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Arterial pulse transit time

Yurie Obata, Maki Mizogami, Sarabdeep Singh, Daniel Nyhan, Dan E Berkowitz, Jochen Steppan, Viachaslau Barodka
The effect of blood pressure on pulse wave velocity (PWV) is well established. However, PWV variability with acute hemodynamic changes has not been examined in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of hemodynamic changes on PWV in patients who undergo cardiothoracic surgery. Using data from 25 patients, we determined blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) velocity-time integral. By superimposing the radial arterial waveform on the continuous wave Doppler waveform of the LVOT, obtained by transesophageal echo, we were able to determine pulse transit time and to calculate PWV, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jing Liu, Bryan Ping-Yen Yan, Wen-Xuan Dai, Xiao-Rong Ding, Yuan-Ting Zhang, Ni Zhao
In this work, we present a multi-wavelength (MW) PPG method exploiting the wavelength dependence of light penetration in skin tissue to provide depth resolution of skin blood pulsation. The MW PPG system requires two to three light sources in different wavelengths and extracts the arterial blood pulsation through a multi-wavelength multi-layer light-skin interaction model, which removes the capillary pulsation (determined from the short-wavelength PPG signal) from the long-wavelength PPG signal using absorption weighting factors that are quasi-analytically calibrated...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Jonathan R Weir-McCall, Anu Kamalasanan, Deidre B Cassidy, Allan D Struthers, Brian J Lipworth, J Graeme Houston
INTRODUCTION: To compare the reproducibility of pulmonary pulse wave velocity (PWV) techniques, and the effects of age and exercise on these. METHODS: 10 young healthy volunteers (YHV) and 20 older healthy volunteers (OHV) with no cardiac or lung condition were recruited. High temporal resolution phase contrast sequences were performed through the main pulmonary arteries (MPAs), right pulmonary arteries (RPAs) and left pulmonary arteries (LPAs), while high spatial resolution sequences were obtained through the MPA...
2016: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
S Casaccia, E J Sirevaag, E J Richter, J A O'Sullivan, L Scalise, J W Rohrbaugh
This report amplifies and extends prior descriptions of the use of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) as a method for assessing cardiovascular activity, on a non-contact basis. A rebreathing task (n = 35 healthy individuals) was used to elicit multiple effects associated with changes in autonomic drive as well as blood gases including hypercapnia. The LDV pulse was obtained from two sites overlying the carotid artery, separated by 40 mm. A robust pulse signal was obtained from both sites, in accord with the well-described changes in carotid diameter over the blood pressure cycle...
October 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Grzegorz Styczynski, Adam Rdzanek, Arkadiusz Pietrasik, Janusz Kochman, Zenon Huczek, Piotr Sobieraj, Zbigniew Gaciong, Cezary Szmigielski
BACKGROUND: Aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV) is a measure of aortic stiffness that has a prognostic role in various diseases and in the general population. A number of methods are used to measure PWV, including Doppler ultrasound. Although echocardiography has been used for PWV measurement, to the authors' knowledge, it has never been tested against an invasive reference method at the same time point. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare prospectively an echocardiographic PWV measurement, called echo-PWV, with an invasive study...
September 7, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
H Khettab, D Campo, R Yu, N Buard, P Boutouyrie
OBJECTIVE: Measurement of arterial stiffness (AS) is still hampered by the technical skill necessary to obtain reliable measurements. It is generally considered that AS is not prone to self-measurement. We developed a non-invasive technique to assess AS from a connected bathroom scale, based on ballistocardiography (BCG) and impedance plethysmography (IPG).(Figure is included in full-text article.) DESIGN AND METHOD: :: We included 76 healthy subjects and 35 essential hypertensive, 50% women...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
L Marais, M Pernot, H Khettab, M Tanter, E Messas, M Zidi, S Laurent, P Boutouyrie
OBJECTIVE: The question whether arterial stiffness in hypertension is increased solely because of increased arterial pressure is not solved. Because measurement of arterial stiffness is highly dependent on measurement of blood pressure (BP), the development of methods independent of BP is necessary for clarifying this question. Ultrafast echography (UFE, Supersonic Imagine, Aix en Provence, France) makes use of very fast sampling rate (up to 10 kHz), so transient events such as pressure wave arrival can be tracked...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jun Sugawara, Koichiro Hayashi, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is the most established measure of central arterial stiffness and is calculated by dividing the distance travelled by the pulse wave by the pulse transit time. However, there is no universally accepted standardized measurement of pulse travel distance for cfPWV. This study sought to assess validity and convertibility of 2 most frequently used travel distance estimations, and create the simple and useful conversion equation to unify cfPWV values obtained with different methodologies for pulse travel distance...
