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Entamoeba histolytica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820699/in-vitro-testing-of-potential-entamoeba-histolytica-pyruvate-phosphate-dikinase-inhibitors
#1
Syazwan Saidin, Nurulhasanah Othman, Rahmah Noordin
Adverse effects and resistance to metronidazole have motivated the search for new antiamoebic agents against Entamoeba histolytica. Control of amoeba growth may be achieved by inhibiting the function of the glycolytic enzyme and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). In this study, we screened 10 compounds using an in vitro PPDK enzyme assay. These compounds were selected from a virtual screening of compounds in the National Cancer Institute database. The antiamoebic activity of the selected compounds was also evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and IC50 values using the nitro-blue tetrazolium reduction assay...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817707/microbiome-mediated-neutrophil-recruitment-via-cxcr2-and-protection-from-amebic-colitis
#2
Koji Watanabe, Carol A Gilchrist, Md Jashim Uddin, Stacey L Burgess, Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Shannon N Moonah, Zannatun Noor, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Brittany N Schneider, Tuhinur Arju, Emtiaz Ahmed, Mamun Kabir, Masud Alam, Rashidul Haque, Patcharin Pramoonjago, Borna Mehrad, William A Petri
The disease severity of Entamoeba histolytica infection ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Recent human and animal data implicate the gut microbiome as a modifier of E. histolytica virulence. Here we have explored the association of the microbiome with susceptibility to amebiasis in infants and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Dysbiosis occurred symptomatic E. histolytica infection in children, as evidenced by a lower Shannon diversity index of the gut microbiota. To test if dysbiosis was a cause of susceptibility, wild type C57BL/6 mice (which are innately resistant to E...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808619/gastrointestinal-parasites-in-captive-and-free-ranging-cebus-albifrons-in-the-western-amazon-ecuador
#3
Sarah Martin-Solano, Gabriel A Carrillo-Bilbao, William Ramirez, Maritza Celi-Erazo, Marie-Claude Huynen, Bruno Levecke, Washington Benitez-Ortiz, Bertrand Losson
Currently, there is a lack of surveys that report the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in the white-headed capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons). We therefore assessed the presence and richness (= number of different parasite genera) of parasites in C. albifrons in wildlife refuges (n = 11) and in a free-ranging group near a human village (n = 15) in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In the 78 samples collected (median of 3 samples per animal), we identified a total of 6 genera of gastrointestinal parasites, representing protozoa, nematodes, acanthocephalans and cestodes...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797327/outbreak-of-intestinal-amoebiasis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-barcelona-spain-october-2016-and-january-2017
#4
Laura Escolà-Vergé, Maider Arando, Martí Vall, Roger Rovira, Mateu Espasa, Elena Sulleiro, Pere Armengol, Francesc Zarzuela, María-Jesús Barberá
Entamoeba histolytica has been recently recognised as an emerging sexually transmissible pathogen in men who have sex with men (MSM), causing sporadic outbreaks in countries where it is not endemic. Here we report two closed clusters of invasive amoebiasis occurring in Barcelona, Spain, in October 2016 (four cases) and in January 2017 (four cases).
July 27, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796788/different-behavior-of-myeloperoxidase-in-two-rodent-amoebic-liver-abscess-models
#5
Andrea Cruz-Baquero, Luz María Cárdenas Jaramillo, Manuel Gutiérrez-Meza, Rosa Adriana Jarillo-Luna, Rafael Campos-Rodríguez, Víctor Rivera-Aguilar, Angel Miliar-García, Judith Pacheco-Yepez
The protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis, which can spread to the liver and form amoebic liver abscesses. Histological studies conducted with resistant and susceptible models of amoebic liver abscesses (ALAs) have established that neutrophils are the first cells to contact invasive amoebae at the lesion site. Myeloperoxidase is the most abundant enzyme secreted by neutrophils. It uses hydrogen peroxide secreted by the same cells to oxidize chloride ions and produce hypochlorous acid, which is the most efficient microbicidal system of neutrophils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793307/larrea-tridentata-a-novel-source-for-anti-parasitic-agents-active-against-entamoeba-histolytica-giardia-lamblia-and-naegleria-fowleri
#6
Bharat Bashyal, Linfeng Li, Trpta Bains, Anjan Debnath, Daniel V LaBarbera
Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages...
