Read by QxMD icon Read

antibiotic economics

Chris R Triggle, David J Triggle
Preclinical Research With the almost global availability of the Internet comes the expectation of universal accessibility to knowledge, including scientific knowledge-particularly that generated by public funding. Currently this is not the case. In this Commentary we discuss access to this knowledge, the politics that govern peer review and publication, and the role of this knowledge as a public good in medicine. With the almost global availability of the Internet comes the expectation of universal accessibility to knowledge, including scientific knowledge-particularly that generated by public funding...
October 21, 2016: Drug Development Research
A Pinsent, I M Blake, M G Basáñez, M Gambhir
The World Health Organization has targeted the elimination of blinding trachoma by the year 2020. To this end, the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma (GET, 2020) alliance relies on a four-pronged approach, known as the SAFE strategy (S for trichiasis surgery; A for antibiotic treatment; F for facial cleanliness and E for environmental improvement). Well-constructed and parameterized mathematical models provide useful tools that can be used in policy making and forecasting in order to help to control trachoma and understand the feasibility of this large-scale elimination effort...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Dennis G Hall, Taras Rybak, Tristan Verdelet
Multicomponent reactions (MCR), transformations employing three or more simple substrates in a single and highly atom-economical operation, are very attractive in both natural product synthesis and diversity-oriented synthesis of druglike molecules. Several popular multicomponent reactions were designed by combining two well-established individual reactions that utilize mutually compatible substrates. In this regard, it is not surprising that the merging of two reactions deemed as workhorses of stereoselective synthesis, the Diels-Alder cycloaddition and carbonyl allylboration, would produce a powerful and highly versatile tandem MCR process...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Isaac Olufemi Olatoye, Oluwayemisi Folashade Daniel, Sunday Ayobami Ishola
BACKGROUND AND AIM: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production...
September 2016: Veterinary World
G P Danezis, C J Anagnostopoulos, K Liapis, M A Koupparis
One of the recent trends in Analytical Chemistry is the development of economic, quick and easy hyphenated methods to be used in a field that includes analytes of different classes and physicochemical properties. In this work a multi-residue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 28 xenobiotics (polar and hydrophilic) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography technique (HILIC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. The scope of the method includes plant growth regulators (chlormequat, daminozide, diquat, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat, paraquat), pesticides (cyromazine, the metabolite of the fungicide propineb PTU (propylenethiourea), amitrole), various multiclass antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides quinolones, kasugamycin and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A)...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Morgane Donadel, Gulzira Karimova, Ruslan Nabiev, Kaspar Wyss
BACKGROUND: The Government of Tajikistan is reforming its health system to make access more equitable. Nonetheless, out-of-pocket expenditures (OPE) remain a key modality for purchasing health care. Drugs remain a major driver of household expenditures for health. We conducted a household survey to investigate drug prescribing patterns at primary health care (PHC) level as well as the related OPE. METHODS: Adult patients in eight districts who had visited a PHC facility in the period March to May 2014 were interviewed at home, using a structured questionnaire...
October 6, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Matthieu Rousseau, H M Sharon Goh, Sarah Holec, Matthew L Albert, Rohan B H Williams, Molly A Ingersoll, Kimberly A Kline
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common hospital-associated infections. Here, we report that bladder catheterization initiated a persistent sterile inflammatory reaction within minutes of catheter implantation. Catheterization resulted in increased expression of genes associated with defense responses and cellular migration, with ensuing rapid and sustained innate immune cell infiltration into the bladder. Catheterization also resulted in hypersensitivity to Enterococcus faecalis and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection, in which colonization was achieved using an inoculum 100-fold lower than the ID90 for infection of an undamaged urothelium with the same uropathogens...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Michele Ammendola, Rosario Sacco, Lucia Butrico, Giuseppe Sammarco, Stefano de Franciscis, Raffaele Serra
Diabetic foot ulcerations may determine minor or major amputation, with a high impact on patients' life expectation and quality of life and on economic burden. Among minor amputations, transmetatarsal amputation (TMA) appears to be the most effective in terms of limb salvage rates and in maintaining foot and ankle biomechanics. In spite of this, TMA needs particular pre- and postoperative management in order to avoid the frequent failure rates. A systematic review was undertaken of studies concerning TMA and its care in diabetic foot gangrene...
October 3, 2016: International Wound Journal
S Fiquet, F Desbiez, I Tauveron, N Mrozek, M Vidal, O Lesens
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop and implement an application that could improve the management of patients presenting with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Physicians from the multidisciplinary diabetic foot infection team and a software engineer first assessed the needs required for the infection management and application. An experimental version was then designed and progressively improved. A final version was implemented in clinical practice in 2013 by the multidisciplinary diabetic foot infection team of our university hospital...
