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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645546/post-sepsis-cognitive-impairment-and-associated-risk-factors-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Allan J C Calsavara, Vandack Nobre, Tatiana Barichello, Antonio L Teixeira
INTRODUCTION: Post-sepsis cognitive impairment is one of the major sequelae observed in survivors of sepsis. This cognitive impairment can be global or may affect specific domains. A better understanding of these deficits and associated risk factors could influence the care of patients with sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review to investigate the presence of cognitive impairment and its associated risk factors among patients who survived sepsis. METHODS: The search was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to March 2017) and EMBASE (1988 to March 2017)...
June 20, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644541/assessment-of-executive-functioning-in-binge-eating-disorder-independent-of-weight-status
#2
Kalina T Eneva, Jean M Arlt, Angelina Yiu, Susan M Murray, Eunice Y Chen
OBJECTIVE: Executive functioning (EF) problems may serve as vulnerability or maintenance factors for Binge-Eating Disorder (BED). However, it is unclear if EF problems observed in BED are related to overweight status or BED status. The current study extends this literature by examining EF in overweight and normal-weight BED compared to weight-matched controls. METHOD: Participants were normal-weight women with BED (n = 23), overweight BED (n = 32), overweight healthy controls (n = 48), and normal-weight healthy controls (n = 29)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#3
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641601/the-impact-of-traumatic-stress-on-pavlovian-biases
#4
O T Ousdal, Q J Huys, A M Milde, A R Craven, L Ersland, T Endestad, A Melinder, K Hugdahl, R J Dolan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in Pavlovian valuation systems are reported to follow traumatic stress exposure. However, motivated decisions are also guided by instrumental mechanisms, but to date the effect of traumatic stress on these instrumental systems remain poorly investigated. Here, we examine whether a single episode of severe traumatic stress influences flexible instrumental decisions through an impact on a Pavlovian system. METHODS: Twenty-six survivors of the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 30 matched control subjects performed an instrumental learning task in which Pavlovian and instrumental associations promoted congruent or conflicting responses...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638329/the-contribution-of-cognitive-factors-to-individual-differences-in-understanding-noise-vocoded-speech-in-young-and-older-adults
#5
Stephanie Rosemann, Carsten Gießing, Jale Özyurt, Rebecca Carroll, Sebastian Puschmann, Christiane M Thiel
Noise-vocoded speech is commonly used to simulate the sensation after cochlear implantation as it consists of spectrally degraded speech. High individual variability exists in learning to understand both noise-vocoded speech and speech perceived through a cochlear implant (CI). This variability is partly ascribed to differing cognitive abilities like working memory, verbal skills or attention. Although clinically highly relevant, up to now, no consensus has been achieved about which cognitive factors exactly predict the intelligibility of speech in noise-vocoded situations in healthy subjects or in patients after cochlear implantation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634459/cognitive-correlates-of-different-mentalizing-abilities-in-individuals-with-high-and-low-trait-schizotypy-findings-from-an-extreme-group-design
#6
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Simone Kotulla, Susanne Maier, Martin Voracek, Kristina Hennig-Fast
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634445/antioxidant-treatment-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-prevents-the-development-of-cognitive-and-social-behavioral-deficits-that-result-from-perinatal-ketamine-treatment
#7
Aarron Phensy, Hasmik E Duzdabanian, Samantha Brewer, Anurag Panjabi, Christopher Driskill, Annuska Berz, George Peng, Sven Kroener
Alterations of the normal redox state can be found in all stages of schizophrenia, suggesting a key role for oxidative stress in the etiology and maintenance of the disease. Pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors can disrupt natural antioxidant defense systems and induce schizophrenia-like behaviors in animals and healthy human subjects. Perinatal administration of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine produces persistent behavioral deficits in adult mice which mimic a range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms that characterize schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631969/cognitive-functions-among-predominantly-minority-urban-adolescents-with-metabolic-syndrome
#8
Alexander Mangone, Kathy F Yates, Victoria Sweat, Adriana Joseph, Antonio Convit
The rise in the rate of adolescent obesity has led to a concurrent rise in the rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among young people. In addition to diabetes and cardiovascular disease, MetS has also been linked to cognitive dysfunction. The goal of this study was to assess whether cognitive differences exist between minority urban adolescents carrying excess weight who meet criteria for MetS as compared to their peers without MetS. Two hundred and ninety-six urban adolescents, predominantly Hispanic and carrying excess weight as defined by a BMI above 25 kg/m(2), were screened for MetS and divided into MetS and no MetS groups...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631336/a-neuroimaging-approach-to-capture-cognitive-reserve-application-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Anna C van Loenhoud, Alle Meije Wink, Colin Groot, Sander C J Verfaillie, Jos Twisk, Frederik Barkhof, Bart van Berckel, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, Rik Ossenkoppele
Cognitive reserve (CR) explains interindividual differences in the ability to maintain cognitive function in the presence of neuropathology. We developed a neuroimaging approach including a measure of brain atrophy and cognition to capture this construct. In a group of 511 Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker-positive subjects in different stages across the disease spectrum, we performed 3T magnetic resonance imaging and predicted gray matter (GM) volume in each voxel based on cognitive performance (i.e. a global cognitive composite score), adjusted for age, sex, disease stage, premorbid brain size (i...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#10
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627915/long-term-classroom-functioning-and-its-association-with-neuropsychological-and-academic-performance-following-traumatic-brain-injury-during-early-childhood
#11