August 5, 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
Seddigheh Baktash, Mohamad Forouzanfar, Izmail Batkin, Miodrag Bolic, Voicu Groza, Saif Ahmad, Hilmi Dajani
Non-invasive blood pressure (BP) measurement is an important tool for managing hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, automated non-invasive BP measurement devices, which are usually based on the oscillometric method, do not always provide accurate estimation of BP. It has been found that change in arterial stiffness (AS) is an underlying mechanism of disagreement between an oscillometric BP monitor and a sphygmomanometer. This problem is addressed by incorporating parameters related to AS in the algorithm for BP measurement...
July 27, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Karolina Dorniak, Einar Heiberg, Marcin Hellmann, Dorota Rawicz-Zegrzda, Maria Wesierska, Rafal Galaska, Agnieszka Sabisz, Edyta Szurowska, Maria Dudziak, Erik Hedström
BACKGROUND: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a biomarker for arterial stiffness, clinically assessed by applanation tonometry (AT). Increased use of phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging allows for PWV assessment with minor routine protocol additions. The aims were to investigate the acquired temporal resolution needed for accurate and precise measurements of CMR-PWV, and develop a tool for CMR-PWV measurements. METHODS: Computer phantoms were generated for PWV = 2-20 m/s based on human CMR-PWV data...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Dilpreet Buxi, Jean-Michel Redoute, Mehmet Rasit Yuce
OBJECTIVE: We have developed and tested a new architecture for pulse transit time (PTT) estimation at the central arteries using electrical bioimpedance, electrocardiogram and continuous wave radar to estimate cuffless blood pressure. METHODS: A transmitter and receiver antenna is placed at the sternum to acquire the arterial pulsation at the aortic arch. A four-electrode arrangement across the shoulders acquires arterial pulse across the carotid and subclavian arteries from bioimpedance as well as a bipolar lead I electrocardiogram...
June 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Tetsuya Tsujikawa, Hirohiko Kimura, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Makoto Isozaki, Ken-Ichiro Kikuta, Hidehiko Okazawa
Arterial transit time (ATT) is most crucial for measuring absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) by arterial spin labeling (ASL), a noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion assessment technique, in patients with chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease. We validated ASL-CBF and ASL-ATT maps calculated by pulsed continuous ASL (pCASL) with multiple post-label delay acquisitions in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Fifteen patients underwent MR scans, including pCASL, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans with 15O-water to obtain PET-CBF...
2016: PloS One
Mingwu Gao, N Bari Olivier, Ramakrishna Mukkamala
Pulse transit time (PTT) measured as the time delay between invasive proximal and distal blood pressure (BP) or flow waveforms (invasive PTT [I-PTT]) tightly correlates with BP PTT estimated as the time delay between noninvasive proximal and distal arterial waveforms could therefore permit cuff-less BP monitoring. A popular noninvasive PTT estimate for this application is the time delay between ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms (pulse arrival time [PAT]). Another estimate is the time delay between proximal and distal PPG waveforms (PPG-PTT)...
May 2016: Physiological Reports
Hamid Gholamhosseini, Andries Meintjes, Mirza Baig, Maria Linden
The increasing availability of low cost and easy to use personalized medical monitoring devices has opened the door for new and innovative methods of health monitoring to emerge. Cuff-less and continuous methods of measuring blood pressure are particularly attractive as blood pressure is one of the most important measurements of long term cardiovascular health. Current methods of noninvasive blood pressure measurement are based on inflation and deflation of a cuff with some effects on arteries where blood pressure is being measured...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Hassan A Chami, Ramachandran S Vasan, Martin G Larson, Emelia J Benjamin, Gary F Mitchell, Daniel J Gottlieb
OBJECTIVE: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Increased aortic stiffness is one possible linking mechanism. We evaluated the association between sleep-disordered breathing and aortic stiffness in a community-based sample. METHODS: Our community-based cross-sectional observational study included 381 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (55% women, mean age 58.0 S.D. = 9.4 years, 51% ethnic minorities)...
March 2016: Sleep Medicine
Young-Boum Lee, Sang-Wuk Jeong, Moo-Yong Rhee, Chae-Hun Leem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Kazuhiro Shimizu, Nobuyuki Kosaka, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Tatsuro Tsuchida, Katsuki Tsuchiyama, Nobuyuki Oyama, Hirohiko Kimura
PURPOSE: The importance of arterial transit time (ATT) correction for arterial spin labeling MRI has been well debated in neuroimaging, but it has not been well evaluated in renal imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) MRI with multiple post-labeling delay (PLD) acquisition for measuring ATT-corrected renal blood flow (ATC-RBF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 14 volunteers were categorized into younger (n = 8; mean age, 27...
May 9, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Stephen A Klassen, Daniele Chirico, Deborah D O'Leary, John Cairney, Terrance J Wade
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with cardiovascular disease and early mortality among adults. Most research examines this relationship retrospectively. Examining the association between ACEs and children's cardiovascular health is required to understand the time course of this association. We examined the relationship between ACEs exposure and ECG-to-toe pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of systemic arterial stiffness that is strongly related to cardiovascular mortality among adults...
June 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
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