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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100440/it-s-about-me-patients-experiences-of-patient-participation-in-the-web-behavior-change-program-for-activity-in-combination-with-multimodal-pain-rehabilitation
#1
Catharina Nordin, Peter Michaelson, Margareta K Eriksson, Gunvor Gard
BACKGROUND: Patients' participation in their health care is recognized as a key component in high-quality health care. Persons with persistent pain are recommended treatments with a cognitive approach from a biopsychosocial explanation of pain, in which a patient's active participation in their rehabilitation is in focus. Web-based interventions for pain management have the potential to increase patient participation by enabling persons to play a more active role in rehabilitation. However, little is known about patients' experiences of patient participation in Web-based interventions in clinical practice...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097835/cognitive-profiles-of-patients-with-early-detected-and-treated-congenital-hypothyroidism
#2
María L Pardo Campos, Mariel Musso, Ana Keselman, Laura Gruñeiro, Ignacio Bergadá, Ana Chiesa
INTRODUCTION: Children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) detected by newborn screening and adequately treated may have mild cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVES">To assess the intelligence quotient of children with CH and identify the presence of specific cognitive deficits. POPULATION AND METHODS: A group of 60 children with CH detected by newborn screening, who were aged 9-10 years old and received adequate treatment since their first month of life was selected and compared to a control group of 60 children without CH in the same age range...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096364/bilateral-recruitment-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-task-demand-but-not-with-age
#3
Melanie S Höller-Wallscheid, Peter Thier, Jörn K Pomper, Axel Lindner
Elderly adults may master challenging cognitive demands by additionally recruiting the cross-hemispheric counterparts of otherwise unilaterally engaged brain regions, a strategy that seems to be at odds with the notion of lateralized functions in cerebral cortex. We wondered whether bilateral activation might be a general coping strategy that is independent of age, task content and brain region. While using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we pushed young and old subjects to their working memory (WM) capacity limits in verbal, spatial, and object domains...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091782/adaptation-perceptual-learning-and-plasticity-of-brain-functions
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan C Horton, Manfred Fahle, Theo Mulder, Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski
The capacity for functional restitution after brain damage is quite different in the sensory and motor systems. This series of presentations highlights the potential for adaptation, plasticity, and perceptual learning from an interdisciplinary perspective. The chances for restitution in the primary visual cortex are limited. Some patterns of visual field loss and recovery after stroke are common, whereas others are impossible, which can be explained by the arrangement and plasticity of the cortical map. On the other hand, compensatory mechanisms are effective, can occur spontaneously, and can be enhanced by training...
January 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091572/a-computational-psychiatry-approach-identifies-how-alpha-2a-noradrenergic-agonist-guanfacine-affects-feature-based-reinforcement-learning-in-the-macaque
#5
S A Hassani, M Oemisch, M Balcarras, S Westendorff, S Ardid, M A van der Meer, P Tiesinga, T Womelsdorf
Noradrenaline is believed to support cognitive flexibility through the alpha 2A noradrenergic receptor (a2A-NAR) acting in prefrontal cortex. Enhanced flexibility has been inferred from improved working memory with the a2A-NA agonist Guanfacine. But it has been unclear whether Guanfacine improves specific attention and learning mechanisms beyond working memory, and whether the drug effects can be formalized computationally to allow single subject predictions. We tested and confirmed these suggestions in a case study with a healthy nonhuman primate performing a feature-based reversal learning task evaluating performance using Bayesian and Reinforcement learning models...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090338/executive-functions-predict-weight-loss-in-a-medically-supervised-weight-loss-programme
#6
R Galioto, D Bond, J Gunstad, V Pera, L Rathier, G Tremont
BACKGROUND: Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. METHODS: Twenty-three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089585/the-impact-of-intelligence-on-memory-and-executive-functions-of-children-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-methodological-concerns-with-clinical-relevance
#7
Patricia Rzezak, Catarina A Guimarães, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
PURPOSE: Patients with TLE are prone to have lower IQ scores than healthy controls. Nevertheless, the impact of IQ differences is not usually considered in studies that compared the cognitive functioning of children with and without epilepsy. This study aimed to determine the effect of using IQ as a covariate on memory and attentional/executive functions of children with TLE. METHODS: Thirty-eight children and adolescents with TLE and 28 healthy controls paired as to age, gender, and sociodemographic factors were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery for memory and executive functions...
