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cognitive flexibility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781651/exposure-and-cbt-for-chronic-back-pain-an-rct-on-differential-efficacy-and-optimal-length-of-treatment
#1
Julia Anna Glombiewski, Sebastian Holzapfel, Jenny Riecke, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Jeroen de Jong, Gunnar Lemmer, Winfried Rief
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to establish whether Exposure, a specialized tailored treatment for chronic low back pain, has any advantages over cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among individuals with high fear-avoidance levels. Second, we planned to compare short and long versions of Exposure. Third, we aimed to investigate whether Exposure can be delivered in an outpatient psychological setting. METHOD: A total of 88 Caucasian participants (55% women) were randomized to three different psychological treatment conditions, Exposure-long, Exposure-short, and CBT...
June 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780344/turning-potential-flexibility-into-flexible-performance-moderating-effect-of-self-efficacy-and-use-of-flexible-cognition
#2
Ru-De Liu, Jia Wang, Jon R Star, Rui Zhen, Rong-Huan Jiang, Xin-Chen Fu
This study examined the relationship between two types of mathematical flexibility - potential flexibility, which indicates individuals' knowledge of multiple strategies and strategy efficiency, and practical flexibility, which refers to individuals' flexible performances when solving math problems. Both types of flexibility were assessed in the domain of linear equation solving. Furthermore, two types of beliefs - self-efficacy and use of flexible cognition (UFC) - were investigated as potential moderators between potential and practical flexibility...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780341/general-slowing-and-education-mediate-task-switching-performance-across-the-life-span
#3
Luca Moretti, Carlo Semenza, Antonino Vallesi
Objective: This study considered the potential role of both protective factors (cognitive reserve, CR) and adverse ones (general slowing) in modulating cognitive flexibility in the adult life-span. Method: Ninety-eight individuals performed a task-switching (TS) paradigm in which we adopted a manipulation concerning the timing between the cue and the target. Working memory demands were minimized by using transparent cues. Additionally, indices of cognitive integrity, depression, processing speed and different CR dimensions were collected and used in linear models accounting for TS performance under the different time constraints...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778070/high-intensity-binge-drinking-is-associated-with-alterations-in-spontaneous-neural-oscillations-in-young-adults
#4
Rifqi O Affan, Siyuan Huang, Stephen M Cruz, Lee A Holcomb, Edward Nguyen, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic alcohol consumption (also termed binge drinking) contributes to a wide range of health and cognitive deficits, but the associated brain-based indices are poorly understood. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine spontaneous neural oscillations in young adults as a function of quantity, frequency, and the pattern of their alcohol consumption. Sixty-one young adults (23.4 ± 3.4 years of age) were assigned to binge drinking (BD) and light drinking (LD) groups that were equated on gender, race/ethnic identity, age, educational background, and family history of alcoholism...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777970/understanding-self-concealment-within-a-framework-of-eating-disorder-cognitions-and-body-image-flexibility-conceptual-and-applied-implications
#5
Akihiko Masuda, Janet D Latner, John P Barlie, Kayla Sargent
Although self-concealment has been long recognized in the context of body image disturbance and disordered eating concerns, empirical evidence remains limited. Following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) models of disordered eating and body image concerns, the present cross-sectional study examined whether the construct of self-concealment was related to disordered eating and body image concerns. More specifically, we investigated whether eating disorder cognitions and body image flexibility, two factors linked to the maintenance of disordered eating concerns, are uniquely associated with self-concealment, while controlling for key demographic and sociocultural variables...
May 16, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776349/randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-cannabinoid-replacement-therapy-nabiximols-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-cannabis-dependent-patients-a-study-protocol
#6
Anjali K Bhardwaj, David J Allsop, Jan Copeland, Iain S McGregor, Adrian Dunlop, Marian Shanahan, Raimondo Bruno, Nghi Phung, Mark Montebello, Craig Sadler, Jessica Gugusheff, Melissa Jackson, Jennifer Luksza, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. METHODS/DESIGN: A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772255/the-gist-and-details-of-sex-differences-in-cognition-and-the-brain-how-parallels-in-sex-differences-across-domains-are-shaped-by-the-locus-coeruleus-and-catecholamine-systems
#7
REVIEW
Alexandra Ycaza Herrera, Jiaxi Wang, Mara Mather
Across three different domains, there are similar sex differences in how men and women process information. There tends to be a male advantage in attending to and remembering the gist (essential central information of a scene or situation), but a female advantage in attending to and remembering the details (non-essential peripheral information of a scene or situation). This is seen in emotional memory, where emotion enhances gist memory more for males than for females, but enhances detail memory more for females than for males...
