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David Boyle, Paul A Sutton, Richard D Handy, Theodore B Henry
Numerous ecotoxicology studies of carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) have been conducted in fishes; however, different approaches have been used to make CNM dispersions and dose tanks for aqueous exposures, and to prepare food containing CNMs for dietary studies. This diversity of experimental methods has led to conflicting results and difficulties in comparing studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate intravenous injection of unfunctionalized CNMs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as a means of delivering a known internal dose, on tissue biochemistry and histopathological lesions; then, subsequently, to compare the results with our previous work on aqueous and dietary exposures of rainbow trout to CNMs...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Xiaodong Liu, L Jay Guo, Yonghao Zheng
Lithium fluoride (LiF) is an efficient and widely used cathode buffer layer (CBL) in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). The LiF thickness is normally limited to 1 nm due to its insulting property. Such small thickness is difficult to precise control during thermal deposition, and more importantly, 1-nm-thick LiF cannot provide sufficient protection for the underlying active layer. Herein, we demonstrated the application of a very thick LiF as CBL without sacrificing the device efficiency by simply inserting a C60 layer between the active layer and LiF layer...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Fu-Yu Hsieh, Lok Kumar Shrestha, Katsuhiko Ariga, Shan-Hui Hsu
Highly-aligned fullerene nanowhiskers (C60 NWs) are prepared by a modified liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method. Neural stem cells on the aligned C60 NWs are oriented and have a high capacity to differentiate into mature neurons. The aligned C60 NWs can serve as a functional scaffold for neural tissue engineering.
September 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Takehiro Hirao, Hiroaki Kudo, Tomoko Amimoto, Takeharu Haino
Nature precisely manipulates primary monomer sequences in biopolymers. In synthetic polymer sequences, this precision has been limited because of the lack of polymerization techniques for conventional polymer synthesis. Engineering the primary monomer sequence of a polymer main chain represents a considerable challenge in polymer science. Here, we report the development of sequence-controlled supramolecular terpolymerization via a self-sorting behavior among three sets of monomers possessing mismatched host-guest pairs...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Yang Wang, Miao Hong, Travis S Bailey, Eugene Y-X Chen
A synthetic method that taps into the facile Lewis base (LB)→Lewis acid (LA) adduct forming reaction between the semiconducting polymeric LB and all carbon LA C60 for the construction of covalently linked donor-acceptor dyads and brush polymer of dyads is reported. The polymeric LB is built on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) macromers containing either an alkyl or vinyl imidazolium end group that can be readily converted into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) LB site, while the brush polymer architecture is conveniently constructed via radical polymerization of the macromer P3HT with the vinyl imidazolium chain end...
September 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Minori Uchimiya, Joseph J Pignatello, Jason C White, Szu-Tung Hu, Paulo J Ferreira
Pyrogenic carbon is widespread in soil due to wildfires, soot deposition, and intentional amendment of pyrolyzed waste biomass (biochar). Interactions between engineered carbon nanoparticles and natural pyrogenic carbon (char) are unknown. This study first employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to interpret the superstructure composing aqueous fullerene C60 nanoparticles prepared by prolonged stirring of commercial fullerite in water (nC60-stir). The nC60-stir was a superstructure composed of face-centered cubic (fcc) close-packing of near-spherical C60 superatoms...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chong Liu, Wenzhe Li, Hongliang Li, Cuiling Zhang, Jiandong Fan, Yaohua Mai
The development of hybrid tin (Sn)-lead (Pb) perovskite solar cells likely tackles the toxic problem with the power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 17%. However, the stability problems, e.g. hysteresis effect, degeneration and oxidation, appear to be the bottleneck that limit its further development. Here, we innovatively introduced C60 at the grain boundaries throughout the CH3NH3Pb0.75Sn0.25I3 (MAPb0.75Sn0.25I3) thin film, playing a role not only in in situ passivating the interfaces and reducing the pinholes of perovskite thin films, but also in preventing the penetration of moisture and oxygen from ambient atmosphere...
