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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806341/impact-of-cochlear-implantation-on-cognitive-functions-of-older-adults-pilot-test-results
#1
Dona M P Jayakody, Peter L Friedland, Esmeralda Nel, Ralph N Martins, Marcus D Atlas, Hamid R Sohrabi
BACKGROUND: A significant relationship between hearing loss and cognitive impairment has been previously reported. Overall, improvement in speech perception in quiet and quality of life has been observed after cochlear implantation. However, the impact of hearing loss treatment using cochlear implantation on cognitive functions is yet to be fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of cochlear implantation on cognitive and psychological functions of older adults...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805433/overriding-actions-in-parkinson-s-disease-impaired-stopping-and-changing-of-motor-responses
#2
Wery P M van den Wildenberg, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Joseph S Neimat, Theodore R Bashore, Scott A Wylie
We administered a stop-change paradigm, an extended version of the stop task that requires (a) stopping an ongoing motor response and (b) changing to an alternative (change) response. Performance of a group of patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) and taking dopaminergic medication was compared with that of matched healthy control (HC) participants. Behavioral results indicated that response latencies to the initial go signal did not distinguish between the 2 groups, but that stopping latencies were prolonged in PD patients...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803767/semantic-control-deficits-impair-understanding-of-thematic-relationships-more-than-object-identity
#3
Hannah Thompson, James Davey, Paul Hoffman, Glyn Hallam, Rebecca Kosinski, Sarah Howkins, Emma Wooffindin, Rebecca Gabbitas, Elizabeth Jefferies
Recent work has suggested a potential link between the neurocognitive mechanisms supporting the retrieval of events and thematic associations (i.e., knowledge about how concepts relate in a meaningful context) and semantic control processes that support the capacity to shape retrieval to suit the circumstances. Thematic associations and events are inherently flexible: the meaning of an item changes depending on the context (for example, lamp goes with reading, bicycle and police). Control processes might stabilise weak yet currently-relevant interpretations during event understanding...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800207/optically-derived-metabolic-and-hemodynamic-parameters-predict-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism
#4
David Abookasis, Danit Lerman, Hava Roth, Mati Tfilin, Gadi Turgeman
In the present study, we made use of dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (DW-LSI) to assess cerebral blood flow in the BTBR genetic mouse model of Autism Spectrum Disorder, as well as control (C57Bl/6J) mice. Since the deficits in social behavior demonstrated by BTBR mice are attributed to changes in neural tissue structure and function, we postulated that these changes can be detected optically using DW-LSI. BTBR mice demonstrated reductions in both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2 ), as suggested by studies using conventional neuroimaging technologies to reflect impaired neuronal activation and cognitive function...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798417/consciously-over-unconsciously-perceived-rewards-facilitate-self-face-processing-an-erp-study
#5
Youlong Zhan, Xiao Xiao, Jie Chen, Jin Li, Wei Fan, Yiping Zhong
Consciously and unconsciously perceived rewards are thought to modulate essential cognitive processes in different ways. However, little is known about whether and how they modulate higher-order social cognitive processes. The present ERP study aimed to investigate the effect of consciously and unconsciously perceived rewards on the temporal course of self-face processing. After a monetary reward (high or low) was presented either supraliminally or subliminally, participants gain this reward by rapidly and correctly judging whether the mouth shape of a probe face and a target face (self, friend, and stranger) were same...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797904/influence-of-inhibitory-tagging-it-on-emotional-and-cognitive-conflict-processing-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#6
Xudong Zhao, Xiujun Li, Wendian Shi
Inhibitory tagging (IT), a flexible central control mechanism based on the current task goals, reduces the cognitive conflict effect at the cued location by blocking the incompatible stimulus-response (S-R) code. However, it is unknown whether IT has a similar effect on emotional conflict. Thus, we combined the face-word Stroop task with the manipulation of inhibition of return (IOR) and used event-related potential (ERP) technology to simultaneously examine the modulation effect of IT on emotional and cognitive conflict processing...
