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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431279/cognitive-control-in-action-tracking-the-dynamics-of-rule-switching-in-5-to-8-year-olds-and-adults
#1
Christopher D Erb, Jeff Moher, Joo-Hyun Song, David M Sobel
Recent studies have suggested that dissociable processes featuring distinct types of inhibition support cognitive control in tasks requiring participants to override a prepotent response with a control-demanding alternative response. An open question concerns how these processes support cognitive flexibility in rule-switching tasks. We used a technique known as reach tracking to investigate how 5- to 8-year-olds (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) select, maintain, and switch between incompatible rule sets in a computerized version of the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS)...
April 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429625/trichotillomania-and-its-clinical-relationship-to-depression-and-anxiety
#2
Jon E Grant, Sarah A Redden, Gustavo C Medeiros, Brian L Odlaug, Erin E Curley, Hermano Tavares, Nancy J Keuthen
OBJECTIVE: Trichotillomania (TTM) is associated with high rates of co-occurring depression and anxiety disorders. What the co-occurrence of TTM, depression or anxiety disorders means clinically and cognitively, however, has garnered little research attention. METHODS: About 530 adults with TTM were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, psychosocial measures of functioning, psychiatric comorbidity and neurocognitive testing assessing motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427035/associations-between-executive-functions-and-mental-health-outcomes-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
David Zimmerman, Tamara Ownsworth, Analise O'Donovan, Jacqueline Roberts, Matthew J Gullo
Associations between executive functions (EF) and mental-health in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were examined. Forty-two adults with ASD completed measures of EF, mood and self-concept. Better concept formation and social inference skills were significantly associated with fewer anxiety symptoms. Conversely, participants with better non-verbal reasoning, cognitive flexibility and social cognition reported more negative self-concept and lower self-esteem. Overall, individuals with impaired EF are more prone to anxiety, whereas those with stronger EF are more likely to experience negative self-concept...
April 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426253/using-computerized-mental-health-programs-in-alternative-education-understanding-the-requirements-of-students-and-staff
#4
Tuuli Kuosmanen, Theresa M Fleming, Margaret M Barry
Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) programs have been shown to be both acceptable and effective with youth. However, their use with more vulnerable youth, such as early school leavers, remains relatively unstudied. This study explored student and staff attitudes toward the use of cCBT in an alternative education setting. METHODS: Student and staff needs were assessed using the Requirements development approach (Van Velsen, Wentzel, & Van Gemert-Pijnen, 2013). An online staff survey (n = 16) was conducted to provide information on the context of delivery, and stakeholder requirements were further explored in four student workshops (n = 32) and staff group discussions (n = 12)...
April 20, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424560/an-exploratory-study-of-host-polymorphisms-in-genes-that-clinically-characterize-breast-cancer-tumors-and-pretreatment-cognitive-performance-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#5
Theresa A Koleck, Catherine M Bender, Beth Z Clark, Christopher M Ryan, Puja Ghotkar, Adam Brufsky, Priscilla F McAuliffe, Priya Rastogi, Susan M Sereika, Yvette P Conley
PURPOSE: Inspired by the hypothesis that heterogeneity in the biology of breast cancers at the cellular level may account for cognitive dysfunction symptom variability in survivors, the current study explored relationships between host single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 25 breast cancer-related candidate genes (AURKA, BAG1, BCL2, BIRC5, CCNB1, CD68, CENPA, CMC2, CTSL2, DIAPH3, ERBB2, ESR1, GRB7, GSTM1, MELK, MKI67, MMP11, MYBL2, NDC80, ORC6, PGR, RACGAP1, RFC4, RRM2, and SCUBE2), identified from clinically relevant prognostic multigene-expression profiles for breast cancer, and pretreatment cognitive performance...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420979/evidence-for-a-selectively-regulated-prioritization-shift-depending-on-walking-situations-in-older-adults
#6
Dina Salkovic, Markus A Hobert, Carolin Bellut, Florian Funer, Sarah Renno, Linda Haertner, Sandra E Hasmann, Jana Staebler, Johanna Geritz, Ulrike Suenkel, Andreas J Fallgatter, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Daniela Berg, Walter Maetzler
