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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938439/single-dose-metformin-enhances-bile-acid-induced-glp-1-secretion-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Andreas Brønden, Anders Albér, Ulrich Rohde, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
Context: Despite a position as the first-line pharmacotherapy in type 2 diabetes, the glucose-lowering mechanisms of metformin remain to be fully clarified. Gut-derived modes of action, including suppression of bile acid reabsorption and a resulting increase in GLP-1 secretion, has been proposed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the GLP-1 secretory and gluco-metabolic effects of endogenously released bile, with and without concomitant single-dose administration of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937705/interventions-for-treating-genital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-in-pregnancy
#2
REVIEW
Catherine Cluver, Natalia Novikova, David Oa Eriksson, Kevin Bengtsson, Göran K Lingman
BACKGROUND: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (C.trachomatis) infection may lead to pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, preterm labour, low birthweight, preterm rupture of membranes, increased perinatal mortality, postpartum endometritis, chlamydial conjunctivitis and C.trachomatis pneumonia.This review supersedes a previous review on this topic. OBJECTIVES: To establish the most efficacious and best-tolerated therapy for treatment of genital chlamydial infection in preventing maternal infection and adverse neonatal outcomes...
September 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936715/comparing-different-partograph-designs-for-use-in-standard-labor-care-a-pilot-randomized-trial
#3
Nigel J Lee, Jeremy Neal, Nancy K Lowe, Sue V Kildea
Backgound Partographs are used in many labour settings to provide a pictorial overview of a woman's cervical dilation pattern in the first stage of labor and to alert clinicians to slow progress possibly requiring intervention. Recent reviews called for large trials to establish the efficacy of partographs to improve birth outcomes whilst highlighting issues of clinician compliance with use. Previous studies have also reported issues with participant recruitment related to concerns regarding the possibility of a longer labour...
September 21, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936625/the-reproducibility-of-4-km-time-trial-tt-performance-following-individualised-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-trained-cyclists
#4
Lewis Anthony Gough, Sanjoy Kumar Deb, Andy Sparks, Lars Robert McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Individual time to peak blood bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) has demonstrated good to excellent reproducibility following ingestion of both 0.2 g kg(-1) body mass (BM) and 0.3 g kg(-1) BM sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), but the consistency of the time trial (TT) performance response using such an individualised NaHCO3 ingestion strategy remains unknown. This study therefore evaluated the reproducibility of 4-km TT performance following NaHCO3 ingestion individualised to time to peak blood bicarbonate...
September 21, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935921/probiotic-reduces-bacterial-translocation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomised-controlled-study
#5
Junko Sato, Akio Kanazawa, Kosuke Azuma, Fuki Ikeda, Hiromasa Goto, Koji Komiya, Rei Kanno, Yoshifumi Tamura, Takashi Asahara, Takuya Takahashi, Koji Nomoto, Yuichiro Yamashiro, Hirotaka Watada
Gut bacterial translocation to the blood may play an important role in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Here, we performed an interventional randomised control study to investigate whether probiotics could reduce bacterial translocation and cause changes in the gut microbiota. Seventy Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomised to two groups: the probiotic group drank Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota-fermented milk, while the control group ingested no probiotics. The trial was conducted for 16 weeks...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935558/immediate-interruption-of-sedation-compared-with-usual-sedation-care-in-critically-ill-postoperative-patients-sos-ventilation-a-randomised-parallel-group-clinical-trial
#6
Gerald Chanques, Matthieu Conseil, Claire Roger, Jean-Michel Constantin, Albert Prades, Julie Carr, Laurent Muller, Boris Jung, Fouad Belafia, Moussa Cissé, Jean-Marc Delay, Audrey de Jong, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Emmanuel Futier, Grégoire Mercier, Nicolas Molinari, Samir Jaber
BACKGROUND: Avoidance of excessive sedation and subsequent prolonged mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs) is recommended, but no data are available for critically ill postoperative patients. We hypothesised that in such patients stopping sedation immediately after admission to the ICU could reduce unnecessary sedation and improve patient outcomes. METHODS: We did a randomised, parallel-group, clinical trial at three ICUs in France. Stratified randomisation with minimisation (1:1 via a restricted web platform) was used to assign eligible patients (aged ≥18 years, admitted to an ICU after abdominal surgery, and expected to require at least 12 h of mechanical ventilation because of a critical illness defined by a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score >1 for any organ, but without severe acute respiratory distress syndrome or brain injury) to usual sedation care provided according to recommended practices (control group) or to immediate interruption of sedation (intervention group)...
