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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352708/a-systematic-review-and-discussion-of-symptom-specific-cognitive-behavioural-approaches-to-delusions-and-hallucinations
#1
Tania M Lincoln, Emmanuelle Peters
Studies on cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) have developed from evaluating generic approaches to focusing on specific symptoms. The evidence for targeted studies on delusions and hallucinations was reviewed. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of individualized CBT-based interventions focusing either on delusions or on hallucinations. Twelve suitable RCTs were identified. Four RCTs focused on delusions, of which three took a focused approach targeting mechanisms assumed causal to persecutory delusions...
January 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345724/effects-of-cognitive-training-on-cognition-and-quality-of-life-of-older-persons-with-dementia
#2
Eeva-Liisa Kallio, Hannareeta Öhman, Marja Hietanen, Helena Soini, Timo E Strandberg, Hannu Kautiainen, Kaisu H Pitkälä
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of cognitive training on cognition and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in community-dwelling persons with dementia. DESIGN: Single-blind randomized controlled trial with 3- and 9-month follow-up. SETTING: Adult day care centers in Helsinki, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: Older individuals with mild to moderate dementia living at home and attending adult day care twice a week (N = 147; mean age 83, 72% female, 63% at mild stage of dementia)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345055/npas4-deficiency-interacts-with-adolescent-stress-to-disrupt-prefrontal-gabaergic-maturation-and-adult-cognitive-flexibility
#3
Chloe Page, Jonathan Alexander, Ryan Shepard, Laurence Coutellier
Healthy cognitive and emotional functioning relies on a balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex. This balance is largely established during early postnatal and adolescent developmental periods by maturation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system, including increased density of parvalbumin cells and perineuronal nets. Genetic and/or environmental factors during adolescence can disrupt GABAergic maturation and lead to behavioral dysfunction in adulthood. The present study examined the interaction between chronic mild stress during adolescence and genetic deficiency of neuronal PAS domain 4 (Npas4), a brain-specific transcription factor that regulates inhibitory neurotransmission and that contributes to adolescent prefrontal GABAergic maturation...
January 18, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344423/age-related-gray-and-white-matter-changes-in-normal-adult-brains
#4
Farnaz Farokhian, Chunlan Yang, Iman Beheshti, Hiroshi Matsuda, Shuicai Wu
Normal aging is associated with both structural changes in many brain regions and functional declines in several cognitive domains with advancing age. Advanced neuroimaging techniques enable explorative analyses of structural alterations that can be used as assessments of such age-related changes. Here we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate regional and global brain volume differences among four groups of healthy adults from the IXI Dataset: older females (OF, mean age 68.35 yrs; n=69), older males (OM, 68...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335360/activity-in-the-ventral-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-necessary-for-the-therapeutic-effects-of-extinction-in-rats
#5
Elizabeth A Fucich, Denisse Paredes, Madeleine O Saunders, David A Morilak
Poor response and high relapse rates remain problematic in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders like depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While mechanisms of pharmacotherapies are intensely studied, little is known about mechanisms of behavioral therapy that could inform improved treatments. We have previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of extinction learning as a behavioral intervention modeling exposure therapy in rats. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during extinction is necessary for its therapeutic effects...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331872/effect-of-physical-activity-on-cognitive-flexibility-depression-and-rbd-in-healthy-elderly
#6
Stefanie Lerche, Alexandra Gutfreund, Kathrin Brockmann, Markus A Hobert, Isabel Wurster, Ulrike Sünkel, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Florian G Metzger, Walter Maetzler, Daniela Berg
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease increases with the raising number of elderly, which will be a challenging situation for the healthcare systems and society in the future. There is evidence that there are modifiable risk-factors e.g. physical activity for these diseases. Here, we study the interaction between sports inactivity with prodromal markers for neurodegeneration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated 667 neurologically healthy individuals cross-sectional and a subgroup longitudinal over six years...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329597/does-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-alter-mental-defeat-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#7
Shinobu Nagata, Yoichi Seki, Takayuki Shibuya, Mizue Yokoo, Tomokazu Murata, Yoichi Hiramatsu, Fuminori Yamada, Hanae Ibuki, Noriko Minamitani, Naoki Yoshinaga, Muga Kusunoki, Yasushi Inada, Nobuko Kawasoe, Soichiro Adachi, Keiko Oshiro, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kensuke Yoshimura, Michiko Nakazato, Masaomi Iyo, Akiko Nakagawa, Eiji Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: Mental defeat and cognitive flexibility have been studied as explanatory factors for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. This study examined mental defeat and cognitive flexibility scores in patients with panic disorder (PD) before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and compared them to those of a gender- and age-matched healthy control group. RESULTS: Patients with PD (n = 15) received 16 weekly individual CBT sessions, and the control group (n = 35) received no treatment...
