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antibiotic economics

Msj Wilson, P Maniam, A Ibrahim, N Makaram, S R Knight, P Patil
Introduction The use of polymeric clips in securing the appendiceal stump has been increasingly reported as a viable alternative to current methods in emergency laparoscopic appendicectomy. We evaluated the operative outcomes following the use of polymeric clips versus endoscopic ligatures. The primary endpoint was operative time, with secondary outcomes including complications, inpatient stay, and cost analysis. Materials and methods Operative records were retrospectively analysed to identify patients undergoing laparoscopic appendicectomy between January 2014 and June 2015...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Ruiqiang Xie, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang, Qi Zhao, Bo Peng, Jun Zheng
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most challenging nosocomial pathogens due to the emergence and widespread of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to provide the first analysis of global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii infections, by synthesizing data and knowledge through a systematic review. We searched studies reporting antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii infections using the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to December 2016. Studies were eligible if they investigated and reported antibiotic resistance in A...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Junren Lu, Jing Han, Chi Zhang, Zhenjun Yao, Yi Yang
Although two-stage revision surgery is generally considered as the gold standard treatment for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total knee arthroplasty, the procedure is limited by the costs of commercially preformed spacers used for treatment. In this work, we aim to report a modified approach by which the cost of the spacer could be significantly reduced without compromising eradication of infection. Between 2010 and 2016, we performed a total of 11 two-stage revision arthroplasties using a surgically handmade spacer with a new polyethylene insert...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Longzheng Chen, Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Jing Ding, Xianbin Gu, Yanjun Li, Tingting Gu, Ren Wang, Xinchun Lin, Ziniu Deng, Richard J McAvoy, Frederick G Gmitter, Zhanao Deng, Yunde Zhao, Yi Li
Developing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutants in asexually propagated perennial crop plants is challenging but highly desirable. Here, we report a highly useful method using an Agrobacterium -mediated transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene expression system to create non-transgenic mutant plants without the need for sexual segregation. We have also developed a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput mutant screening protocol based on Illumina sequencing followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Using tetraploid tobacco as a model species and the phytoene desaturase ( PDS ) gene as a target, we successfully created and expediently identified mutant plants, which were verified as tetra-allelic mutants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Shaimaa F Mouftah, Tibor Pál, Akela Ghazawi, Dalal H Halat, Anju Nabi, Mouza A AlSharhan, Zulfa O AlDeesi, Christabel C Peters, Handan Celiloglu, Manjunath Sannegowda, Dolla K Sarkis, Ágnes Sonnevend
Few studies have addressed the molecular epidemiology of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates in the Arabian Peninsula, and such investigations have been missing from Dubai, a major economical, tourism and medical centre of the region. The antibiotic susceptibility, the carbapenemase type produced, and the clonality of 89 CRE strains isolated in five major Dubai hospitals in June 2015 - June 2016 were determined. Thirty three percent of the collection of 70 K. pneumoniae, 13 E. coli and 6 other Enterobacteriaceae were extremely drug resistant, 27% were resistant to colistin, and 4...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Maria Teresa Trentinaglia, Catherine Van Der Straeten, Ilaria Morelli, Nicola Logoluso, Lorenzo Drago, Carlo L Romanò
BACKGROUND: Antibacterial coatings (ABCs) of implants have proven safe and effective to reduce postsurgical infection, but little is known about their possible economic impact on large-scale use. This study evaluated the point of economic balance, during the first year after surgery, and the potential overall annual healthcare cost savings of 3 different antibacterial technologies applied to joint arthroplasty: a dual-antibiotic-loaded bone cement (COPAL G + C), an antibacterial hydrogel coating (DAC), and a silver coating (Agluna)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
M W Petersen, A Perner, M Bahador, F Sjövall, M H Møller
INTRODUCTION: Anaerobic bacteria are believed to be common pathogens in severe infections. Yet, they are difficult to culture and consequently often unrecognised in clinical infections. Metronidazole is often used empirically for potential anaerobic infections, as the resistance to metronidazole is low. However, disadvantages of metronidazole use exist, including drug interactions, side effects and economical expenses. Currently, the balance between the benefits and harms of empirical metronidazole for severe bacterial infections is unknown...