December 29, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088534/the-social-transmission-of-metacontrol-policies-mechanisms-underlying-the-interpersonal-transfer-of-persistence-and-flexibility
#8
REVIEW
Bernhard Hommel, Lorenza S Colzato
Humans often face binary cognitive-control dilemmas, with the choice between persistence and flexibility being a crucial one. Tackling these dilemmas requires metacontrol, i.e., the control of the current cognitive-control policy. As predicted from functional, psychometric, neuroscientific, and modeling approaches, interindividual variability in metacontrol biases towards persistence or flexibility could be demonstrated in metacontrol-sensitive tasks. These biases covary systematically with genetic predispositions regarding mesofrontal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic functioning and the individualistic or collectivistic nature of the cultural background...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088527/navigation-in-the-electronic-health-record-a-review-of-the-safety-and-usability-literature
#9
REVIEW
Lisette C Roman, Jessica S Ancker, Stephen B Johnson, Yalini Senathirajah
OBJECTIVE: Inefficient navigation in electronic health records has been shown to increase users' cognitive load, which may increase potential for errors, reduce efficiency, and increase fatigue. However, navigation has received insufficient recognition and attention in the electronic health record (EHR) literature as an independent construct and contributor to overall usability. Our aims in this literature review were to (1) assess the prevalence of navigation-related topics within the EHR usability and safety research literature, (2) categorize types of navigation actions within the EHR, (3) capture relationships between these navigation actions and usability principles, and (4) collect terms and concepts related to EHR navigation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080261/performance-of-hispanics-and-non-hispanic-whites-on-the-nih-toolbox-cognition-battery-the-roles-of-ethnicity-and-language-backgrounds
#10
Ilse Flores, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Maria J Marquine, Anya Umlauf, David J Moore, Dan Mungas, Richard C Gershon, Jennifer L Beaumont, Robert K Heaton
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). METHOD: Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076647/sex-specific-cognitive-abnormalities-in-early-onset-psychosis
#11
Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla, Josefa Moreno-Granados, Maria D Salcedo-Marin, Maria L Barrigon, Maria J Blanco-Morales, Evelio Igunza, Anselmo Cañabate, Maria D Garcia, Teresa Guijarro, Francisco Diaz-Atienza, Maite Ferrin
Objectives: Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls...
January 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070464/the-acceptability-of-tv-based-game-platforms-as-an-instrument-to-support-the-cognitive-evaluation-of-senior-adults-at-home
#12
Carlos Rivas Costa, Manuel José Fernández Iglesias, Luis Eulogio Anido Rifón, Miguel Gómez Carballa, Sonia Valladares Rodríguez
INTRODUCTION: The computing capabilities of state-of-the-art television sets and media centres may facilitate the introduction of computer-assisted evaluation at home. This approach would help to overcome the drawbacks of traditional pen-and-paper evaluations administered in clinical facilities, as they could be performed in a more comfortable environment, the subject's home, and they would be more flexible for designing complex environments for the evaluation of neuropsychological constructs that are difficult to assess through traditional testing...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068124/cognitive-effort-is-modulated-outside-of-the-explicit-awareness-of-conflict-frequency-evidence-from-pupillometry
#13
Nathaniel T Diede, Julie M Bugg
Classic theories of cognitive control conceptualized controlled processes as slow, strategic, and willful, with automatic processes being fast and effortless. The context-specific proportion compatibility (CSPC) effect, the reduction in the compatibility effect in a context (e.g., location) associated with a high relative to low likelihood of conflict, challenged classic theories by demonstrating fast and flexible control that appears to operate outside of conscious awareness. Two theoretical questions yet to be addressed are whether the CSPC effect is accompanied by context-dependent variation in effort, and whether the exertion of effort depends on explicit awareness of context-specific task demands...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062230/the-influence-of-offspring-parity-and-oxytocin-on-cognitive-flexibility-during-the-postpartum-period
#14
Christopher C Albin-Brooks, Connor A Nealer, Sara Sabihi, Achikam Haim, Benedetta Leuner
Pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of profound behavioral change including alterations in cognitive function. This has been most often studied using hippocampal-dependent tasks assessing spatial learning and memory. However, less is known about the cognitive effects of motherhood for tasks that rely on areas other than the hippocampus. We have previously shown that postpartum females perform better on the extradimensional phase of an attentional set shifting task, a measure of cognitive flexibility which is dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
January 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059625/a-review-of-self-processing-biases-in-cognition
#15
Sheila J Cunningham, David J Turk
When cues in the environment are associated with self (e.g., one's own name, face, or coffee cup), these items trigger processing biases such as increased attentional focus, perceptual prioritization and memorial support. This paper reviews the existing literature on self-processing biases before introducing a series of studies that provide new insight into the influence of the self on cognition. In particular, the studies examine affective and memorial biases for self-relevant stimuli, and their flexible application in response to different task demands...