May 14, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765350/cognitive-and-personality-components-underlying-spoken-idiom-comprehension-in-context-an-exploratory-study
#8
Cristina Cacciari, Paola Corrardini, Fabio Ferlazzo
In this exploratory study, we investigated whether and to what extent individual differences in cognitive and personality variables are associated with spoken idiom comprehension in context. Language unimpaired participants were enrolled in a cross-modal lexical decision study in which semantically ambiguous Italian idioms (i.e., strings with both a literal and an idiomatic interpretation as, for instance, break the ice ), predictable or unpredictable before the string offset, were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759889/social-learning-strategies-bridge-building-between-fields
#9
REVIEW
Rachel L Kendal, Neeltje J Boogert, Luke Rendell, Kevin N Laland, Mike Webster, Patricia L Jones
While social learning is widespread, indiscriminate copying of others is rarely beneficial. Theory suggests that individuals should be selective in what, when, and whom they copy, by following 'social learning strategies' (SLSs). The SLS concept has stimulated extensive experimental work, integrated theory, and empirical findings, and created impetus to the social learning and cultural evolution fields. However, the SLS concept needs updating to accommodate recent findings that individuals switch between strategies flexibly, that multiple strategies are deployed simultaneously, and that there is no one-to-one correspondence between psychological heuristics deployed and resulting population-level patterns...
May 11, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759070/identifying-frailty-in-primary-care-a-qualitative-description-of-family-physicians-gestalt-impressions-of-their-older-adult-patients
#10
Clara Korenvain, Ida-Maisie Famiyeh, Sheila Dunn, Cynthia R Whitehead, Paula A Rochon, Lisa M McCarthy
BACKGROUND: Many tools exist to guide family physicians' impressions about frailty status of older adults, but no single tool, instrument, or set of criteria has emerged as most useful. The role of physicians' subjective impressions in frailty decisions has not been studied. This study explores how family physicians conceptualize frailty, and the factors that they consider when making subjective decisions about patients' frailty statuses. METHODS: Descriptive qualitative study of family physicians who practice in a large urban academic family medicine center as they participated in one-on-one "think-aloud" interviews about the frailty status of their patients aged 80 years and over...
May 14, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753930/the-complexity-of-self-regulating-food-intake-in-weight-loss-maintenance-a-qualitative-study-among-short-and-long-term-weight-loss-maintainers
#11
Susanne Pedersen, Falko F Sniehotta, Kirby Sainsbury, Elizabeth H Evans, Marta M Marques, R James Stubbs, Berit L Heitmann, Liisa Lähteenmäki
RATIONALE: Whether self-regulation of food intake in weight loss maintenance (WLM) differs between being a short-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining less than 12 months) and a long-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining at least 12 months) is under-researched. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the self-regulatory strategies and self-efficacy beliefs applied by short- and long-term maintainers to the complex set of behaviours comprising food intake in WLM, and to obtain a better understanding of their challenges in the various food-intake processes in WLM...
May 6, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753480/characterizing-social-behavior-activity-and-associations-between-cognition-and-behavior-upon-social-grouping-of-weaned-dairy-calves
#12
K C Horvath, E K Miller-Cushon
Weaned dairy calves are commonly exposed to changing physical and social environments, and ability to adapt to novel management is likely to have performance and welfare implications. We characterized how behavioral responses of weaned heifer calves develop over time after introduction to a social group. Previously individually reared Holstein heifer calves (n = 15; 60 ± 5 d of age; mean ± standard deviation) were introduced in weekly cohorts (5 ± 3 new calves/wk) to an existing group on pasture (8 ± 2 calves/group)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752228/exploring-cognitive-flexibility-with-a-noninvasive-bci-using-simultaneous-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials-and-sensorimotor-rhythms
#13
Bradley J Edelman, Jianjun Meng, Nicholas Gulachek, Christopher C Cline, Bin He
EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) technology creates non-biological pathways for conveying a user's mental intent solely through noninvasively measured neural signals. While optimizing the performance of a single task has long been the focus of BCI research, in order to translate this technology into everyday life, realistic situations, in which multiple tasks are performed simultaneously, must be investigated. In this paper, we explore the concept of cognitive flexibility, or multitasking, within the BCI framework by utilizing a 2-D cursor control task, using sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs), and a four-target visual attention task, using steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), both individually and simultaneously...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749040/editors-introduction-miscommunication
#14
Patrick G T Healey, Jan P de Ruiter, Gregory J Mills
Miscommunication is a neglected issue in the cognitive sciences, where it has often been discounted as noise in the system. This special issue argues for the opposite view: Miscommunication is a highly structured and ubiquitous feature of human interaction that systematically underpins people's ability to create and maintain shared languages. Contributions from conversation analysis, computational linguistics, experimental psychology, and formal semantics provide evidence for these claims. They highlight the multi-modal, multi-person character of miscommunication...