January 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325701/developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-using-latent-change-score-models-a-tutorial-and-applications
#8
REVIEW
Rogier A Kievit, Andreas M Brandmaier, Gabriel Ziegler, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Susanne M M de Mooij, Michael Moutoussis, Ian M Goodyer, Ed Bullmore, Peter B Jones, Peter Fonagy, Ulman Lindenberger, Raymond J Dolan
Assessing and analysing individual differences in change over time is of central scientific importance to developmental neuroscience. However, the literature is based largely on cross-sectional comparisons, which reflect a variety of influences and cannot directly represent change. We advocate using latent change score (LCS) models in longitudinal samples as a statistical framework to tease apart the complex processes underlying lifespan development in brain and behaviour using longitudinal data. LCS models provide a flexible framework that naturally accommodates key developmental questions as model parameters and can even be used, with some limitations, in cases with only two measurement occasions...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319333/an-investigation-of-executive-functioning-in-pediatric-anxiety
#9
Yolanda E Murphy, Anna Luke, Elle Brennan, Sarah Francazio, Isabella Christopher, Christopher A Flessner
Although science's understanding (e.g., etiology, maintaining factors, etc.) of pediatric anxiety and related problems has grown substantially over recent years, several aspects to anxiety in youths remain elusive, particularly with relation to executive functioning. To this end, the current study sought to examine several facets to executive functioning (i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition, planning, working memory) within a transdiagnostic sample of youths exhibiting varying degrees of anxiety symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318489/neural-correlates-of-reappraisal-considering-working-memory-capacity-and-cognitive-flexibility
#10
Jenny Zaehringer, Rosalux Falquez, Anna-Lena Schubert, Frauke Nees, Sven Barnow
Cognitive reappraisal of emotion is strongly related to long-term mental health. Therefore, the exploration of underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms has become an essential focus of research. Considering that reappraisal and executive functions rely on a similar brain network, the question arises whether behavioral differences in executive functions modulate neural activity during reappraisal. Using functional neuroimaging, the present study aimed to analyze the role of working memory capacity (WMC) and cognitive flexibility in brain activity during down-regulation of negative emotions by reappraisal in N = 20 healthy participants...
January 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316334/geriatric-assessment-of-physical-and-cognitive-functioning-in-a-diverse-cohort-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-a-pilot-study
#11
Laura Plantinga, Benjamin D Tift, Charmayne Dunlop-Thomas, S Sam Lim, C Barrett Bowling, Cristina Drenkard
OBJECTIVE: To use multi-domain functional assessment, commonly performed in geriatric patients but novel among SLE patients, to better understand functional impairment in SLE. METHODS: We recruited 60 adult participants [aged 20-39 (26.7%), 40-59 (50.0%), and ≥60 (23.3%); 80.0% black; 90.0% female] from an existing cohort of SLE patients. During in-person visits (10/16-4/17), we evaluated physical performance (range 0-4; higher scores = better performance); cognitive performance (five fluid cognition domains; adjusted t-scores); and self-reported measures including physical functioning (t-scores), activities of daily living (ADLs), falls, and life-space mobility...
January 5, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314589/effect-of-the-comt-val158met-genotype-on-lateral-prefrontal-activations-in-young-children
#12
Yusuke Moriguchi, Ikuko Shinohara
Low executive function (EF) during early childhood is a major risk factor for developmental delay, academic failure, and social withdrawal. Susceptible genes may affect the molecular and biological mechanisms underpinning EF. More specifically, genes associated with the regulation of prefrontal dopamine may modulate the response of prefrontal neurons during executive control. Several studies with adults and older children have shown that variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene are associated with behavioral performance and prefrontal activations in EF tasks...
January 4, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314415/differentially-categorized-structural-brain-hubs-are-involved-in-different-microstructural-functional-and-cognitive-characteristics-and-contribute-to-individual-identification
#13
Xindi Wang, Qixiang Lin, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
Very little is known regarding whether structural hubs of human brain networks that enable efficient information communication may be classified into different categories. Using three multimodal neuroimaging data sets, we construct individual structural brain networks and further identify hub regions based on eight widely used graph-nodal metrics, followed by comprehensive characteristics and reproducibility analyses. We show the three categories of structural hubs in the brain network, namely, aggregated, distributed, and connector hubs...