August 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793198/preregistered-replication-of-affective-flexibility-evaluative-processing-goals-shape-amygdala-activity
#7
Daniel S Lumian, Kateri McRae
The human amygdala is sensitive to stimulus characteristics, and growing evidence suggests that it is also responsive to cognitive framing in the form of evaluative goals. To examine whether different evaluations of stimulus characteristics shape amygdala activation, we conducted a preregistered replication of Cunningham, Van Bavel, and Johnsen's (2008) study demonstrating flexible mapping of amygdala activation to stimulus characteristics, depending on evaluative goals. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while viewing famous names under three conditions: They were asked to report their overall attitude toward each name, their positive associations only, or their negative associations only...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791553/sex-differences-in-discrimination-reversal-learning-in-the-guppy
#8
Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini, Angelo Bisazza, Christian Agrillo, Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato
In several mammalian and avian species, females show a higher performance than males in tasks requiring cognitive flexibility such as the discrimination reversal learning. A recent study showed that female guppies are twice as efficient as males in a reversal learning task involving yellow-red discrimination, suggesting a higher cognitive flexibility in female guppies. However, the possibility exists that the superior performance exhibited by females does not reflect a general sex difference in cognitive abilities, but instead, is confined to colour discrimination tasks...
August 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790920/effect-of-cognitive-style-on-learning-and-retrieval-of-navigational-environments
#9
Maddalena Boccia, Francesca Vecchione, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia
Field independence (FI) has been found to correlate with a wide range of cognitive processes requiring cognitive restructuring. Cognitive restructuring, that is going beyond the information given by the setting, is pivotal in creating stable mental representations of the environment, the so-called "cognitive maps," and it affects visuo-spatial abilities underpinning environmental navigation. Here we evaluated whether FI, by fostering cognitive restructuring of environmental cues on the basis of an internal frame of reference, affects the learning and retrieval of a novel environment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790881/contrasting-coping-styles-meet-the-wall-a-dopamine-driven-dichotomy-in-behavior-and-cognition
#10
Erik Höglund, Patricia I M Silva, Marco A Vindas, Øyvind Øverli
Individual variation in the ability to modify previously learned behavior is an important dimension of trait correlations referred to as coping styles, behavioral syndromes or personality. These trait clusters have been shaped by natural selection, and underlying control mechanisms are often conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. In teleost fishes, behavioral flexibility and coping style have been studied in the high (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout lines. Generally, proactive LR trout show a behavior guided by previously learned routines, while HR trout show a more flexible behavior relying on environmental cues...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789810/the-task-novelty-paradox-flexible-control-of-inflexible-neural-pathways-during-rapid-instructed-task-learning
#11
REVIEW
Michael W Cole, Todd S Braver, Nachshon Meiran
Rapid instructed task learning (RITL) is one of the most remarkable human abilities, when considered from both computational and evolutionary perspectives. A key feature of RITL is that it enables new goals to be immediately pursued (and shared) following formation of task representations. Although RITL is a form of cognitive control that engenders immense flexibility, it also seems to produce inflexible activation of action plans in inappropriate contexts. We argue that this "prepared reflex" effect arises because RITL is implemented in the brain via a "flexible hub" mechanism, in which top-down influences from the frontoparietal control network reroute pathways among procedure-implementing brain areas (e...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781730/executive-functions-in-students-with-depression-anxiety-and-stress-symptoms
#12
Bita Ajilchi, Vahid Nejati
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. METHODS: This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items...
May 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776207/long-term-follow-up-of-cognition-and-mental-health-in-adult-phenylketonuria-a-pku-cobeso-study
#13
Rianne Jahja, Francjan J van Spronsen, Leo M J de Sonneville, Jaap J van der Meere, Annet M Bosch, Carla E M Hollak, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Martijn C G J Brouwers, Floris C Hofstede, Maaike C de Vries, Mirian C H Janssen, Ans T van der Ploeg, Janneke G Langendonk, Stephan C J Huijbregts
Cognitive and mental health problems in individuals with the inherited metabolic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) have often been associated with metabolic control and its history. For the present study executive functioning (EF) was assessed in 21 PKU patients during childhood (T1, mean age 10.4 years, SD = 2.0) and again in adulthood (T2, mean age 25.8 years, SD = 2.3). At T2 additional assessments of EF in daily life and mental health were performed. Childhood (i.e. 0-12 years) blood phenylalanine was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, executive motor control, EF in daily life and mental health in adulthood (i...