September 18, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935227/physiotherapy-education-and-training-prior-to-upper-abdominal-surgery-is-memorable-and-has-high-treatment-fidelity-a-nested-mixed-methods-randomised-controlled-study
#7
Ianthe Boden, Doa El-Ansary, Nadia Zalucki, Iain K Robertson, Laura Browning, Elizabeth H Skinner, Linda Denehy
OBJECTIVES: To (1) assess memorability and treatment fidelity of pre-operative physiotherapy education prior to elective upper abdominal surgery and, (2) to explore patient opinions on pre-operative education. DESIGN: Mixed-methods analysis of a convenience sample within a larger parallel-group, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. SETTING: Tertiary Australian hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-nine patients having upper abdominal surgery attending pre-admission clinic within six-weeks of surgery...
September 1, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934871/idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-vision-venous-intervention-versus-shunting-in-iih-for-optic-nerve-disc-swelling-trial-patient-perspective-questionnaire
#8
Arun Chandran, Heinke Pulhorn, Catherine McMahon
INTRODUCTION: Headaches, visual problems and tinnitus are symptoms of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) which resolve with reduction of CSF pressure. Impaired cranial venous outflow has been implicated in the pathogenesis and there is evidence of good treatment results in IIH using venous sinus stenting. We are currently initiating a multi-centre randomised controlled trial, the VISION study (Venous Intervention versus Shunting in IIH for Optic Disc Swelling) comparing radiological (venous sinus stenting) to surgical intervention (CSF shunting)...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934746/temperature-probe-placement-during-preterm-infant-resuscitation-a-randomised-trial
#9
Brahim Bensouda, Romain Mandel, Abdelwaheb Mejri, Jean Lachapelle, Marie St-Hilaire, Nabeel Ali
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia on admission to intensive care is associated with poor outcomes in preterm infants. The neonatal resuscitation program recommends the use of servo-control thermoregulation during resuscitation. Very little evidence exists to guide optimal temperature probe placement in the delivery room. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to determine, in moderately preterm infants, if temperature probe placement in the dorsal, thoracic, or axillary area during delivery room resuscitation would result in differing temperatures on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
September 22, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934714/efficacy-of-dehydroepiandrosterone-dhea-to-overcome-the-effect-of-ovarian-ageing-ditto-a-proof-of-principle-double-blinded-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Amarin Narkwichean, Walid Maalouf, Miriam Baumgarten, Lukasz Polanski, Nick Raine-Fenning, Bruce Campbell, Kannamannadiar Jayaprakasan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of DHEA supplementation on In-Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) outcome as assessed by ovarian response, oocyte developmental competence and live birth rates in women predicted to have poor ovarian reserve (OR). The feasibility of conducting a large trial is also assessed by evaluating the recruitment rates and compliance of the recruited participants with DHEA/placebo intake and follow-up rates. STUDY DESIGN: A single centre, double blinded, placebo controlled, randomized trial was performed over two years with 60 women undergoing in-vitro fertilisation (IVF)...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934191/effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-brain-metabolism-and-grey-matter-volume-in-older-adults-results-of-the-randomised-controlled-smart-trial
#11
S Matura, J Fleckenstein, R Deichmann, T Engeroff, E Füzéki, E Hattingen, R Hellweg, B Lienerth, U Pilatus, S Schwarz, V A Tesky, L Vogt, W Banzer, J Pantel
There is mounting evidence that aerobic exercise has a positive effect on cognitive functions in older adults. To date, little is known about the neurometabolic and molecular mechanisms underlying this positive effect. The present study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantitative MRI to systematically explore the effects of physical activity on human brain metabolism and grey matter (GM) volume in healthy aging. This is a randomised controlled assessor-blinded two-armed trial (n=53) to explore exercise-induced neuroprotective and metabolic effects on the brain in cognitively healthy older adults...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933973/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-early-detection-of-prostate-cancer-and-review-of-the-literature-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-stratified-clinical-pathways
#12
Taimur Tariq Shah, Wilson King Lim To, Hashim Uddin Ahmed
With level 1 evidence now available on the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we must now utilise this data in developing an MRI-stratified diagnostic pathway for the early detection of prostate cancer. Areas covered: A literature review was conducted and identified seven randomised control trials (RCT's) assessing the diagnostic accuracy of such a pathway against the previously accepted systematic/random trans-rectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) biopsy pathway. The studies were heterogeneous in their design...
