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antibiotic economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929815/the-challenge-of-curbing-aminoglycoside-resistance-can-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-play-a-critical-role
#1
Vassiliki Pitiriga, Evangelia Dimitroulia, George Saroglou, Athanassios Tsakris
Aminoglycosides are useful antimicrobials, primarily for serious infections involving aerobic gram-negative pathogens. The inevitable increase in aminoglycoside resistance has led to calls for reducing levels of inappropriate aminoglycoside prescribing through the implementation of various antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs). These programs mainly include restriction policies and aminoglycoside cycling. Although aminoglycoside resistance rates appear essential for measuring effectiveness of these interventions, most studies have focused on economic outcomes or clinical efficacy and toxicities...
September 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926636/the-expected-and-unexpected-benefits-of-dispensing-the-exact-number-of-pills
#2
Carole Treibich, Sabine Lescher, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Bruno Ventelou
BACKGROUND: From November 2014 to November 2015, an experiment in French community pharmacies replaced traditional pre-packed boxes by per-unit dispensing of pills in the exact numbers prescribed, for 14 antibiotics. METHODS: A cluster randomised control trial was carried out in 100 pharmacies. 75 pharmacies counted out the medication by units (experimental group), the other 25 providing the treatment in the existing pharmaceutical company boxes (control group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925508/the-cost-effectiveness-of-oral-health-interventions-a-systematic-review-of-cost-utility-analyses
#3
Ruvini M Hettiarachchi, Sanjeewa Kularatna, Martin J Downes, Joshua Byrnes, Jeroen Kroon, Ratilal Lalloo, Newell W Johnson, Paul A Scuffham
OBJECTIVES: To assess the usage of cost-utility analysis (CUA) in oral health interventions and to evaluate the methods used and the reporting quality of CUA in publications on oral health interventions. METHODS: A systematic review was performed on literature published between 2000 and 2016 where cost-utility analyses of oral health interventions were included. The reporting quality of these oral health CUAs was assessed against the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist...
September 19, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922054/economic-burden-of-pneumococcal-infections-in-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#4
Mehmet Ceyhan, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Basak Hacibedel, Egemen Ozbilgili
The present study aimed to determine the cost of childhood pneumococcal infections under 5 years of age and to provide further data for future health economy studies. Electronic medical records of children diagnosed with meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae and all-cause pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) between January 2013-April 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Direct costs for the treatments of hospitalized patients (pneumonia and pneumococcal meningitis) including costs of healthcare services consisted of costs of hospital bed, examination, laboratory analyses, scanning methods, consultation, vascular access procedures, and infusion and intravenous treatments...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919794/parenteral-nutrition-including-an-omega-3-fatty-acid-containing-lipid-emulsion-for-intensive-care-patients-in-china-a-pharmacoeconomic-analysis
#5
Yufei Feng, Chao Li, Tian Zhang, Lorenzo Pradelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Parenteral nutrition (PN) incorporating omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsions has been shown to be cost effective in Western populations. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed within the Chinese intensive care unit (ICU) setting. This assessed whether the additional acquisition cost of PN with omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid) vs standard PN was offset by improved clinical outcomes that can reduce subsequent costs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model was developed, based on an update to efficacy data from a previous international meta-analysis, with China-specific clinical and economic input parameters...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919687/presence-and-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-isolated-from-diseased-pigs-in-the-central-region-of-argentina
#6
Fernando A Bessone, Gabriela Bessone, Sebastián Marini, María B Conde, Fabrisio E Alustiza, Gustavo Zielinski
BACKGROUND: The main pathogen of neonatal and post weaning diarrhea and edema disease (ED) is Escherichia coli and pathotypes involved are enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and shiga toxigenic (ETEC, EPEC, and STEC, respectively). Those diseases cause economic loss in pig production. AIM: The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of strains expressing virulence markers genes and the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of E. coli from clinical cases of post weaning diarrhea and ED in farms in the central area of Argentina...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915819/bacteriophage-therapy-to-combat-bacterial-infections-in-poultry
#7
REVIEW
Andrzej Wernicki, Anna Nowaczek, Renata Urban-Chmiel
Infections in poultry are an economic and health problem in Europe and worldwide. The most common infections are associated with salmonellosis, colibacillosis, campylobacteriosis, and others. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks in European countries varies from 18% to 90%. In the United States, the prevalence of infected flocks is nearly 90%. A similar percentage of infection has been noted for salmonellosis (about 75-90%) and E. coli (90-95%). The occurence of Clostridium perfringens is a major problem for the poultry industry, with some estimates suggesting colonization of as many as 95% of chickens, resulting in clinical or subclinical infections...