August 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793024/socioenvironmental-conditions-and-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-brazilian-urban-slums-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Caroline Ferraz Ignacio, Milena Enderson Chagas da Silva, Natasha Berendonk Handam, Maria de Fatima Leal Alencar, Adriana Sotero-Martins, Martha Macedo de Lima Barata, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes
Methods: A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595) searching for intestinal parasites. Results: Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0%) and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9%) were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792380/evaluation-of-the-bd-max-enteric-parasite-panel-for-the-detection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-hominis-giardia-duodenalis-and-entamoeba-histolytica
#8
Michael D Perry, Sally A Corden, P Lewis White
PURPOSE: Conventional laboratory detection methods for gastrointestinal parasites are time consuming, require considerable technical expertise and may suffer from poor analytical sensitivity. This study sought to evaluate the automated BD MAX Enteric Parasite Panel (EPP) for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis.Methodolgy. A total of 104 known positive samples (43 Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis and 61 G. duodenalis), 15 simulated samples (E...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777082/crystal-structure-of-the-peg-bound-sh3-domain-of-myosin-ib-from-entamoeba-histolytica-reveals-its-mode-of-ligand-recognition
#9
Gunjan Gautam, Syed Arif Abdul Rehman, Preeti Pandey, Samudrala Gourinath
The versatility in the recognition of various interacting proteins by the SH3 domain drives a variety of cellular functions. Here, the crystal structure of the C-terminal SH3 domain of myosin IB from Entamoeba histolytica (EhMySH3) is reported at a resolution of 1.7 Å in native and PEG-bound states. Comparisons with other structures indicated that the PEG molecules occupy protein-protein interaction pockets similar to those occupied by the peptides in other peptide-bound SH3-domain structures. Also, analysis of the PEG-bound EhMySH3 structure led to the recognition of two additional pockets, apart from the conventional polyproline and specificity pockets, that are important for ligand interaction...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771523/differential-expression-of-pathogenic-genes-of-entamoeba-histolytica-vs-e-dispar-in-a-model-of-infection-using-human-liver-tissue-explants
#10
Cecilia Ximénez, Enrique González, Miriam Nieves, Ulises Magaña, Patricia Morán, Marco Gudiño-Zayas, Oswaldo Partida, Eric Hernández, Liliana Rojas-Velázquez, Ma Carmen García de León, Héctor Maldonado
We sought to establish an ex vivo model for examining the interaction of E. histolytica with human tissue, using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) from donated organs. E. histolytica- or E. dispar-infected PCLS were analyzed at different post-infection times (0, 1, 3, 24 and 48 h) to evaluate the relation between tissue damage and the expression of genes associated with three factors: a) parasite survival (peroxiredoxin, superoxide dismutase and 70 kDa heat shock protein), b) parasite virulence (EhGal/GalNAc lectin, amoebapore, cysteine proteases and calreticulin), and c) the host inflammatory response (various cytokines)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753671/self-reported-infections-during-international-travel-and-notifiable-infections-among-returning-international-travellers-sweden-2009-2013
#11
Viktor Dahl, Anders Wallensten
We studied food and water-borne diseases (FWDs), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme among Swedish international travellers, in order to identify countries associated with a high number of infections. We used the national database for notifiable infections to estimate the number of FWDs (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, shigellosis, EHEC, Entamoeba histolytica, yersinosis, hepatitis A, paratyphoid fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis E, listeriosis, cholera), STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and acute hepatitis B), VBDs (dengue fever, malaria, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria) acquired abroad 2009-2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750000/comparison-of-hemolytic-activity-of-the-intermediate-subunit-of-entamoeba-histolytica-and-entamoeba-dispar-lectins
#12
Kentaro Kato, Takashi Makiuchi, Xunjia Cheng, Hiroshi Tachibana
Galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica has roles in pathogenicity and induction of protective immunity in rodent models of amoebiasis. Recently, the intermediate subunit of the lectin, Igl1, of E. histolytica has been shown to have hemolytic activity. However, the corresponding lectin is also expressed in a non-virulent species, Entamoeba dispar, and another subunit, Igl2, is expressed in the protozoa. Therefore, in this study, we compared the activities of Igl1 and Igl2 subunits from E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749764/use-of-serologic-responses-against-enteropathogens-to-assess-the-impact-of-a-point-of-use-water-filter-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-western-province-rwanda
#13
Laura Divens Zambrano, Jeffrey W Priest, Emil Ivan, John Rusine, Corey Nagel, Miles Kirby, Ghislaine Rosa, Thomas F Clasen
Diarrhea is a leading contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the challenge of blinding most water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions, diarrheal disease outcome measures in WASH intervention trials are subject to potential bias and misclassification. Using the platform of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a household-based drinking water filter in western province, Rwanda, we assessed the impact of the drinking water filter on enteric seroconversion in young children as a health outcome and examined the association between serological responses and caregiver-reported diarrhea...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740237/agc-family-kinase-1-participates-in-trogocytosis-but-not-in-phagocytosis-in-entamoeba-histolytica
#14
Somlata, Kumiko Nakada-Tsukui, Tomoyoshi Nozaki
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the aetiologic agent of amoebiasis, an endemic infection in developing countries with considerable morbidity and mortality. Recently, trogocytosis has been recognized as the key step in amoebic cytolysis and invasion, a paradigm shift in understanding pathogenicity of this organism. Here we report that AGC family kinase 1 is specifically involved in trogocytosis of live human cells and does not participate in phagocytosis of dead cells. Live imaging reveals localization of this kinase in the long and thin tunnels formed during trogocytosis but not in the trogosomes (endosomes formed after trogocytosis)...
