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antibiotic economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337626/comparative-analysis-of-pasteurella-multocida-isolates-from-acute-and-chronic-fowl-cholera-cases-in-hungary-during-the-period-2005-through-2010
#1
Boglárka Sellyei, Ákos Thuma, Dmitriy Volokhov, Zsuzsanna Varga
Fowl cholera (FC) is a highly contagious and economically important disease of poultry worldwide. This study was performed on 218 Pasteurella multocida isolates collected from separated breeding farms or backyards with acute and chronic FC cases in multiple localities across Hungary during the period 2005-2010. All isolates were characterized by a broad range of biochemical, serological, and molecular methods, as well as their antibiotic susceptibility to aminoglycosides (A), macrolides (M), penicillins (P), quinolones (Q), cephalosporins, sulphonamides (S), and tetracyclines (T) was determined...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335484/microbial-competition-of-rhodotorula-mucilaginosa-uanl-001l-and-e-coli-increase-biosynthesis-of-non-toxic-exopolysaccharide-with-applications-as-a-wide-spectrum-antimicrobial
#2
Augusto Vazquez-Rodriguez, Ximena G Vasto-Anzaldo, Daniel Barboza Perez, Eduardo Vázquez-Garza, Héctor Chapoy-Villanueva, Gerardo García-Rivas, Javier A Garza-Cervantes, Jéssica J Gómez-Lugo, Alma Elizabeth Gomez-Loredo, Maria Teresa Garza Gonzalez, Xristo Zarate, Jose Ruben Morones-Ramirez
Bacterial species are able to colonize and establish communities in biotic and abiotic surfaces. Moreover, within the past five decades, incidence of bacterial strains resistant to currently used antibiotics has increased dramatically. This has led to diverse health issues and economical losses for different industries. Therefore, there is a latent need to develop new and more efficient antimicrobials. This work reports an increased production of an exopolysaccharide in a native yeast strain isolated from the Mexican Northeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UANL-001L, when co-cultured with E...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334556/decoding-grade-b-pancreatic-fistula-a-clinical-and-economical-analysis-and-subclassification-proposal
#3
Laura Maggino, Giuseppe Malleo, Claudio Bassi, Valentina Allegrini, Matthew T McMillan, Alex Borin, Bofeng Chen, Jeffrey A Drebin, Brett L Ecker, Douglas L Fraker, Major K Lee, Salvatore Paiella, Robert E Roses, Roberto Salvia, Charles M Vollmer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe characteristics and management approaches for grade B pancreatic fistula (B-POPF) and investigate whether it segregates into distinct subclasses. BACKGROUND: The 2016 ISGPS refined definition of B-POPF is predicated on various postoperative management approaches, ranging from prolonged drainage to interventional procedures, but the spectrum of clinical severity within this entity is yet undefined. METHODS: Pancreatectomies performed at 2 institutions from 2007 to 2016 were reviewed to identify B-POPFs and their treatment strategies...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325400/eliminating-healthcare-associated-infections-in-iran-a-qualitative-study-to-explore-stakeholders-views
#4
Atefeh Esfandiari, Hedayat Salari, Arash Rashidian, Hossein Masoumi Asl, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Ali Akbari Sari
BACKGROUND: Although preventable, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) continue to pose huge health and economic burdens on countries worldwide. Some studies have indicated the numerous causes of HAIs, but only a tiny literature exists on the multifaceted measures that can be used to address the problem. This paper presents stakeholders' opinions on measures for controlling HAIs in Iran. METHODS: We used the qualitative research method in studying the phenomenon...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322274/evidence-of-clinical-and-economic-impact-of-pharmacist-interventions-related-to-antimicrobials-in-the-hospital-setting
#5
REVIEW
L Leache, I Aquerreta, A Aldaz, A Idoate, A Ortega
The purpose of this paper was to review the literature regarding the clinical and economic impact of pharmacist interventions (PIs) related to antimicrobials in the hospital setting. A PubMed literature search from January 2003 to March 2016 was conducted using the terms pharmacist* or clinical pharmacist* combined with antimicrobial* or antibiotic* or anti-infective*. Comparative studies that assessed the clinical and/or economic impact of PIs on antimicrobials in the hospital setting were reviewed. Outcomes were classified as: treatment-related outcomes (TROs), clinical outcomes (COs), cost and microbiological outcomes (MOs)...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316282/are-multiple-sinus-cultures-necessary-during-sinus-surgery-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#6
Craig Miller, Greg E Davis
BACKGROUND: Multiple cultures are commonly obtained from different sinuses where purulence is encountered during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). This brings into question the utility and necessity of obtaining multiple cultures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if multiple cultures obtained during a single case is informative in finding additional pathogens or if it is a redundant, cost-increasing practice. We hypothesized that multiple sinus cultures are necessary to identify the pathogens responsible for an individual's sinus disease...