September 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914100/acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-the-infectious-diseases-consultant
#8
Victor Mulanovich, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Infectious complications following treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are important causes of morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and complexity of these infections is reflected by the severe net state of immunosuppression of AML patients, that is dynamic and continuously changing, the polypharmacy, including the widespread use of anti-infectives and the complex epidemiology of severe and frequently resistant pathogens afflicting these patients. Infectious diseases (ID) consultants having a critical mass of expertise and intimate knowledge of the intricacies of leukemia care, add considerable value in improving outcomes of patients with AML who develop infections...
September 15, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912766/environmental-bacteriophages-of-the-emerging-enterobacterial-phytopathogen-dickeya-solani-show-genomic-conservation-and-capacity-for-horizontal-gene-transfer-between-their-bacterial-hosts
#9
Andrew Day, Jiyoon Ahn, Xinzhe Fang, George P C Salmond
Dickeya solani is an economically important phytopathogen widespread in mainland Europe that can reduce potato crop yields by 25%. There are no effective environmentally-acceptable chemical systems available for diseases caused by Dickeya. Bacteriophages have been suggested for use in biocontrol of this pathogen in the field, and limited field trials have been conducted. To date only a small number of bacteriophages capable of infecting D. solani have been isolated and characterized, and so there is a need to expand the repertoire of phages that may have potential utility in phage therapy strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906047/a-systematic-review-to-explore-influences-on-parental-attitudes-towards-antibiotic-prescribing-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Helen Bosley, Catherine Henshall, Jane V Appleton, Debra Jackson
AIM: To understand the factors influencing parental attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing. BACKGROUND: Overuse of antibiotics and inappropriate prescribing has resulted in rapid development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and is significant global threat to patient safety. In Primary Care settings, substantial numbers of antibiotics are prescribed for young children, despite viral nature of illness for which antibiotics are ineffective. Parents, play a vital role in decision making regarding accessing healthcare services and requesting treatment for their children...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900741/occurrence-and-distribution-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-water-supply-reservoirs-in-jingjinji-area-china
#11
Kai Zhang, Zhi-Guang Niu, Zhiwei Lv, Ying Zhang
Jingjinji area occupies important position in developing of the Chinese economy, while there exists a sharp conflict between economic growth and limited water resources in this area. To ensure the safety of water consumption of cities in Jingjinji area, we investigated the abundance of three classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in water and sediment of six water supply reservoirs in this area. The results showed that the detection frequency of sul1, tetM and ermB were 100%. However, the content ranges of these genes were different (10(-5) to 10(-2)/16S gene copies for sul1, 10(-5) to 10(-3)/16S gene copies for ermB, and 10(-5) to 10(-3)/16S gene copies for tetM)...
September 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898319/-tetanus-a-current-disease-in-pediatric-population-case-report
#12
María Del Pilar Cejudo-García de Alba, Jaime Guadalupe Valle-Leal, Jesús Gabriel Sánchez Beltrán, Amado de Jesús Francisco Vázquez-Amparano
INTRODUCTION: Tetanus is an acute disease caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium tetanii. The disease can affect people of any age, and the fatality rate is high. Thanks to immunization the number of cases of the disease has decreased, although they are still present in isolation in countries with social and economic backwardness. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of a pediatric patient with generalized tetanus to reinforce the relevance of prophylaxis and early detection...
2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892282/diabetic-foot-infection-antibiotic-therapy-and-good-practice-recommendations
#13
Nicholas D Barwell, Marion C Devers, Brian Kennon, Helen E Hopkinson, Claire McDougall, Matthew J Young, Hannah M A Robertson, Duncan Stang, Stephanie J Dancer, Andrew Seaton, Graham P Leese
BACKGROUND: Healthcare events related to diabetic foot disease carry a burden of morbidity, mortality and economic cost. Prompt identification of clinical infection with appropriate tissue sampling limits use of broad spectrum empirical antibiotics and improves antibiotic stewardship. Staphylococcus aureus remains the commonest infecting organism and high-dose flucloxacillin remains the empirical antibiotic of choice for antibiotic naïve patients. Barriers to microbe-specific treatment include: adequate tissue sampling, delays in culture results, drug allergies and the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms which can complicate the choice of targeted antibiotics...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887421/impact-of-raised-without-antibiotics-beef-cattle-production-practices-on-occurrences-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#14
Amit Vikram, Pablo Rovira, Getahun E Agga, Terrance M Arthur, Joseph M Bosilevac, Tommy L Wheeler, Paul S Morley, Keith E Belk, John W Schmidt
The specific antimicrobial resistance (AMR) decreases that can be expected from reducing antimicrobial (AM) use in United States (US) beef production have not been defined. To address this data gap, feces were recovered from 36 lots of "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and 36 lots of "conventional" (CONV) beef cattle. Samples (N = 719) were collected during harvest and distributed over a year. AMR was assessed by: i) culture of six AM-resistant bacteria (ARB); ii) qPCR for 10 AMR genes (ARGs); iii) an qPCR array of 84 ARGs; and iv) metagenomic sequencing...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886400/breastfeeding-increases-microbial-community-resilience
#15
Isabel I Carvalho-Ramos, Rubens T D Duarte, Katia Brandt, Marina B Martinez, Carla R Taddei
OBJECTIVE: Since the present group had already described the composition of the intestinal microbiota of Brazilian infants under low social economic level, the aim of the present study was to analyze the microbial community structure changes in this group of infants during their early life due to external factors. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 11 infants monthly during the first year of life. The infants were followed regarding clinical and diet information and characterized according to breastfeeding practices...