Background: Older adults have increased risks of balance issues and falls when walking and performing turns in daily situations. Changes of prioritization during different walking situations associated with dual tasking may contribute to these deficits. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether older adults demonstrate changes of prioritization during different walking paths. Methods: In total, 1,054 subjects with an age range from 50 to 83 years were selected from the first follow-up visit of the TREND (Tuebinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders) study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420973/no-overt-effects-of-a-6-week-exergame-training-on-sensorimotor-and-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-a-preliminary-investigation
#7
Madeleine Ordnung, Maike Hoff, Elisabeth Kaminski, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Several studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and cognition showed that exercise interventions might have beneficial effects on working memory, executive functions as well as motor fitness in old adults. Recently, movement based video games (exergames) have been introduced to have the capability to improve cognitive function in older adults. Healthy aging is associated with a loss of cognitive, as well as sensorimotor functions. During exergaming, participants are required to perform physical activities while being simultaneously surrounded by a cognitively challenging environment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420547/types-and-characteristics-of-fish-and-seafood-provisioning-scripts-used-by-rural-midlife-adults
#8
Stephanie M Bostic, Jeffery Sobal, Carole A Bisogni, Juliet M Monclova
OBJECTIVE: To examine rural New York State consumers' cognitive scripts for fish and seafood provisioning. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design with in-depth, semistructured interviews. SETTING: Three rural New York State counties. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (n = 31) with diverse fish-related experiences were purposefully recruited. PHENOMENON OF INTEREST: Scripts describing fish and seafood acquisition, preparation, and eating out...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419830/creative-cognition-and-dopaminergic-modulation-of-fronto-striatal-networks-integrative-review-and-research-agenda
#9
REVIEW
Nathalie Boot, Matthijs Baas, Simon van Gaal, Roshan Cools, Carsten K W De Dreu
Creative cognition is key to human functioning yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are sparsely addressed and poorly understood. Here we address the possibility that creative cognition is a function of dopaminergic modulation in fronto-striatal brain circuitries. It is proposed that (i) creative cognition benefits from both flexible and persistent processing, (ii) striatal dopamine and the integrity of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is associated with flexible processing, while (iii) prefrontal dopamine and the integrity of the mesocortical dopaminergic pathway is associated with persistent processing...
April 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414078/the-influence-of-the-glutamatergic-system-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth H X Thomas, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Susan L Rossell, Caroline Gurvich
Thomas, E.H.X., K. Bozaoglu, S.L. Rossell and C. Gurvich. The Influence of the Glutamatergic System on Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(1) XXX-XXX, 2016. Previous literature showing the role of the glutamatergic system on cognition in schizophrenia has been inconclusive. 44 relevant pharmacological, candidate gene and neuroimaging studies were identified through systematic search following PRISMA guidelines. To be included, studies must have observed at least one objective measure of cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and either manipulated or measured the glutamatergic system...
April 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411446/a-study-of-reaching-actions-in-walking-infants
#11
Jill A Dosso, Sandra V Herrera, J Paul Boudreau
Acquiring motor skills transforms the perceptual and cognitive world of infants and expands their exploratory engagement with objects. This study investigated how reaching is integrated with walking among infant walkers (n=23, 14.5-15.5 months). In a walk-to-reach paradigm, diverse object retrieval strategies were observed. All infants were willing to use their upper and lower bodies in concert, and the timing of this coordination reflected features of their environment. Infants with an older walking age (months since walking onset) retrieved items more rapidly and exploited their non-reaching hand more effectively during object retrieval than did same-age infants with a younger walking age...
April 12, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407518/evaluating-executive-function-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-using-the-frontal-assessment-battery
#12
Elmira Agah, Nasima Asgari-Rad, Mona Ahmadi, Abbas Tafakhori, Vajiheh Aghamollaii
Previous studies have demonstrated executive dysfunction in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Frontal assessment battery (FAB) is a short neuropsychological tool that was developed for assessment of frontal lobe function in a clinical setting. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical utility of FAB for detection of executive dysfunction in TLE patients. Forty-eight TLE patients and 48 sex and age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Compared to healthy participants, the total FAB score was significantly lower among the TLE patients...