March 8, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Vera Haapala, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Nella Vähänikkilä, Jani Halkilahti, Henri Simonen, Sinikka Pelkonen, Timo Soveri, Heli Simojoki, Tiina Autio
Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the cattle industry, have significant welfare effects and increase antibiotic use. The pathogen is often introduced into naive herds through healthy carrier animals. In countries with a low prevalence of M. bovis, transmission from less common sources can be better explored as the pathogen has limited circulation compared to high prevalence populations. In this study, we describe how M. bovis was introduced into two closed and adequately biosecure dairy herds through the use of contaminated semen during artificial insemination (AI), leading to mastitis outbreak in both herds...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Roberto Ferro, Maja Rennig, Cristina Hernández-Rollán, Daniel O Daley, Morten H H Nørholm
BACKGROUND: The market for recombinant proteins is on the rise, and Gram-positive strains are widely exploited for this purpose. Bacillus subtilis is a profitable host for protein production thanks to its ability to secrete large amounts of proteins, and Lactococcus lactis is an attractive production organism with a long history in food fermentation. RESULTS: We have developed a synbio approach for increasing gene expression in two Gram-positive bacteria. First of all, the gene of interest was coupled to an antibiotic resistance gene to create a growth-based selection system...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Donald W Lawrence, Jacki Kornbluth
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia and a significant economic burden. Antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae has become more prevalent in recent years and many pneumonia cases are caused by S. pneumoniae that is resistant to at least one antibiotic. The ubiquitin ligase natural killer lytic-associated molecule (NKLAM/RNF19b) plays a role in innate immunity and studies using NKLAM-knockout (NKLAM-KO) macrophages have demonstrated that NKLAM positively affects the transcriptional activity of STAT1...
2018: PloS One
Nobuo Saito, Noriko Takamura, Grace P Retuerma, Carina H Frayco, Paul S Solano, Cherlyn D Ubas, Arianne V Lintag, Maricel R Ribo, Rontgene M Solante, Alexis Q Dimapilis, Elizabeth O Telan, Winston S Go, Motoi Suzuki, Koya Ariyoshi, Christopher M Parry
The widespread unregulated use of antibiotics without medical consultation contributes to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Southeast Asian countries. This study investigated antibiotic use before hospital consultation. In a prospective observational study from February 2, 2015, to July 2, 2015, we enrolled febrile patients attending the emergency room in San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, the Philippines. A urine sample was collected and a bioassay was used to detect antibiotic activity in urine using Bacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC7953), Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), and Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC19615)...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Natalie Hutchings, Wendy Wood, Isabel Reading, Erin Walker, Jane M Blazeby, William Van't Hoff, Bridget Young, Esther M Crawley, Simon Eaton, Maria Chorozoglou, Frances C Sherratt, Lucy Beasant, Harriet Corbett, Michael P Stanton, Simon Grist, Elizabeth Dixon, Nigel J Hall
BACKGROUND: Currently, the routine treatment for acute appendicitis in the United Kingdom is an appendicectomy. However, there is increasing scientific interest and research into non-operative treatment of appendicitis in adults and children. While a number of studies have investigated non-operative treatment of appendicitis in adults, this research cannot be applied to the paediatric population. Ultimately, we aim to perform a UK-based multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the clinical and cost effectiveness of non-operative treatment of acute uncomplicated appendicitis in children, as compared with appendicectomy...
March 2, 2018: Trials
Vladimir Draskovic, Jasna Bosnjak-Neumuller, Marko Vasiljevic, Branko Petrujkic, Nevenka Aleksic, Vladimir Kukolj, Zoran Stanimirovic
Lawsonia intracellularis is known to cause proliferative enteropathy (PE), one of the economically most important swine diseases with global distribution. Not unlike other enteric diseases, PE is a frequent indication for antibiotic therapy. However, their unjustified use leads to an emerging problem - antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess if a phytogenic additive may replace antibiotics in the control of PE in 144 weaned piglets (72 treated and 72 controls) naturally infected with L...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel Nahashon, Xiaofei Wang, Carl Darris, Agnes Kilonzo-Nthenge
Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements that promote growth and health to the host by minimizing non-essential and pathogenic microorganisms in the host's gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The campaign to minimize excessive use of antibiotics in poultry production has necessitated development of probiotics with broad application in multiple poultry species. Design of such probiotics requires understanding of the diversity or similarity in microbial profiles among avian species of economic importance. Therefore, the objective of this research was to establish and compare the microbial profiles of the GIT of Guinea fowl and chicken and to establish the microbial diversity or similarity between the two avian species...