January 6, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057530/effects-of-nucleus-accumbens-amphetamine-administration-on-performance-in-a-delay-discounting-task
#16
Caitlin A Orsini, Marci R Mitchell, Sara C Heshmati, Kristy G Shimp, Megan S Spurrell, Jennifer L Bizon, Barry Setlow
Chronic administration of cocaine can cause pronounced and enduring cognitive alterations such as increases in impulsive choice. Chronic cocaine can also result in enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to reward-related cues. It is possible that this enhanced DA release in the NAc is a mechanism by which cocaine increases impulsive choice. To date, however, the specific role of DA in the NAc in impulsive choice is unclear. To begin to address this, rats received acute microinjections of the indirect DA agonist amphetamine directly into the NAc prior to testing in a delay discounting task in which rats chose between a small, immediate and a large, delayed food reward...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052788/effet-paradoxal-du-vieillissement-sur-des-t%C3%A3-ches-de-m%C3%A3-moire-prospective-time-based-en-situation-de-laboratoire-et-en-milieu-naturel-r%C3%A3-le-des-fonctions-ex%C3%A3-cutives
#17
Barbara Azzopardi, Caroline Auffray, Christophe Kermarrec
The current study investigates the specific role of three executive functions in the explanation of performance variability on laboratory and naturalistic time-based prospective memory tasks in aging. Ninety people aged 18 to 80 years performed three executive tasks assessing inhibition, flexibility and updating, one laboratory time-based task and one naturalistic time-based task. The results indicate that age has a negative impact on the laboratory time-based task and a positive impact on the naturalistic task...
January 5, 2017: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050778/a-systematic-approach-to-cancer-evolution-beyond-selection
#18
William B Miller, John S Torday
Cancer is typically scrutinized as a pathological process characterized by chromosomal aberrations and clonal expansion subject to stochastic Darwinian selection within adaptive cellular ecosystems. Cognition based evolution is suggested as an alternative approach to cancer development and progression in which neoplastic cells of differing karyotypes and cellular lineages are assessed as self-referential agencies with purposive participation within tissue microenvironments. As distinct self-aware entities, neoplastic cells occupy unique participant/observer status within tissue ecologies...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043955/structural-cerebellar-correlates-of-cognitive-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-cerebellar-degeneration
#19
Kalyani Kansal, Zhen Yang, Ann M Fishman, Haris I Sair, Sarah H Ying, Bruno M Jedynak, Jerry L Prince, Chiadi U Onyike
Detailed mapping of clinical dysfunctions to the cerebellar lobules in disease populations is necessary to establish the functional significance of lobules implicated in cognitive and motor functions in normal subjects. This study constitutes the first quantitative examination of the lobular correlates of a broad range of cognitive and motor phenomena in cerebellar disease. We analysed cross-sectional data from 72 cases with cerebellar disease and 36 controls without cerebellar disease. Cerebellar lobule volumes were derived from a graph-cut based segmentation algorithm...
January 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043199/association-between-cognitive-impairments-and-obsessive-compulsive-spectrum-presentations-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Michelle Rydon-Grange, Rudi Coetzer
This study examined the association between self-reported obsessive-compulsive spectrum symptomatology and cognitive performance in a sample of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty-four adults with a moderate-severe TBI accessing a community brain injury rehabilitation service were recruited. Age ranged between 19 and 69 years. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing memory, executive functioning, and speed of information processing. Self-report questionnaires assessing obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits were also completed...
January 2, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
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