September 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Qingqing Wu, Hatef Sadeghi, Víctor M García-Suárez, Jaime Ferrer, Colin J Lambert
Recent studies of single-molecule thermoelectricity have identified families of high-performance molecules. However, in order to translate this discovery into practical thin-film energy-harvesting devices, there is a need for an understanding of the fundamental issues arising when such junctions are placed in parallel. This is relevant because controlled scalability might be used to boost electrical and thermoelectric performance over the current single-junction paradigm. As a first step in this direction, we investigate here the properties of two C60 molecules placed in parallel and sandwiched between top and bottom graphene electrodes...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dogan Kaya, Deliang Bao, Richard E Palmer, Shixuan Du, Quanmin Guo
We demonstrate cascade manipulation between magic number gold-fullerene hybrid clusters by channelling thermal energy into a specific reaction pathway with a trigger from the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). The (C60)m-Aun clusters, formed via self-assembly on the Au(111) surface, consist of n Au atoms and m C60 molecules; the three smallest stable clusters are (C60)7-Au19, (C60)10-Au35, and (C60)12-Au49. The manipulation cascade was initiated by driving the STM tip into the cluster followed by tip retraction...
September 18, 2017: Nano Letters
Hailin Cong, Bing Yu, Chao Tian, Shuai Zhang, Hua Yuan
Monodisperse silica particles with average diameters of 1.9-2.9 μm were synthesized by a modified Stöber method, in which tetraethyl orthosilicate was continuously supplied to the reaction mixture containing KCl electrolyte, water, ethanol and ammonia. The obtained silica particles were modified by self-assembly with positively charged photosensitive diazoresin on the surface. After treatment with ultraviolet light, the ionic bonding between silica and diazoresin was converted into covalent bonding through a unique photochemistry reaction of diazoresin...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Jinseok Baek, Tomokazu Umeyama, Wookjin Choi, Yusuke Tsutsui, Hiroki Yamada, Shu Seki, Hiroshi Imahori
Composite films consisting of C60 and well-exfoliated nanosheets of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), i.e., MoS2 or WS2, with a bulk heterojunction structure were facilely fabricated onto a semiconducting SnO2 electrode via a two-step methodology; self-assembly into their composite aggregates by injecting poor solvent into good solvent with the dispersion and subsequent electrophoretic deposition. Photoexcitation of the composites on SnO2 exhibited enhanced transient conductivities in comparison with single components of TMDs or C60, demonstrating that the bulk heterojunction nanostructure of TMD and C60 promoted the charge separation (CS)...
September 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Svitlana Prylutska, Svitlana Politenkova, Kateryna Afanasieva, Volodymyr Korolovych, Kateryna Bogutska, Andriy Sivolob, Larysa Skivka, Maxim Evstigneev, Viktor Kostjukov, Yuriy Prylutskyy, Uwe Ritter
The self-organization of C60 fullerene and cisplatin in aqueous solution was investigated using the computer simulation, dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy techniques. The results evidence the complexation between the two compounds. The genotoxicity of С60 fullerene, Cis and their complex was evaluated in vitro with the comet assay using human resting lymphocytes and lymphocytes after blast transformation. The cytotoxicity of the mentioned compounds was estimated by Annexin V/PI double staining followed by flow cytometry...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Yifan Wang, Hailin Cong, Bing Yu, Zhiguo Zhang, Xiaowei Zhan
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a transparent conductive material which is extensively used in organic solar cells (OSCs) as electrodes. In inverted OSCs, ITO is usually employed as a cathode, which should be modified by cathode buffer layers (CBLs) to achieve better contact with the active layers. In this paper, an amine group functionalized fullerene derivative (DMAPA-C60) is used as a CBL to modify the transparent cathode ITO in inverted OSCs based on PTB7 as a donor and PC71BM as an acceptor. Compared with traditional ZnO CBL, DMAPA-C60 exhibited comparable transmittance...