August 3, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774351/cross-disorder-cognitive-impairments-in-youth-referred-for-neuropsychiatric-evaluation
#14
Alysa E Doyle, Pieter J Vuijk, Nathan D Doty, Lauren M McGrath, Brian L Willoughby, Ellen H O'Donnell, H Kent Wilson, Mary K Colvin, Deanna C Toner, Kelsey E Hudson, Jessica E Blais, Hillary L Ditmars, Stephen V Faraone, Larry J Seidman, Ellen B Braaten
OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that impairments in some of the same domains of cognition occur in different neuropsychiatric conditions, including those known to share genetic liability. Yet, direct, multi-disorder cognitive comparisons are limited, and it remains unclear whether overlapping deficits are due to comorbidity. We aimed to extend the literature by examining cognition across different neuropsychiatric conditions and addressing comorbidity. METHODS: Subjects were 486 youth consecutively referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation and enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Genetic Influences on Cognition...
August 4, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769544/personality-characteristics-and-neurocognitive-functions-in-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Xiaojing Li, Qiang Wang, Yuejing Wu, Sherrie Wang, Yi Huang, Tao Li
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in children and the huge family burdens have caused concern in the academic field as well as society. AIM: To study the personality characteristics and neurocognitive functions in the Chinese parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compare them with the parents of well-developed children. METHOD: This study recruited 41 Chinese children who met the diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders-IV (DSM-IV)...
February 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767647/differential-spontaneous-recovery-across-cognitive-abilities-during-detoxification-period-in-alcohol-dependence
#16
Géraldine Petit, Olivier Luminet, Mariana Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Alexis Zorbas, Pierre Maurage, Philippe de Timary
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD), and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762320/neuropsychological-clustering-in-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Charles Cotrena, Laura Damiani Branco, André Ponsoni, Flávio Milman Shansis, Rochele Paz Fonseca
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction is a key feature of major depressive (MDD) and bipolar (BD) disorders. However, rather than a single cognitive profile corresponding to each diagnostic categories, recent studies have identified significant intra- and cross-diagnostic variability in patterns of cognitive impairment. The goal of this study was to contribute to the literature on cognitive heterogeneity in mood disorders by identifying cognitive subprofiles in a population of patients with MDD, BD type I, BD type II, and healthy adults...
August 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760864/reconfiguration-of-brain-network-architectures-between-resting-state-and-complexity-dependent-cognitive-reasoning
#18
Luke J Hearne, Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky, Jason B Mattingley
Our capacity for higher cognitive reasoning has a measureable limit. This limit is thought to arise from the brain's capacity to flexibly reconfigure interactions between spatially distributed networks. Recent work, however, has suggested that reconfigurations of task-related networks are modest when compared with intrinsic 'resting state' network architecture. Here we combined resting state and task-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how flexible, task-specific reconfigurations associated with increasing reasoning demands are integrated within a stable intrinsic brain topology...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756309/activation-of-brain-glucose-metabolism-ameliorating-cognitive-impairment-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-by-electroacupuncture
#19
Weilin Liu, Peiyuan Zhuo, Long Li, Hao Jin, Bingbing Lin, Yingzheng Zhang, Shengxiang Liang, Jie Wu, Jia Huang, Zhifu Wang, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen, Jing Tao
An essential feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is implicated in brain energy metabolic impairment that is considered underlying pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Therefore, therapeutic interventions to allay cognitive deficits that target energy metabolism may be an efficacy strategy in AD. In this study, we found that electroacupuncture (EA) at the DU20 acupoint obviously increased glucose metabolism in specific brain regions such as cortex, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, basal forebrain septum, brain stem, and cerebellum in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by animal (18)F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose ((18)F-FDG)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, accompanied by cognitive improvements in the spatial reference learning and memory and memory flexibility and novel object recognition performances...
July 26, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755013/boys-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-conduct-disorder-show-impaired-adaptation-during-stress-an-executive-functioning-study
#20
Jantiene Schoorl, Sophie van Rijn, Minet de Wied, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab
Evidence for problems in executive functioning (EF) in children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) is mixed and the impact stress may have on EF is understudied. Working memory, sustained attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility of boys with ODD/CD (n = 65) and non-clinical controls (n = 32) were examined under typical and stressful test conditions. Boys with ODD/CD showed impaired working memory under typical testing conditions, and impairments in working memory and sustained attention under stressful conditions...
July 28, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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