2018: PloS One
Surajit Debnath
Background: Coliforms colonize in dental plaques via oral route and may lead to systemic complications. Escherichia coli and its lipopolysaccharide-induced periodontitis is an emerging threat. Clinical management necessitates antibiotic regimens with risk of resistance and upsetting the gut. There is urgent need for better, sustainable, and economical alternative. Aim: To investigate the inhibition of coliforms, a potential periodontopathogen directly by Indian domestic curd (IDC) " in situ "...
September 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Costas C Papagiannitsis, Ergina Malli, Katerina Tsilipounidaki, Stela Sarrou, Matej Medvecky, Jaroslav Hrabak, George C Fthenakis, Efi Petinaki
The aim of the present study was to describe the first mphC-positive staphylococci, including two Staphylococcus lentus (Sle-087lar and Sle-091lar) and one Staphylococcus xylosus (Sxy-228lar), isolated from samples of animal origin, in Greece. Isolates Sle-087lar and Sxy-228lar were resistant to erythromycin, whereas Sle-091lar was resistant to erythromycin and lincomycin. All three isolates were susceptible to the remaining antibiotics. PCR screening showed that isolate Sle-091lar carried also ermB. For Sxy-228lar, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and de novo assembly obtained an mphC-positive contig of 57...
February 28, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Morgan Young-Speirs, Dominique Drouin, Paloma Araujo Cavalcante, Herman W Barkema, Eduardo R Cobo
Cathelicidins are a primitive class of host defense peptides, known for their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses. However, these small, cationic, proteolytically activated peptides are diverse in structure, encompassing a wide range of activities on host immune and inflammatory cell responses. The dual capacity of cathelicidins to directly control infection and regulate host defenses highlights the potential use of cathelicidins as alternatives to antibiotics and immunomodulators...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Kamelia M Osman, Ashgan M Hessain, Usama H Abo-Shama, Zeinab M Girh, Saleh A Kabli, Hassan A Hemeg, Ihab M Moussa
Escherichia coli is a recognized zoonotic food-borne pathogen; however, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the underdeveloped countries to differentiate pathogenic from non-pathogenic E. coli is a problematic issue. Our grail was to assess the phenotypic virulence markers motility, hemolysin, congo red agar, embryo lethality assay and serum resistance for pathogenic E. coli (PEC) correlated to PCR tests which is currently used world-wide to evaluate the PEC. The 448 strains of Escherichia coli that were isolated from different sources, were characterized for phenotypic virulence factors such as motility, hemolysin, Congo red binding, Embryo Lethality assay (ELA) and serum resistance, as well as antibiotic susceptibility using disc diffusion method to 23 antibiotics ...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Harrell W Chesson, Robert D Kirkcaldy, Thomas L Gift, Kwame Owusu-Edusei, Hillard S Weinstock
Preventing the emergence of ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae can potentially avert hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs of gonorrhea and gonorrhea-attributable HIV infections. In the illustrative scenario we examined, emerging ceftriaxone resistance could lead to 1.2 million additional N. gonorrhoeae infections over 10 years, costing $378.2 million.
September 22, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Ana Caroline L de Paula, Julliane D Medeiros, Analice C de Azevedo, Jéssica M de Assis Chagas, Vânia L da Silva, Cláudio G Diniz
Antibiotic resistance poses an important threat to global public health and has become a challenge to modern medicine. The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a broad range of foods has led to a growing concern about the impact that food may have as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Considering Minas Frescal Cheese (MFC)-a typical Brazilian white soft cheese-and its economic and cultural values, in this study, medically relevant antimicrobial-resistance genetic markers (AR genes) were screened, and the occurrence of integrons were evaluated in manufactured MFC using culture-independent approaches...
February 19, 2018: Genes
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