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antibiotic economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237772/factors-related-to-shunt-survival-in-paediatric-hydrocephalus-could-failure-be-avoided
#1
Sara Iglesias, Bienvenido Ros, Álvaro Martín, Antonio Carrasco, Miguel Segura, Angela Ros, Francisca Rius, Miguel Ángel Arráez
BACKGROUND: Improved shunt survival and a better understanding of factors related to failure in paediatric hydrocephalus still pose a challenge for neurosurgeons, in order to avoid morbidity and mortality, as well as the economic impact of repeated revision surgeries. For these reasons, an analysis is performed on the factors related to the first shunt failure in the long-term follow-up of a series in a single centre. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on 166 hydrocephalic paediatric patients shunted for the first time between 2000 and 2014...
February 22, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236369/patients-hospitalized-with-an-infective-exacerbation-of-bronchiectasis-unrelated-to-cystic-fibrosis-clinical-physiological-and-sputum-characteristics
#2
Victoria Venning, James Bartlett, Lata Jayaram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiectasis is a growing health burden both globally and in Australasia. Associated with repeated respiratory infections, the disease often results in hospital admission, impaired quality of life, reduced lung function and shortened life expectancy. We describe the local clinical, physiological and sputum characteristics in patients hospitalized with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis. METHODS: This study examined the medical records of all 61 adults admitted to a metropolitan Australian hospital with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis in a calendar year...
February 24, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209467/socio-economic-factors-cultural-values-national-personality-and-antibiotics-use-a-cross-cultural-study-among-european-countries
#3
Ümmügülsüm Gaygısız, Timo Lajunen, Esma Gaygısız
There are considerable cross-national differences in public attitudes towards antibiotics use, use of prescribed antibiotics, and self-medication with antibiotics even within Europe. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality characteristics and the antibiotic use in Europe. Data included scores from 27 European countries (14 countries for personality analysis). Correlations between socio-economic variables (Gross National Income per capita, governance quality, life expectancy, mean years of schooling, number of physicians), Hofstede's cultural value dimensions (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, indulgence), national personality characteristic (extraversion, neuroticism, social desirability) and antibiotic use were calculated and three regression models were constructed...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192644/perioperative-antibiotics-for-prevention-of-acute-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Emily W Gower, Kristina Lindsley, Samantha E Tulenko, Afshan A Nanji, Ilya Leyngold, Peter J McDonnell
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior or posterior (or both) chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery compared with no prophylaxis or other form of prophylaxis...
February 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190485/cost-benefit-analysis-of-management-practices-for-ewes-lame-with-footrot
#5
Joanne R Winter, Laura E Green
The aim of this study was to investigate the cost-benefit of different strategies to treat and control ovine footrot. In November 2006, 162 sheep farmers in England responded to a survey on prevalence and management of lameness. The costs of lameness per ewe per year (PEPY) were calculated for 116 flocks. Linear regression was used to model the overall cost of lameness PEPY by management method. Associations between farmer satisfaction and time and money spent managing lameness were investigated. The median prevalence of lameness was 5% (inter-quartile range, IQR, 4-10%)...
February 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187063/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-malagasy-children
#6
Ravelomanana Lova, Bouazza Naim, Mbola Rakotomahefa, André Zo Andrianirina, Annick Lalaina Robinson, Honoré Raobidjaona, Rabezanahary Andriamihaja, Nadjet Benhaddou, Fréderique Randrianirina, Elisoa Ratsima, Patrick Imbert, Josette Raymond
BACKGROUND: Childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in low-income countries. The etiologic agents are usually Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. M. pneumoniae was recognized as co-factor in asthmatic disease. High asthma prevalence was reported in Madagascar. Our aim was to clarify the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection in this country and its relationship with asthma. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 351 children (aged from 2 to 16 years) from January 2012 to December 2014...