September 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933516/anti-il5-therapies-for-asthma
#13
REVIEW
Hugo A Farne, Amanda Wilson, Colin Powell, Lynne Bax, Stephen J Milan
BACKGROUND: This review is the first update of a previously published review in The Cochrane Library (Issue 7, 2015). Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is the main cytokine involved in the activation of eosinophils, which cause airway inflammation and are a classic feature of asthma. Monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-5 or its receptor (IL-5R) have been developed, with recent studies suggesting that they reduce asthma exacerbations, improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and lung function...
September 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933514/hypothermia-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
REVIEW
Sharon R Lewis, David Jw Evans, Andrew R Butler, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Phil Alderson
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia has been used in the treatment of brain injury for many years. Encouraging results from small trials and laboratory studies led to renewed interest in the area and some larger trials. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of mild hypothermia for traumatic brain injury (TBI) on mortality, long-term functional outcomes and complications. SEARCH METHODS: We ran and incorporated studies from database searches to 21 March 2016...
September 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933367/targeting-metabolic-modulation-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-treatment-of-heart-failure
#15
REVIEW
Abbey Steggall, Ify R Mordi, Chim C Lang
Despite significant improvements in morbidity and mortality with current evidence-based pharmaceutical-based treatment of heart failure (HF) over the previous decades, the burden of HF remains high. An alternative approach is currently being developed, which targets myocardial energy efficiency and the dysfunction of the cardiac mitochondria. Emerging evidence suggests that the insufficient availability of ATP to the failing myocardium can be attributed to abnormalities in the myocardial utilisation of its substrates rather than an overall lack of substrate availability...
May 10, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933314/effectiveness-of-a-low-support-remotely-accessible-cognitive-remediation-training-programme-for-chronic-psychosis-cognitive-functional-and-cortical-outcomes-from-a-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
G Donohoe, R Dillon, A Hargreaves, O Mothersill, M Castorina, E Furey, A J Fagan, J F Meaney, B Fitzmaurice, B Hallahan, C McDonald, T Wykes, A Corvin, I H Robertson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive remediation (CR) training has emerged as a promising approach to improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and related psychosis. The limited availability of psychological services for psychosis is a major barrier to accessing this intervention however. This study investigated the effectiveness of a low support, remotely accessible, computerised working memory (WM) training programme in patients with psychosis. METHODS: Ninety patients were enrolled into a single blind randomised controlled trial of CR...
September 21, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933265/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-multiple-sclerosis-biology-biochemistry-epidemiology-and-potential-roles-in-treatment
#17
Steve Simpson, Ingrid van der Mei, Bruce Taylor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive, demyelinating condition of the central nervous system, manifesting in loss or alterations in function of sensory, motor and cognitive function. Of the various environmental and behavioural risk factors identified as playing a role in MS onset and progression, perhaps none has been as consistent as vitamin D. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we will endeavour to present a general background on the role of vitamin D in human health and particularly in MS, as well as the substantial epidemiological evidence in support of vitamin D's role in MS...
September 21, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933133/the-effect-of-nerve-mobilization-exercise-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-pilot-study
#18
C-N Lo, G Xia, B P Leung
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints. The neurogenic inflammatory mechanism plays an important role in the inflammatory process of RA, and pathological changes in neural tissues in RA have also been noted. We aim to investigate treatment of the nervous system to relieve joint pain and inflammation in RA. Nerve mobilization, a nervous system-specific therapeutic exercise, was applied on RA patients to determine the effect of nerve mobilization on joint inflammation...
September 21, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931508/corticosteroids-for-treatment-of-sore-throat-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#19
Behnam Sadeghirad, Reed A C Siemieniuk, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Davide Papola, Lyubov Lytvyn, Per Olav Vandvik, Arnaud Merglen, Gordon H Guyatt, Thomas Agoritsas
Objective To estimate the benefits and harms of using corticosteroids as an adjunct treatment for sore throat.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised control trials.Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), trial registries up to May 2017, reference lists of eligible trials, related reviews.Study selection Randomised controlled trials of the addition of corticosteroids to standard clinical care for patients aged 5 or older in emergency department and primary care settings with clinical signs of acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, or the clinical syndrome of sore throat...
September 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931203/scalpel-versus-electrosurgery-for-major-abdominal-incisions
#20
REVIEW
Kittipat Charoenkwan, Zipporah Iheozor-Ejiofor, Kittipan Rerkasem, Elizabeth Matovinovic
BACKGROUND: Scalpels or electrosurgery can be used to make abdominal incisions. The potential benefits of electrosurgery may include reduced blood loss, dry and rapid separation of tissue, and reduced risk of cutting injury to surgeons. Postsurgery risks possibly associated with electrosurgery may include poor wound healing and complications such as surgical site infection. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of electrosurgery compared with scalpel for major abdominal incisions...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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