September 11, 2017: Materials
Andreas Kraft, Chantal Roger, David Schmidt, Johannes Stangl, Klaus Müller-Buschbaum, Florian Beuerle
Four different three-dimensional metal-fullerene frameworks were synthesized through polymerization of two C60-derived dodecaacids with varying alkyl spacers in the presence of Ca2+, Cu2+ or Cd2+ ions. Structural analysis of the frameworks was performed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and porosity of the materials was investigated by sorption measurements.
September 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Dmitry V Strelnikov, Bastian Kern, Manfred M Kappes
We have observed that C60(+) ions isolated in cryogenic matrices show distinct near-IR photoluminescence upon excitation in the near-IR range. By contrast, UV photoexcitation does not lead to measurable luminescence. Near-IR C60(+) photoluminescence is a one-photon process. The emission is mainly concentrated in one band and corresponds to (2)A1u ← (2)E1g relaxation. We present experimental data for the Stokes shift, power, and temperature dependencies as well as the quantum efficiency of the photoluminescence...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Xian-Sheng Ke, Taeyeon Kim, Vincent M Lynch, Dongho Kim, Jonathan L Sessler
A cyclic BODIPY array, characterized by a rigid flattened calixarene-like conformation, acts as a photosynthetic antenna mimic. The system in question, triBODIPY, is a better antenna than the corresponding BF2-free ligand. On the basis of absorption spectral studies and supporting calculations, it is concluded that exciton coupling between the BODIPY subunits occurs readily. TriBODIPY supports a complex with Li+@C60 that bring an antenna-like light ab-sorber into close proximity to an electronic acceptor without the need for linking spacers...
September 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shishuai Sun, Wen Cui, Shuangming Wang, Bingbing Liu
In situ high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) study has been carried out on C60/ferrocene (Fc) in order to detect the process of polymerization and reveal the polymerization mechanism. Pristine C60 was also studied under same conditions for comparison. In both cases, similar types of polymers can be observed after pressure and temperature release, but with different fractions, i.e. a larger amount of 2D polymers were formed in pure C60, while more branch-like polymers were synthesized in C60/Fc, although the most fraction of the polymers is still 1D chain-like polymer in both of the materials...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa, Bianca Ferolla da Camara Boueri, Carolina Ribeiro Pessanha, Gilson Teles Boaventura
Study evaluates testis mass in rats subjected to early weaning and subsequently nourished with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil. Pups were weaned for separation from mothers at 14 days (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). After 21 days, the control group (C60) was nourished with control diet. EW was divided as: control (EWC60), flaxseed flour (EWFF60) and flaxseed oil (EWFO60) group diets for the next 60 days. At 21st and 60th day, body mass, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and testis mass were evaluated...
September 7, 2017: Natural Product Research
Tymofii Yu Nikolaienko, Eugene S Kryachko, Grygoriy A Dolgonos
Twenty years have already been passed since the endohedral fullerene's void ceaselessly attracts attention of both, experimentalists and theoreticians, computational chemists and physicists in particular, who direct their efforts on computer simulations of encapsulating atoms and molecules into fullerene void and on unraveling the arising bonding patterns. We review recent developments on the endohedral He2 @C60 fullerene, on its experimental observation and on related computational works. The two latter are the main concerns in the present work: on the one hand, there experimentally exists the He dimer embedded into C60 void...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Rebecca A Ryan, Sophie Williams, Andrew V Martin, Ruben A Dilanian, Connie Darmanin, Corey T Putkunz, David Wood, Victor A Streltsov, Michael W M Jones, Naylyn Gaffney, Felix Hofmann, Garth J Williams, Sebastien Boutet, Marc Messerschmidt, M Marvin Seibert, Evan K Curwood, Eugeniu Balaur, Andrew G Peele, Keith A Nugent, Harry M Quiney, Brian Abbey
The precise details of the interaction of intense X-ray pulses with matter are a topic of intense interest to researchers attempting to interpret the results of femtosecond X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) experiments. An increasing number of experimental observations have shown that although nuclear motion can be negligible, given a short enough incident pulse duration, electronic motion cannot be ignored. The current and widely accepted models assume that although electrons undergo dynamics driven by interaction with the pulse, their motion could largely be considered 'random'...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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