April 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407284/executive-functions-in-adolescents-with-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity
#13
Rebekka Kittel, Ricarda Schmidt, Anja Hilbert
OBJECTIVE: Binge-eating disorder (BED) in adults is associated with alterations in executive functions (EF) and obesity. Much less is known about these relationships in adolescents, including whether poor EF are associated with eating disorder psychopathology and/or elevated body mass index. This study examined EF in response to neutral stimuli in youth with BED. METHOD: Adolescents with BED and obesity (n = 22), individually matched adolescents with obesity (n = 22), and normal weight (n = 22) completed neuropsychological tests targeting inhibition (Color-Word Interference Test), sustained attention (D2 Concentration Endurance Test), cognitive flexibility (Comprehensive Trail Making Test), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task)...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406686/cueing-cognitive-flexibility-item-specific-learning-of-switch-readiness
#14
Yu-Chin Chiu, Tobias Egner
The rich behavioral repertoire of the human species derives from our ability to flexibly reconfigure processing strategies (task sets) in response to changing requirements. This updating of task sets is effortful, as reflected by longer response times when switching a task than repeating it (switch costs). However, some recent data suggest that switch costs can be reduced by cueing switch readiness bottom-up, by associating particular stimuli with frequent switch requirements. This type of "stimulus-control (S-C) learning" would be highly adaptive, as it combines the speed of automatic (bottom-up) processing with the flexibility and generalizability of controlled (top-down) processing...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406332/development-of-an-eye-tracking-method-to-assess-mental-set-switching-in-people-with-aphasia
#15
Sabine Heuer, Melissa Lu Pinke
BACKGROUND: Deficits in cognitive flexibility contribute to impaired functional communication in people with aphasia. Understanding the relationship between functional communication and cognitive flexibility in people with neurologic communication disorders is important. However, traditional methods to assess mental set switching pose significant linguistic, cognitive and motoric response confounds. Eye-tracking methods have great potential to address these challenges. AIMS: The goal of this study was to develop and validate an eye-tracking method to index mental set switching in individuals without neurological impairment based upon performance on a nonlinguistic switching task...
April 13, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403383/neural-signatures-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-reward-sensitivity-following-nicotinic-receptor-stimulation-in-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-trial
#16
Elise Lesage, Sarah E Aronson, Matthew T Sutherland, Thomas J Ross, Betty Jo Salmeron, Elliot A Stein
Importance: Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. Objective: To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401847/enhancing-executive-functioning-among-toddlers-in-foster-care-with-an-attachment-based-intervention
#17
Teresa Lind, K Lee Raby, E B Caron, Caroline K P Roben, Mary Dozier
Young children in foster care often experience adversity, such as maltreatment and lack of stability in early caregiving relationships. As a result, these children are at risk for a range of problems, including deficits in executive functioning. The Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up for Toddlers (ABC-T) intervention was designed to help foster parents behave in ways that promote the development of young children's emerging self-regulatory capabilities. Participants included 173 parent-toddler dyads in three groups: foster families that were randomly assigned to receive either the ABC-T intervention (n = 63) or a control intervention (n = 58), as well as low-risk parent-toddler dyads from intact families (n = 52)...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401843/circle-of-security-parenting-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-head-start
#18
Jude Cassidy, Bonnie E Brett, Jacquelyn T Gross, Jessica A Stern, David R Martin, Jonathan J Mohr, Susan S Woodhouse
Although evidence shows that attachment insecurity and disorganization increase risk for the development of psychopathology (Fearon, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, & Roisman, 2010; Groh, Roisman, van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Fearon, 2012), implementation challenges have precluded dissemination of attachment interventions on the broad scale at which they are needed. The Circle of Security-Parenting Intervention (COS-P; Cooper, Hoffman, & Powell, 2009), designed with broad implementation in mind, addresses this gap by training community service providers to use a manualized, video-based program to help caregivers provide a secure base and a safe haven for their children...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396096/what-does-semantic-tiling-of-the-cortex-tell-us-about-semantics
#19
Lawrence W Barsalou
Recent use of voxel-wise modeling in cognitive neuroscience suggests that semantic maps tile the cortex. Although this impressive research establishes distributed cortical areas active during the conceptual processing that underlies semantics, it tells us little about the nature of this processing. While mapping concepts between Marr's computational and implementation levels to support neural encoding and decoding, this approach ignores Marr's algorithmic level, central for understanding the mechanisms that implement cognition, in general, and conceptual processing, in particular...
April 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392323/long-term-beneficial-effect-of-neurotrophic-factors-secreting-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplantation-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism
#20
Nisim Perets, Hadar Segal-Gavish, Yael Gothelf, Ran Barzilay, Yael Barhum, Natalie Abramov, Stav Hertz, Darya Morozov, Michael London, Daniel Offen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disabilities characterized by severe impairment in social communication skills and restricted, repetitive behaviors. We have previously shown that a single transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the cerebral lateral ventricles of BTBR autistic-like mice resulted in an improvement across all diagnostic criteria of ASD. We suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein which supports the survival and regeneration of neurons secreted by MSC, largely contributed to the beneficial behavioral effect...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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