July 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724909/investigation-of-pyrophosphate-versus-atp-substrate-selection-in-the-entamoeba-histolytica-acetate-kinase
#15
Thanh Dang, Cheryl Ingram-Smith
Acetate kinase (ACK; E.C. 2.7.2.1), which catalyzes the interconversion of acetate and acetyl phosphate, is nearly ubiquitous in bacteria but is present only in one genus of archaea and certain eukaryotic microbes. All ACKs utilize ATP/ADP as the phosphoryl donor/acceptor in the respective directions of the reaction (acetate + ATP [Formula: see text] acetyl phosphate + ADP), with the exception of the Entamoeba histolytica ACK (EhACK) which uses pyrophosphate (PPi)/inorganic phosphate (Pi) (acetyl phosphate + Pi  [Formula: see text] acetate + PPi)...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722597/occult-amoebic-liver-abscess-as-cause-of-extensive-inferior-vena-cava-and-hepatic-vein-thrombosis
#16
Leslie Martin, Nishigandha Burute, Ehsan Haider, Pablo E Serrano, Timothy O'Shea, Deborah Siegal
The most common extraintestinal complication of Entamoeba histolytica is amoebic liver abscess (ALA). Hepatic vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis are rare but well-documented complications of ALA, typically attributed to mechanical compression and inflammation associated with a large abscess. We present a case of a previously healthy 43-year-old Canadian man presenting with constitutional symptoms and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. He was found to have thrombophlebitis of the IVC, accessory right hepatic vein, and bilateral iliac veins...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719303/case-report-endemic-amebiasis-in-australia-implications-for-residents-travelers-and-clinicians
#17
Simon Smith, Gael E Phillips, William J H McBride, Josh Hanson
Entamoeba histolytica is considered endemic in Australia; however, cases are rare, occurring almost exclusively in high-risk individuals. We describe a series of locally acquired, complicated cases in low-risk individuals from Far North Queensland in whom the diagnosis was delayed. Amebiasis may pose a greater local threat than is currently recognized.
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711437/intestinal-parasitic-infections-current-status-and-associated-risk-factors-among-school-aged-children-in-an-archetypal-african-urban-slum-in-nigeria
#18
Vincent P Gyang, Ting-Wu Chuang, Chien-Wei Liao, Yueh-Lun Lee, Olaoluwa P Akinwale, Akwaowo Orok, Olusola Ajibaye, Ajayi J Babasola, Po-Ching Cheng, Chia-Mei Chou, Ying-Chieh Huang, Pasaiko Sonko, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among school aged children (SAC) in Nigeria remains endemic, hence the need for regular surveillance to attract the attention of policy makers. This cross-sectional study investigated the current prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among school aged children in an urban slum of Lagos City, Nigeria. METHODS: Single stool samples from 384 school aged children (188 boys and 196 girls) were examined by employing Merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC) and Kato-Katz methods...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687762/x-ray-snapshots-of-a-pyridoxal-enzyme-a-catalytic-mechanism-involving-concerted-1-5-hydrogen-sigmatropy-in-methionine-%C3%AE-lyase
#19
Dan Sato, Tomoo Shiba, Tsuyoshi Karaki, Wataru Yamagata, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Takashi Nakazawa, Shigeharu Harada
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-enzymes are essentially involved in amino acid and amine metabolism of a wide variety of organisms. Despite their extensive biochemical studies, there are little evidence and structural data to comprehensively elaborate the catalytic mechanism. We obtained X-ray snapshots of l-methionine γ-lyase from Entamoeba histolytica (EhMGL), a PLP-enzyme catalyzing the γ-elimination reaction of methionine. Here, we suggest a catalytic mechanism of EhMGL by using the X-ray snapshots covering all stages of this multistep catalysis reaction...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674640/in-silico-prediction-and-modeling-of-the-entamoeba-histolytica-proteins-serine-rich-entamoeba-histolytica-protein-and-29%C3%A2-kda-cysteine-rich-protease
#20
Kumar Manochitra, Subhash Chandra Parija
BACKGROUND: Amoebiasis is the third most common parasitic cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in countries with poor hygienic settings. There exists an ambiguity in the diagnosis of amoebiasis, and hence there arises a necessity for a better diagnostic approach. Serine-rich Entamoeba histolyticaprotein (SREHP), peroxiredoxin and Gal/GalNAc lectin are pivotal in E. histolyticavirulence and are extensively studied as diagnostic and vaccine targets. For elucidating the cellular function of these proteins, details regarding their respective quaternary structures are essential...
2017: PeerJ
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