February 9, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179249/penicillin-skin-testing-as-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-initiative
#7
Bruce M Jones, Christopher M Bland
PURPOSE: An initiative to determine the effects of penicillin skin testing (PST) from an antimicrobial stewardship perspective is described. SUMMARY: Penicillin allergy is one of the most frequently reported allergies; however, only about 10% of self-reports of penicillin allergy are accurate. Incorrect penicillin allergies are therefore a significant barrier to antimicrobial stewardship, with important clinical and economic implications, including increased antimicrobial resistance, an increased overall cost of care, increased length of stay, and, ultimately, increased mortality...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177370/fermentation-products-as-feed-additives-mitigate-some-ill-effects-of-heat-stress-in-pigs
#8
S Kumar, B E Bass, M Bandrick, C L Loving, S L Brockmeier, T Looft, J Trachsel, D M Madson, M Thomas, T A Casey, J W Frank, T B Stanton, H K Allen
Heat stress (HS) may result in economic losses to pig producers across the USA and worldwide. Despite significant advancements in management practices, HS continues to be a challenge. In this study, an in-feed antibiotic (carbadox, CBX) and antibiotic alternatives ( [XPC], and [SGX] fermentation products) were evaluated in a standard pig starter diet as mitigations against the negative effects of HS in pigs. A total of 100 gilts were obtained at weaning (6.87 ± 0.82 kg BW, 19.36 ± 0.72 d of age) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (2 rooms/treatment, 2 pens/room, 6 to 7 pigs/pen)...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177294/lactococcus-garvieae-an-emerging-bacterial-pathogen-of-fish
#9
REVIEW
C M Meyburgh, R R Bragg, C E Boucher
Lactococcus garvieae is the causative agent of lactococcosis, a hyperacute, haemorrhagic septicaemia of fish. This bacterium is also considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen, as reports of human infection are increasing. Significant economic loss in aquaculture is suffered as a result of lactococcosis, as numerous freshwater and marine species of commercial interest are affected. Development of antibiotic resistance in L. garvieae to several chemotherapeutic agents complicates and restricts treatment options...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166743/molecular-point-of-care-testing-for-respiratory-viruses-versus-routine-clinical-care-in-adults-with-acute-respiratory-illness-presenting-to-secondary-care-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol-respoc
#10
Nathan J Brendish, Ahalya K Malachira, Tristan W Clark
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses are associated with a huge socio-economic burden and are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory illness in hospitalised adults. Laboratory PCR is accurate but takes at least 24 h to generate a result to clinicians and antigen-based point-of-care tests (POCT) lack sensitivity. Rapid molecular platforms, such as the FilmArray Respiratory Panel, have equivalent diagnostic accuracy to laboratory PCR and can generate a result in 1 h making them deployable as POCT...
February 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157136/global-health-of-babies-and-children
#11
Susan Gennaro, Caitlin OʼConnor, Megan Marx
PURPOSE: We provide an overview of the health of neonates, infants, and children around the world. Issues in maximizing neonatal health are examined using the Sustainable Development Goals developed by the United Nations as a framework. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventions that can help optimize neonatal, infant, and child health in the future are reviewed, including increasing preventative healthcare (immunizations, malaria prevention, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life), enhancing point-of-care interventions (including umbilical cord care, antenatal corticosteroids if preterm birth is anticipated, and antibiotic therapy), enhancing nutritional interventions (to decrease diarrheal diseases and decrease wasting, stunting, and underweight), and building systems capacityClinical Implications: In an increasingly global world where wars, climate change, civil unrest, and economic uncertainty all influence health, it is important that nurses understand global health problems common for neonates, infants, and children and current recommendations to enhance their health...
February 1, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145848/clinical-practice-guideline-improving-nasal-form-and-function-after-rhinoplasty-executive-summary
#12
Lisa E Ishii, Travis T Tollefson, Gregory J Basura, Richard M Rosenfeld, Peter J Abramson, Scott R Chaiet, Kara S Davis, Karl Doghramji, Edward H Farrior, Sandra A Finestone, Stacey L Ishman, Robert X Murphy, John G Park, Michael Setzen, Deborah J Strike, Sandra A Walsh, Jeremy P Warner, Lorraine C Nnacheta
Objective Rhinoplasty, a surgical procedure that alters the shape or appearance of the nose while preserving or enhancing the nasal airway, ranks among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 procedures reported in 2014. While it is difficult to calculate the exact economic burden incurred by rhinoplasty patients following surgery with or without complications, the average rhinoplasty procedure typically exceeds $4000. The costs incurred due to complications, infections, or revision surgery may include the cost of long-term antibiotics, hospitalization, or lost revenue from hours/days of missed work...
February 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145823/clinical-practice-guideline-improving-nasal-form-and-function-after-rhinoplasty
#13
Lisa E Ishii, Travis T Tollefson, Gregory J Basura, Richard M Rosenfeld, Peter J Abramson, Scott R Chaiet, Kara S Davis, Karl Doghramji, Edward H Farrior, Sandra A Finestone, Stacey L Ishman, Robert X Murphy, John G Park, Michael Setzen, Deborah J Strike, Sandra A Walsh, Jeremy P Warner, Lorraine C Nnacheta
Objective Rhinoplasty, a surgical procedure that alters the shape or appearance of the nose while preserving or enhancing the nasal airway, ranks among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 procedures reported in 2014. While it is difficult to calculate the exact economic burden incurred by rhinoplasty patients following surgery with or without complications, the average rhinoplasty procedure typically exceeds $4000. The costs incurred due to complications, infections, or revision surgery may include the cost of long-term antibiotics, hospitalization, or lost revenue from hours/days of missed work...