April 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745687/another-year-older-another-year-wiser-emotion-regulation-strategy-selection-and-flexibility-across-adulthood
#15
Lameese Eldesouky, Tammy English
Several influential theories posit that improvements in emotion regulation contribute to enhanced emotional well-being in older adulthood. However, surprisingly little is known about whether there are age differences in emotion regulation strategy use. We addressed this question by testing whether older adults report using typically adaptive strategies more often and regulate more flexibly than relatively younger adults. In a two-part study, 136 married couples (N = 272) aged 23-85 years completed individual difference measures of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and then nine daily reports of a broader range of emotion regulation strategies, now including situation selection, situation modification, and distraction...
May 10, 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743777/implication-of-emotional-labor-cognitive-flexibility-and-relational-energy-among-cabin-crew-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Rithi Baruah, K Jayasankara Reddy
The primary aim of the civil aviation industry is to provide a secured and comfortable service to their customers and clients. This review concentrates on the cabin crew members, who are the frontline employees of the aviation industry and are salaried to smile. The objective of this review article is to analyze the variables of emotional labor, cognitive flexibility, and relational energy using the biopsychosocial model and identify organizational implications among cabin crew. Online databases such as EBSCOhost, JSTOR, Springerlink, and PubMed were used to gather articles for the review...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741115/the-role-of-biomaterials-in-implantation-for-central-nervous-system-injury
#17
Yu-Shuan Chen, Horng-Jyh Harn, Tzyy-Wen Chiou
Permanent deficits that occur in memory, sensation, and cognition can result from central nervous system (CNS) trauma that causes dysfunction and/or unregulated CNS regeneration. Some therapeutic approaches are preferentially applied to the human body. Therefore, cell transplantation, one of the therapeutic strategies, may be used to benefit people. However, poor cell viability and low efficacy are the limitations to cell transplantation strategies. Biomaterials have been widely used in several fields (e.g...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740594/tracking-temporal-hazard-in-the-human-electroencephalogram-using-a-forward-encoding-model
#18
Sophie K Herbst, Lorenz Fiedler, Jonas Obleser
Human observers automatically extract temporal contingencies from the environment and predict the onset of future events. Temporal predictions are modeled by the hazard function, which describes the instantaneous probability for an event to occur given it has not occurred yet. Here, we tackle the question of whether and how the human brain tracks continuous temporal hazard on a moment-to-moment basis, and how flexibly it adjusts to strictly implicit variations in the hazard function. We applied an encoding-model approach to human electroencephalographic data recorded during a pitch-discrimination task, in which we implicitly manipulated temporal predictability of the target tones by varying the interval between cue and target tone (i...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740308/cyclosporin-a-mediated-activation-of-endogenous-neural-precursor-cells-promotes-cognitive-recovery-in-a-mouse-model-of-stroke
#19
Labeeba Nusrat, Jessica M Livingston-Thomas, Vaakiny Raguthevan, Kelsey Adams, Ilan Vonderwalde, Dale Corbett, Cindi M Morshead
Cognitive dysfunction following stroke significantly impacts quality of life and functional independance; yet, despite the prevalence and negative impact of cognitive deficits, post-stroke interventions almost exclusively target motor impairments. As a result, current treatment options are limited in their ability to promote post-stroke cognitive recovery. Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been previously shown to improve post-stroke functional recovery of sensorimotor deficits. Interestingly, CsA is a commonly used immunosuppressant and also acts directly on endogenous neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the neurogenic regions of the brain (the periventricular region and the dentate gyrus)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738943/feasibility-of-group-cognitive-remediation-therapy-in-an-adult-eating-disorder-day-program-in-new-zealand
#20
Marion E Roberts
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of integrating group Cognitive Remediation Therapy (gCRT) into an eating disorder day program in Auckland, New Zealand. METHOD: A consecutive series of 28 patients took part over an 8-month period in the context of a service audit. Main outcome measures were the Detail and Flexibility Questionnaire (DFlex) and qualitative feedback from patients. RESULTS: Significant shifts in self-report inefficient cognitive style were observed pre/post gCRT with large effect sizes (Cohen's dav ) for both cognitive rigidity and attention to detail outcomes...
May 2, 2018: Eating Behaviors
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