzis, Bastian Barker Rasmussen, Kirsten Engell-Sørensen, Hans Petter Kleppen, Heidrun Inger Wergeland, Lone Gram, Mathias Middelboe
The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and inefficient vaccination at the larval stage of fish emphasizes the need for novel approaches, and phage therapy for controlling Vibrio pathogens has gained interest in the past few years. In this study, we examined the potential of the broad-host-range phage KVP40 to control four different V...
May 16, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767394/prognostic-factors-and-scoring-model-of-hematological-malignancies-patients-with-bloodstream-infections
#8
Yishu Tang, Qian Cheng, Qing Yang, Jing Liu, Di Zhang, Wei Cao, Qingxia Liu, Tianyi Zhou, Huiqi Zeng, Li Zhou, QinJin Wang, Huan Wei, Xin Li
PURPOSE: Patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) are at a higher risk for bloodstream infections (BSIs), which pose significant burden on morbidity and mortality. Better risk stratification helps in medical decision making, increasing efficiency and reducing economic burden. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a reliable prediction model which can be used to identify HM patients at higher risk for BSIs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in three university-affiliated hospitals in Hunan Province, China, from January 2010 to April 2015...
May 16, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767160/effects-of-yeast-cell-wall-on-growth-performance-immune-responses-and-intestinal-short-chain-fatty-acid-concentrations-of-broilers-in-an-experimental-necrotic-enteritis-model
#9
Guang-Da Xue, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct, Robert A Swick
Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) causes devastating economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised free of in-feed antibiotics. Prebiotics are potential alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Yeast cell wall extract (YCW) derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a prebiotic with known immune modulating effects. This study examined the effects of YCW and antibiotics (AB) during subclinical NE on broiler growth performance, intestinal lesions, humoral immune response and gut microflora metabolites...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767149/the-role-of-supplemental-glycine-in-establishing-a-subclinical-necrotic-enteritis-challenge-model-in-broiler-chickens
#10
Guang-Da Xue, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct, Robert A Swick
Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) is an economically important disease in the broiler industry. With the move towards removal of antibiotics from feeds, solutions to control subclinical NE are desperately being sought. Dietary glycine has been shown to promote proliferation of Clostridium perfringens (Cp) and may thus be useful to include in a NE challenge model. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of increased dietary glycine levels on subclinical NE. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was carried out using day-old male Ross 308 chicks ( n  = 624) allocated to 48 floor pens with 8 treatments of 6 replicates with 11 birds per treatment...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767133/intestinal-challenge-with-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-pigs-and-nutritional-intervention-to-prevent-postweaning-diarrhea
#11
REVIEW
Yawang Sun, Sung Woo Kim
Gut health of nursery pigs immediately after weaning is tightly associated with their growth performance and economic values. Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) is one of the major concerns related to gut health of nursery pigs which often is caused by infections of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), mainly including F4 (K88)+ and F18+ E. coli. The main virulence factors of ETEC are adhesins (fimbriae or pili) and enterotoxins. The common types of fimbriae on ETEC from PWD pigs are F18+ and F4+ . Typically, PWD in pigs is associated with both F18+ and F4+ ETEC infections whereas pre-weaning diarrhea in pigs is associated with F4+ ETEC infection...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764875/efficacy-and-safety-of-ghx02-in-the-treatment-of-acute-bronchitis-protocol-of-a-phase-ii-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Yee Ran Lyu, Won-Kyung Yang, So Jung Park, Seung-Hyeong Kim, Wee-Chang Kang, In Chul Jung, Yang Chun Park
INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infection of the large airways; cough is the primary symptom, usually lasting for about 3 weeks. Annually, approximately 5% of adults develop acute bronchitis, and its economic burden is substantial. There are also problems of antibiotic abuse in public health systems and symptomatic therapies are commonly prescribed, for which there is insufficient supporting evidence. GHX02 contains four herbs originating from gwaruhaengryeon-hwan, which has been used in the treatment of patients with acute bronchitis in Korea...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761493/experimental-induction-of-mouthrot-in-atlantic-salmon-smolts-using-tenacibaculum-maritimum-from-western-canada
#13
K Frisch, S B Småge, C Vallestad, H Duesund, Ø J Brevik, A Klevan, R H Olsen, S T Sjaatil, D Gauthier, B Brudeseth, A Nylund
Mouthrot, or bacterial stomatitis, is a disease which mainly affects farmed Atlantic salmon, (Salmo salar, L.), smolts recently transferred into salt water in both British Columbia (BC), Canada, and Washington State, USA. It is a significant fish welfare issue which results in economic losses due to mortality and antibiotic treatments. The associated pathogen is Tenacibaculum maritimum, a bacterium which causes significant losses in many species of farmed fish worldwide. This bacterium has not been proven to be the causative agent of mouthrot in BC despite being isolated from affected Atlantic salmon...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760598/predictors-of-chemoradiation-related-febrile-neutropenia-prophylaxis-in-older-adults-experience-from-a-limited-resource-setting
#14
Aparna Gangopadhyay
Aim: To identify risk factors that lower efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis of febrile neutropenia among older patients on chemoradiation. Background: Audit of institutional data showed that older adults are at higher risk of febrile neutropenia during chemoradiation. In limited resource settings widespread use of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is not economically feasible and antibiotics are used commonly. Despite compliance with antibiotics, prophylaxis is inadequate in many patients owing to patient and tumor related factors...