February 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144694/-nationwide-survey-among-institutes-of-microbiology-in-academic-medicine-is-the-interdisciplinary-approach-the-right-way-to-treat-patients-with-urogenital-infections
#14
L Schneidewind, J Kranz, D Schlager, A E Pelzer
BACKGROUND: Increasing antibiotic resistance is a current and severe problem in medicine, especially in urology. Multidisciplinary antibiotic stewardship programmes are an important approach to counteract increasing resistance rates. This approach includes collaboration between urologists and microbiologists. OBJECTIVES: The primary endpoint was to describe the current setting of interdisciplinary work of urologists and microbiologists in university hospitals in Germany...
January 31, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134918/continental-scale-pollution-of-estuaries-with-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#15
Yong-Guan Zhu, Yi Zhao, Bing Li, Chu-Long Huang, Si-Yu Zhang, Shen Yu, Yong-Shan Chen, Tong Zhang, Michael R Gillings, Jian-Qiang Su
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have moved from the environmental resistome into human commensals and pathogens, driven by human selection with antimicrobial agents. These genes have increased in abundance in humans and domestic animals, to become common components of waste streams. Estuarine habitats lie between terrestrial/freshwater and marine ecosystems, acting as natural filtering points for pollutants. Here, we have profiled ARGs in sediments from 18 estuaries over 4,000 km of coastal China using high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and investigated their relationship with bacterial communities, antibiotic residues and socio-economic factors...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129821/-main-variables-in-the-economic-cost-of-treating-an-infection
#16
Santiago Grau
The economic cost of treating an infection can be influenced by multiple factors related to patient characteristics, the type of infection, the isolated microorganism and some mechanisms of bacterial resistance. Of these, the factor generating the largest number of studies is bacterial resistance but many of these studies show major limitations. Antimicrobial stewardship has been proposed as a means to reduce the economic cost of treating infections. However, the strategies included in antibiotic stewardship should be assessed to identify both their clinical impact and their cost-effectiveness...
January 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128095/antimicrobial-prescribing-patterns-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-shanghai-china
#17
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Ping Du, Fang Huang, Dong-Jie Li, Jun Gu, Fu-Ming Shen, Yuan-Ying Jiang
Whilst the 'Principles of clinical use of antibiotics' was released by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China in 2004, limited research has been conducted to evaluate the quality of antibiotic use in real-world practice. In this study, we sought to examine antimicrobial prescribing patterns in a large tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. De-identified outpatient and emergency department pharmacy records containing antimicrobials were extracted from the hospital electronic health records system...
December 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114922/a-prospective-pilot-study-of-home-monitoring-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-home-cf-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Jocelyn Choyce, Karen L Shaw, Alice J Sitch, Hema Mistry, Joanna L Whitehouse, Edward F Nash
BACKGROUND: Home monitoring has the potential to detect early pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), with consequent improvements in health outcomes and healthcare associated costs. This study aims to assess the effects of home monitoring on hospital admissions, quality of life, antibiotic requirements, exacerbation frequency, lung function, nutritional outcomes, anxiety, depression, costs and health outcomes, as well as the qualitative effects on the patient experience...
January 23, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111172/self-medication-and-self-prescription-with-antibiotics-in-the-middle-east-do-they-really-happen-a-systematic-review-of-the-prevalence-possible-reasons-and-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Faten Alhomoud, Zainab Aljamea, Reem Almahasnah, Khawlah Alkhalifah, Lama Basalelah, Farah Kais Alhomoud
OBJECTIVES: There has been no review on the prevalence, possible causes, and clinical outcomes of self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) in the Middle East. METHODS: Databases were searched (January 2000 through June 2016) for articles on SMA among adults aged ≥18 years living in the Middle East. A hand search for relevant citations and key journals was also performed. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were found. The prevalence of SMA ranged from 19% to 82%...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107795/adherence-to-therapies-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-targeted-literature-review
#20
Siva Narayanan, Jochen G Mainz, Smeet Gala, Harold Tabori, Daniel Grossoehme
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening condition with no cure. Available therapies relieving the symptoms of CF are complex and time-consuming. A comprehensive review assessing adherence to different CF therapies, association of adherence with outcomes, and factors influencing adherence could inform optimal patient management strategies. Areas covered: A targeted literature review of studies published from 2010-2016 assessed adherence to CF therapies. Nineteen studies qualified for inclusion. Adherence to CF therapies was sub-optimal, and varied by treatment, mode of treatment administration, age, season, time and method of adherence measurement...
January 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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