September 28, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Kevin Maisey, Ruth Montero, Myron Christodoulides
Piscirickettsia salmonis (P. salmonis) is the aetiological bacterium of the contagious disease piscirickettsiosis or salmonid rickettsial septicaemia (SRS) and causes significant economic losses to aquaculture production in Chile. Current strategies to control infection are i) indiscriminate antibiotic use and ii) vaccination with predominantly P. salmonis bacterin vaccines that do not provide acceptable levels of protection against piscirickettsiosis. Areas covered: This review covers the basic biology of P...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Jordi Rello, Eleonora Bunsow, Antonio Perez
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. With this panorama, there is a serious danger that we may be entering the 'post-antibiotic era'. Areas covered: We assess why so few new classes of antibiotics have been developed in the past years and discuss a variety of treatments that may be able to replace antimicrobials: monoclonal antibodies, bacteriophages, stem cells and anti-virulence agents such as liposomes. Expert commentary: There are a series of economic, scientific-research and regulatory reasons for the scarcity of new antimicrobials...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Vanessa Arriola, Jessica Tischendorf, Jackson Musuuza, Anna Barker, Jeffrey W Rozelle, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile is the principal infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and accounts for 12% of hospital-acquired infections. Recent literature has shown an increased risk of C. difficile infection (CDI) with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic assessment of the risk of hospital-acquired CDI following exposure to PPI. METHODS We searched multiple databases for studies examining the relationship between PPI and hospital-acquired CDI. Pooled odds ratios were generated and assessment for heterogeneity performed...
September 28, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Magdalena Myga-Nowak, Agnieszka Godela, Tomasz Głąb, Monika Lewańska, Janusz Boratyński
It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Abe Kebede, Jelalu Kemal, Haile Alemayehu, Solomon Habte Mariam
Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed...
2016: International Journal of Bacteriology
Cynthia L Gong, Joel W Hay, Daniella Meeker, Jason N Doctor
OBJECTIVE: To elicit prescribers' preferences for behavioural economics interventions designed to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, and compare these to actual behaviour. DESIGN: Discrete choice experiment (DCE). SETTING: 47 primary care centres in Boston and Los Angeles. PARTICIPANTS: 234 primary care providers, with an average 20 years of practice. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Results of a behavioural economic intervention trial were compared to prescribers' stated preferences for the same interventions relative to monetary and time rewards for improved prescribing outcomes...
2016: BMJ Open
Kassa Shawle, Mengistu Urge, Getachew Animut
BACKGROUND: Frequent use of antibiotics to stimulate growth and health of animals leads to the development of antibiotic-resistant populations of microorganisms. In this context, alternatives like herbs and spices to antibiotics are of importance, as they are natural products. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to evaluate the performance, carcass traits, hematology and serum biochemical parameters of broilers fed ration containing varying levels of Lepidium satvium (Garden cress) seed powder as feed additive up to the age of 42 days...
2016: SpringerPlus
Maryam Karkhane, Mohamad Amin Pourhosiengholi, Mohammad Reza Akbariyan Torkabad, Zahra Kimiia, Seyed Mehdi Mortazavi, Seyed Karim Hossieni Aghdam, Abdolrazagh Marzban, Mohammad Reza Zali
So far, too little attention has been paid to total burden of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in Iran. In the present study, we aimed to assess the rate of HAIs, as well as economic burden of hospitalization and antibiotic related cost associated with HAIs in ICU at training Taleghani hospital in Iran and to compare our results with national nosocomial infections surveillance (NNIS) system. This research to date for the first time has tended to focus on the economic burden of HAIs rather than epidemiology of HAIs evaluation...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Lina Sun, Huarong Chen, Wenxiong Lin, Xiangmin Lin
: Edwardsiella tarda is a virulent fish pathogen that causes extensive economic losses in the aquaculture industry worldwide. The antibiotic resistance status of E. tarda is high, especially in the biofilm status; however, the mechanisms underlying its resistance remain largely unknown. In this study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics methods were used to compare the differential expression of E. tarda in response to oxytetracycline (OXY) stress in biofilm...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Mahantesh Yellangouda Patil, Srinath Myadam Gupta, Sri Krishna Chaitanya Kurupati, Saumya Agarwal, Vishal Chandarana
INTRODUCTION: Open fractures are treated as surgical emergency and early administration of intravenous antibiotic coupled with early irrigation and debridement decreases the infection rate dramatically. Limb Reconstruction System (LRS) is a unilateral rail system which consists of Shanz pins, rail rods and sliding clamps. It is specifically designed to enable the surgeon to perform simple and effective surgery as it offers rigid fixation of fracture fragments, allowing early weight bearing and reduces economic burden...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"