Amery Treble-Barna, Hanna Schultz, Nori Minich, H Gerry Taylor, Keith Owen Yeates, Terry Stancin, Shari L Wade
OBJECTIVE: The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance. METHOD: Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626971/genetics-and-developmental-biology-of-cooperation
#12
Claudia Kasper, Maddalena Vierbuchen, Ulrich Ernst, Stefan Fischer, Reinder Radersma, Aura Raulo, Filipa Cunha-Saraiva, Min Wu, Kenyon Mobley, Barbara Taborsky
Despite essential progress towards understanding the evolution of cooperative behaviour, we still lack detailed knowledge about its underlying molecular mechanisms, genetic basis, evolutionary dynamics and ontogeny. An international workshop 'Genetics and Development of Cooperation', organized by the University of Bern (Switzerland), aimed at discussing the current progress in this research field and suggesting avenues for future research. This review uses the major themes of the meeting as a springboard to synthesize the concepts of genetic and non-genetic inheritance of cooperation, and to review a quantitative genetic framework that allows for the inclusion of indirect genetic effects...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625683/a-developmental-and-clinical-perspective-of-rhythmic-interpersonal-coordination-from-mimicry-toward-the-interconnection-of-minds
#13
Jean Xavier, Julien Magnat, Alain Sherman, Soizic Gauthier, David Cohen, Laurence Chaby
Imitation plays a critical role in the development of intersubjectivity and serves as a prerequisite for understanding the emotions and intentions of others. In our review, we consider spontaneous motor imitation between children and their peers as a developmental process involving repetition and perspective-taking as well as flexibility and reciprocity. During childhood, this playful dynamic challenges developing visuospatial abilities and requires temporal coordination between partners. As such, we address synchrony as form of communication and social signal per se, that leads, from an experience of similarity, to the interconnexion of minds...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625108/memory-dynamics-under-stress
#14
Conny W E M Quaedflieg, Lars Schwabe
Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity...
June 19, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624821/on-the-social-life-and-motivational-changes-of-aging-monkeys
#15
Julia Fischer
Although nonhuman primates have been used in biomedical research to develop a better understanding of physiological aging processes, their value as models for studying age-related differences in motivation, cognition, and decision-making has only recently been appreciated. This paper reviews the state of the art, with a focus on a recent study on Barbary macaques. A number of studies reported that with increasing age, Old World monkeys spend more time resting, have fewer social partners, and/or spend less time in social interactions, though other studies found no such effects...
June 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624265/the-neuroscience-of-understanding-the-emotions-of-others
#16
REVIEW
Robert P Spunt, Ralph Adolphs
We cannot help but impute emotions to the behaviors of others, and constantly infer not only what others are feeling, but also why they feel that way. The comprehension of other people's emotional states is computationally complex and difficult, requiring the flexible, context-sensitive deployment of cognitive operations that encompass rapid orienting to, and recognition of, emotionally salient cues; classification of emotions into culturally-learned categories; and using an abstract theory of mind to reason about what caused the emotion, what future actions the person might be planning, and what we should do next in response...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623813/association-between-altered-physical-activity-and-neurocognitive-function-among-people-with-schizophrenia-a-minimum-6-months-follow-up-study
#17
Yusuke Kurebayashi, Junichi Otaki
BACKGROUND: The long-term benefits of physical activity on neurocognitive function among patients with schizophrenia, specifically among inpatients, remain unclear. This preliminary study, with a minimum of 6-months' follow-up, examined alterations in physical activity and neurocognitive function in both inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Symptoms and neurocognitive function were assessed at 2 intervals using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and Cognitrax, respectively...
June 7, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622557/the-executive-profile-of-children-with-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes-and-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Ellen M Lima, Patricia Rzezak, Catarina A Guimarães, Maria A Montenegro, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
RATIONALE: Benign Epilepsy of Childhood with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represent two distinct models of focal epilepsy of childhood. In both, there is evidence of executive dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to identify particular deficits in the executive function that would distinguish children with BECTS from children with TLE. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 19 consecutive children and adolescents with TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (57...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620323/integrated-trauma-focused-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-post-traumatic-stress-and-psychotic-symptoms-a-case-series-study-using-imaginal-reprocessing-strategies
#19
Nadine Keen, Elaine C M Hunter, Emmanuelle Peters
Despite high rates of trauma in individuals with psychotic symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms are frequently overlooked in clinical practice. There is also reluctance to treat post-traumatic symptoms in case the therapeutic procedure of reprocessing the trauma exacerbates psychotic symptoms. Recent evidence demonstrates that it is safe to use reprocessing strategies in this population. However, most published studies have been based on treating post-traumatic symptoms in isolation from psychotic symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620074/regulatory-bc1-rna-in-cognitive-control
#20
Anna Iacoangeli, Aderemi Dosunmu, Taesun Eom, Dimitre G Stefanov, Henri Tiedge
Dendritic regulatory BC1 RNA is a non-protein-coding (npc) RNA that operates in the translational control of gene expression. The absence of BC1 RNA in BC1 knockout (KO) animals causes translational dysregulation that entails neuronal phenotypic alterations including prolonged epileptiform discharges, audiogenic seizure activity in vivo, and excessive cortical oscillations in the γ frequency band. Here we asked whether BC1 RNA control is also required for higher brain functions such as learning, memory, or cognition...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
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