January 5, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297159/in-vitro-characterization-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-bovine-milk-as-potential-probiotic-strains-to-prevent-bovine-mastitis
#7
Matías S Pellegrino, Ignacio D Frola, Berardo Natanael, Dino Gobelli, María E F Nader-Macias, Cristina I Bogni
Bovine mastitis causes economic losses on dairy farms worldwide. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in animal health are an alternative tool to avoid antibiotic therapy on the prevention of bovine mastitis. In previous studies, 12 LAB isolated from bovine milk were selected taking into account some of the following characteristics: hydrophobicity, auto aggregative capability, inhibition of indicator pathogens, hydrogen peroxide, and capsular polysaccharide production. These LAB were considered because of their beneficial properties...
January 2, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284474/a-systematic-review-of-the-economic-impact-of-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-dengue
#8
Jacqueline Kyungah Lim, Neal Alexander, Gian Luca Di Tanna
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is rapidly expanding geographically, with about half of the world's population now at risk. Among the various diagnostic options, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are convenient and prompt, but limited in terms of accuracy and availability. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of published data on the use of RDTs for dengue with respect to their economic impact. The search was conducted with combinations of key search terms, including "((Dengue[Title]) AND cost/economic)" and "rapid diagnostic test/assay (or point-of-care)"...
December 29, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284419/serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-17-chinese-cities-from-2011-to-2016
#9
Chunjiang Zhao, Zongbo Li, Feifei Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Ping Ji, Ji Zeng, Bijie Hu, Zhidong Hu, Kang Liao, Hongli Sun, Rong Zhang, Bin Cao, Chao Zhuo, Wei Jia, Yaning Mei, Yunzhuo Chu, Xuesong Xu, Qing Yang, Yan Jin, Quan Fu, Xiuli Xu, Hongling Li, Lijun Wang, Yuxing Ni, Hongjie Liang, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading pathogen of bacterial infections in infants and the elderly, is responsible for pneumococcal diseases with severe morbidity and mortality. Emergence of drug-resistant strains presented new challenges for treatment and prevention. Vaccination has proven to be an effective means of preventing pneumococcal infection worldwide. Detailed epidemiological information of antibiotic susceptibilities and serotype distribution will be of great help to the management of pneumococcal infections...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280695/intranasal-packs-and-haemostatic-agents-for-the-management-of-adult-epistaxis-systematic-review
#10
I Z Iqbal, G H Jones, N Dawe, C Mamais, M E Smith, R J Williams, I Kuhn, S Carrie
BACKGROUND: The mainstay of management of epistaxis refractory to first aid and cautery is intranasal packing. This review aimed to identify evidence surrounding nasal pack use. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was performed using standardised methodology. RESULTS: Twenty-seven eligible articles were identified relating to non-dissolvable packs and nine to dissolvable packs. Nasal packing appears to be more effective when applied by trained professionals...
December 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259371/probiotics-for-gastrointestinal-disorders-proposed-recommendations-for-children-of-the-asia-pacific-region
#11
REVIEW
Donald Cameron, Quak Seng Hock, Musal Kadim, Neelam Mohan, Eell Ryoo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Yuichiro Yamashiro, Chen Jie, Hans Hoekstra, Alfredo Guarino
Recommendations for probiotics are available in several regions. This paper proposes recommendations for probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Epidemiology and clinical patterns of intestinal diseases in Asia-Pacific countries were discussed. Evidence-based recommendations and randomized controlled trials in the region were revised. Cultural aspects, health management issues and economic factors were also considered. Final recommendations were approved by applying the Likert scale and rated using the GRADE system...
December 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247795/patient-demographic-and-microbiology-trends-in-bacterial-conjunctivitis-in-children
#12
Felix V Chen, Ta C Chang, Kara M Cavuoto
The management of bacterial conjunctivitis has a significant economic impact, despite the relatively benign nature of the disease. We reviewed the medical records for children diagnosed with conjunctivitis at inpatient and outpatient facilities of a tertiary university center over a 5-year period to examine the microbial trends and physician practice patterns and found that most cases of conjunctivitis were treated empirically. When cultures were performed and an organism was recovered, there were significant differences in the organism based on age...