September 5, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882727/newer-glycopeptide-antibiotics-for-treatment-of-complicated-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-a-systematic-review-network-meta-analysis-and-cost-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Rajender Agarwal, Sarah M Bartsch, Brendan J Kelly, Malinda Prewitt, Yulun Liu, Yong Chen, Craig A Umscheid
OBJECTIVES: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) carry significant economic burden, as well as morbidity and mortality, especially when caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Several new MRSA-active antibiotics have been developed, including semisynthetic glycopeptides (telavancin, dalbavancin and oritavancin). Of these, dalbavancin and oritavancin offer extended dosing intervals. METHODS: We performed a systematic review, network meta-analysis and cost analysis to compare the newer glycopeptides to standard care and each other for the treatment of complicated SSTIs (cSSTI)...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875314/a-systematic-literature-review-of-economic-evaluations-of-antibiotic-treatments-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
REVIEW
Hannah E Burton, Stephen A Mitchell, Maureen Watt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is associated with high management costs, particularly in recurrent cases. Fidaxomicin treatment results in lower recurrence rates than vancomycin and metronidazole, but has higher acquisition costs in Europe and the USA. This systematic literature review summarises economic evaluations (EEs) of fidaxomicin, vancomycin and metronidazole for treatment of CDI. METHODS: Electronic databases (MEDLINE(®), Embase, Cochrane Library) and conference proceedings (ISPOR, ECCMID, ICAAC and IDWeek) were searched for publications reporting EEs of fidaxomicin, vancomycin and/or metronidazole in the treatment of CDI...
September 5, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853058/pharmacological-management-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-current-and-evolving-treatments
#18
Daniel M Beswick, Stacey T Gray, Timothy L Smith
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory sinonasal condition with multiple etiologic factors that is associated with a vast economic cost. Treatment is most frequently pharmacologic and has centered on agents that ameliorate inflammation, decrease bacterial or pathogen load, and facilitate egress of mucus or purulence from the sinonasal cavity. Nasal saline irrigations, topical nasal steroids, certain antibiotics, and systemic steroids have shown some efficacy in the management of CRS. Recently, biologic therapeutics that target specific inflammatory pathways associated with subsets of CRS have been developed and evaluated...
August 29, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852672/bundle-in-the-bronx-impact-of-a-transition-of-care-outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-bundle-on-all-cause-30-day-hospital-readmissions
#19
Theresa Madaline, Priya Nori, Wenzhu Mowrey, Elisabeth Zukowski, Shruti Gohil, Uzma Sarwar, Gregory Weston, Riganni Urrely, Matthew Palombelli, Vinnie Frank Pierino, Vanessa Parsons, Amy Ehrlich, Belinda Ostrowsky, Marilou Corpuz, Liise-Anne Pirofski
BACKGROUND: A streamlined transition from inpatient to outpatient care can decrease 30-day readmissions. Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) programs have not reduced readmissions; an OPAT bundle has been suggested to improve outcomes. We implemented a transition-of-care (TOC) OPAT bundle and assessed the effects on all-cause, 30-day hospital readmission. METHODS: Retrospectively, patients receiving postdischarge intravenous antibiotics were evaluated before and after implementation of a TOC-OPAT program in Bronx, New York, between July, 2015 and February, 2016...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841685/antibiotic-drug-usage-in-pigs-in-germany-are-the-class-profiles-changing
#20
Franziska Schaekel, Thomas May, Julia Seiler, Maria Hartmann, Lothar Kreienbrock
The development of antimicrobial resistance is triggered by the use of antibiotic drugs. Therefore, the consumption of antibiotics in livestock is monitored, and different measures may be applied if the usage of antibiotic drugs seems inappropriate. Unfortunately, the surveillance of antibiotic consumption is not standardised, and surveillance systems differ. In Germany, the food quality assurance system QS Qualität und Sicherheit GmbH (QS) began the documentation of antibiotic drug usage in pigs in 2012 in a private economic based database, and for its members, documentation has been mandatory in all pig age groups since 2014...
2017: PloS One
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