May 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757980/determination-of-ten-macrolide-drugs-in-environmental-water-using-molecularly-imprinted-solid-phase-extraction-coupled-with-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Xuqin Song, Tong Zhou, Jiufeng Li, Meiyu Zhang, Jingmeng Xie, Limin He
With the extensive application of antibiotics in livestock, their contamination of the aquatic environment has received more attention. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), as an eco-friendly and durable solid-phase extraction material, has shown great potential for the separation and enrichment of antibiotics in water. This study aims at developing a practical and economical method based on molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for simultaneously detecting ten macrolide drugs in different sources of water samples...
May 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755604/probiotics-strains-modulate-gut-microbiota-and-lipid-metabolism-in-mule-ducks
#16
Maxime Even, Stéphane Davail, Mikael Rey, Annabelle Tavernier, Marianne Houssier, Marie Dominique Bernadet, Karine Gontier, Géraldine Pascal, Karine Ricaud
Background: Livestock production should respond to societal, environmental and economic changes. Since 2006 and the ban on antibiotics as growth factors in European Union, the use of probiotics has become widespread and has demonstrated the effect of intestinal microbiota on the performance of farm animals. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation with Lactobacillus salivarius (as a probiotics strain or combined with other strains) on zootechnical performance, metabolic and immune gene expression and intestinal microbiota diversity in mule ducks using high-throughput sequencing and real-time PCR...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753025/identification-and-efficacy-of-glycine-serine-and-threonine-metabolism-in-potentiating-kanamycin-mediated-killing-of-edwardsiella-piscicida
#17
Jin-Zhou Ye, Xiang-Min Lin, Zhi-Xue Cheng, Yu-Bin Su, Wan-Xin Li, Far-Man Ali, Jun Zheng, Bo Peng
We previously showed that glucose potentiated kanamycin to kill multidrug-resistant Edwardsiella piscicida through activation of the TCA cycle. However, whether other regulatory mechanism is involved requires further investigation. By quantitative proteomics technology, iTRAQ, we systematically mapped the altered proteins in the presence of glucose and identified 94 differentially expressed proteins. The analysis of the altered proteins by pathways, amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism were enriched. And the most significantly altered eight amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, glycine, serine and threonine were investigated for their potentiation of kanamycin to kill EIB202, where glycine, serine and threonine showed the strongest efficacy than the others...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747082/critical-knowledge-gaps-and-research-needs-related-to-the-environmental-dimensions-of-antibiotic-resistance
#18
D G Joakim Larsson, Antoine Andremont, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Kristian Koefoed Brandt, Ana Maria de Roda Husman, Patriq Fagerstedt, Jerker Fick, Carl-Fredrik Flach, William H Gaze, Makoto Kuroda, Kristian Kvint, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Celia M Manaia, Kaare Magne Nielsen, Laura Plant, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Carlos Segovia, Pascal Simonet, Kornelia Smalla, Jason Snape, Edward Topp, Arjon J van Hengel, David W Verner-Jeffreys, Marko P J Virta, Elizabeth M Wellington, Ann-Sofie Wernersson
There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps...
May 7, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746377/risk-factors-for-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-hospitalized-with-cap-younger-than-5-years-of-age
#19
Wei Shan, Ting Shi, Kaile Chen, Jian Xue, Yin Wang, Jia Yu, Genming Zhao, Jianmei Tian, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: CAP causes great morbidity and mortality as well as enormous economic burden worldwide. This study intended to describe the clinical characteristics of CAP and explore the risk factors of severe CAP among children in downtown Suzhou, China. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of childhood hospitalizations in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH) from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Children who were residents of downtown Suzhou, 29 days to <5 years of age, with discharge diagnosis codes (ICD-10) J09 to J18 and J20 to J22 were included...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740788/behavioral-economics-interventions-to-improve-outpatient-antibiotic-prescribing-for-acute-respiratory-infections-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#20
Cynthia L Gong, Kenneth M Zangwill, Joel W Hay, Daniella Meeker, Jason N Doctor
BACKGROUND: Behavioral economics interventions have been shown to effectively reduce the rates of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of three behavioral economic interventions designed to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions for ARIs. DESIGN: Thirty-year Markov model from the US societal perspective with inputs derived from the literature and CDC surveillance data...
May 8, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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