December 13, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242567/a-coxiella-mutualist-symbiont-is-essential-to-the-development-of-rhipicephalus-microplus
#13
Melina Garcia Guizzo, Luís Fernando Parizi, Rodrigo Dutra Nunes, Renata Schama, Rodolpho M Albano, Lucas Tirloni, Daiane Patrícia Oldiges, Ricardo Pilz Vieira, Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira, Milane de Souza Leite, Sergio A Gonzales, Marisa Farber, Orlando Martins, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Pedro L Oliveira
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite that causes important economic losses in livestock. Different species of ticks harbor a symbiont bacterium of the genus Coxiella. It was showed that a Coxiella endosymbiont from R. microplus (CERM) is a vertically transmitted mutualist symbiont, comprising 98% of the 16S rRNA sequences in both eggs and larvae. Sequencing of the bacterial genome revealed genes for biosynthetic pathways for several vitamins and key metabolic cofactors that may provide a nutritional complement to the tick host...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231854/nisin-in-combination-with-cinnamaldehyde-and-edta-to-control-growth-of-escherichia-coli-strains-of-swine-origin
#14
Des Field, Inès Baghou, Mary C Rea, Gillian E Gardiner, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill
Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an economically important disease in pig production worldwide. Although antibiotics have contributed significantly to mitigate the economic losses caused by PWD, there is major concern over the increased incidence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria isolated from pigs. Consequently, suitable alternatives that are safe and effective are urgently required. Many naturally occurring compounds, including the antimicrobial peptide nisin and a number of plant essential oils, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective as antimicrobial agents against pathogenic microorganisms...
December 12, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226070/economic-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-elderly-patients-a-japanese-perspective
#15
Keiko Konomura, Hideaki Nagai, Manabu Akazawa
Background: This study aimed to estimate the economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among elderly patients in Japan. In addition, the study evaluated the relationship between total treatment cost and CAP risk factors. Methods: An administrative database was searched for elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) who had pneumonia (ICD-10 code: J12-J18) and an antibiotic prescription between 1 June 2014 and 31 May 2015. The all-cause total healthcare costs of outpatient and inpatient CAP episodes were calculated...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224885/economic-optimization-of-selective-dry-cow-treatment
#16
C G M Scherpenzeel, H Hogeveen, L Maas, T J G M Lam
The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to identify a scenario with the lowest costs for mastitis associated with the dry period while restricting the percentage of cows to be dried off with dry cow antimicrobials. Costs of clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as antimicrobial use were quantified. Based on data from a large field trial, a linear programming model was built with the goal to minimize the costs associated with antimicrobial use at drying off. To enable calculations on minimizing costs of dry cow treatment on herd-level by drying-off decisions in an "average" herd, we created an example herd...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221894/efficacy-of-an-inactivated-mycoplasma-hyorhinis-vaccine-in-pigs
#17
Brian Martinson, Whitney Zoghby, Kenneth Barrett, Lawrence Bryson, Rodney Christmas, F C Minion, Jeremy Kroll
Lameness and polyserositis in pigs caused by Mycoplasma hyorhinis are generally treated with antibiotics and may require multiple doses. The costs of these antibiotics combined with economic losses from culling and reduced feed conversion due to lameness are hardships to the swine producer. In this study we have demonstrated efficacy of an inactivated M. hyorhinis vaccine administered to three-week old caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived piglets. Three doses of vaccine (high, medium, and low) were evaluated and compared to a placebo control...
December 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214048/good-vaccination-practice-it-all-starts-with-a-good-vaccine-storage-temperature
#18
Frédéric Vangroenweghe
Background: Recent introduction of strategies to reduce antibiotic use in food animal production implies an increased use of vaccines in order to prevent the economic impact of several important diseases in swine. Good Vaccination Practice (GVP) is an overall approach on the swine farm aiming to obtain maximal efficacy of vaccination through good storage, preparation and finally correct application to the target animals. In order to have a better insight into GVP on swine farms and the vaccine storage conditions, a survey on vaccination practices was performed on a farmers' fair and temperatures in the vaccine storage refrigerators were measured during farm visits over a period of 1 year...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208562/microbiological-factors-affecting-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#19
REVIEW
C H Chilton, D S Pickering, J Freeman
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. Furthermore, rCDI may impact quality of life, leaving patients in a 'rCDI cycle', and dependant on antibiotic therapy. AIMS: This article discusses the importance of microbiological factors in the development of rCDI. SOURCES: Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term "recurrent Clostridium difficile infection"; and further references quoted within these articles...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202797/clinical-and-economic-impact-of-the-introduction-of-a-nucleic-acid-amplification-assay-for-clostridium-difficile
#20
Margaret M Guinta, Kristen Bunnell, Amanda Harrington, Susan Bleasdale, Larry Danziger, Eric Wenzler
BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes and cost implications of a diagnostic shift from an EIA- to PCR-based assay for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have not been completely described in the literature. METHODS: The impact of the PCR-based assay on the incidence and duration of CDI therapy was compared to the EIA assay for patients with a negative CDI diagnostic result. Secondary clinical and economic outcomes were also evaluated. Independent predictors of receipt of antibiotic therapy were assessed via logistic regression...
December 4, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
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