January 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305533/perceptual-surprise-improves-action-stopping-by-non-selectively-suppressing-motor-activity-via-a-neural-mechanism-for-motor-inhibition
#14
Isabella Dutra, Darcy A Waller, Jan R Wessel
Motor inhibition is a cognitive control ability that allows humans to rapidly stop actions even after initiation. Understanding and improving motor inhibition could benefit adaptive behavior in both health and disease. We recently found that presenting surprising, task-unrelated sounds when stopping is necessary improves the likelihood of successful stopping. In the current study, we investigated the neural underpinnings of this effect. Specifically, we tested whether surprise-related stopping improvements are due to a genuine increase in motor inhibition...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301561/exploring-narratives-of-resilience-among-seven-males-living-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-qualitative-study
#15
Anne Geard, Marit Kirkevold, Marianne Løvstad, Anne-Kristine Schanke
BACKGROUND: It is a challenge for both individuals and families when an illness or traumatic injury results in a severe spinal cord injury. The on-going physical impairments experienced by persons with spinal cord injury play themselves out over time. Few qualitative studies have explored how health, resilience and wellbeing interplay across time among persons living with the consequences of severe physical injuries. Thus, the aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of how individuals with spinal cord injury reflect upon the efforts, strategies and agency they perform to sustain long term resilience and wellbeing...
January 4, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300416/the-association-between-bmi-and-different-frailty-domains-a-u-shaped-curve
#16
M L Rietman, D L van der A, S H van Oostrom, H S J Picavet, M E T Dollé, H van Steeg, W M M Verschuren, A M W Spijkerman
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies showed a U-shaped association between BMI and (physical) frailty. We studied the association between BMI and physical, cognitive, psychological, and social frailty. Furthermore, the overlap between and prevalence of these frailty domains was examined. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a longitudinal population-based study starting in 1987-1991 examining men and women aged 20-59 with follow-up examinations every 5 yrs...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299973/how-anaesthesiologists-understand-difficult-airway-guidelines-an-interview-study
#17
Kati Knudsen, Ulrika Pöder, Ulrica Nilsson, Marieann Högman, Anders Larsson, Jan Larsson
BACKGROUND: In the practice of anaesthesia, clinical guidelines that aim to improve the safety of airway procedures have been developed. The aim of this study was to explore how anaesthesiologists understand or conceive of difficult airway management algorithms. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenographic design was chosen to explore anaesthesiologists' views on airway algorithms. Anaesthesiologists working in three hospitals were included. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted...
January 4, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297761/an-improved-model-to-predict-performance-under-mental-fatigue
#18
Henry T Peng, Fethi Bouak, Wenbi Wang, Renee Chow, Oshin Vartanian
Fatigue has become an increasing problem in our modern society. Using MATLAB as a generic modelling tool, a fatigue model was developed based on an existing one and compared with a commercial fatigue software for prediction of cognitive performance under total and partial sleep deprivation. The flexibility of our fatigue model allowed additions of new algorithms and mechanisms for non-sleep factors and countermeasures and thus improved model predictions and usability for both civilian and military applications...
January 8, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295738/psychiatry-in-a-dish-stem-cells-and-brain-organoids-modeling-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Mirolyba Ilieva, Åsa Fex Svenningsen, Morten Thorsen, Tanja Maria Michel
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by deficits in social cognition, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Despite an increasing scientific effort to find the pathophysiological explanations for the disease, the neurobiological links remain unclear. A large amount of evidence suggests that pathological processes taking place in early embryonic neurodevelopment might be responsible for later manifestation of autistic symptoms...
November 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294732/individual-versus-group-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-partner-violent-men-a-preliminary-randomized-trial
#20
Christopher M Murphy, Christopher I Eckhardt, Judith M Clifford, Adam D Lamotte, Laura A Meis
A randomized clinical trial tested the hypothesis that a flexible, case formulation-based, individual treatment approach integrating motivational interviewing strategies with cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) is more efficacious than a standardized group cognitive-behavioral approach (GCBT) for perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Forty-two men presenting for services at a community domestic violence agency were randomized to receive 20 sessions of ICBT or a 20-week group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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