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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#1
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136305/neural-basis-of-exertional-fatigue-in-the-heat-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#2
REVIEW
X R Tan, Ivan C C Low, Mary C Stephenson, T W Soong, Jason K W Lee
The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies - brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI and arterial spin labelling...
November 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131457/neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-in-the-mother-and-infants-health-study-cape-town-south-africa
#3
Priscilla E Springer, Amy L Slogrove, Barbara Laughton, Julie A Bettinger, Henriëtte H Saunders, Christopher D Molteno, Mariana Kruger
OBJECTIVES: To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants in a peri-urban South African population. HEU infants living in Africa face unique biological and environmental risks but uncertainty remains regarding their neurodevelopmen-tal outcome. This is partly due to lack of well-matched HUU comparison groups needed to adjust for confounding factors. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of infants enrolled at birth from a low- risk midwife obstetric facility...
November 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131336/molecular-function-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptors-as-drug-targets
#4
Cecilia Bouzat, Matías Lasala, Beatriz Elizabeth Nielsen, Jeremías Corradi, María Del Carmen Esandi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In vertebrates, there are seventeen different nAChR subunits that combine to yield a variety of receptors with different pharmacology, function, and localization. The homomeric α7 receptor is one of the most abundant nAChRs in the nervous system and it is also present in non-neuronal cells. It plays important roles in cognition, memory, pain, neuroprotection, and inflammation...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130521/a-variant-in-ppp4r3a-protects-against-alzheimer-related-metabolic-decline
#5
Leigh Christopher, Valerio Napolioni, Raiyan R Khan, Summer S Han, Michael D Greicius
OBJECTIVES: A reduction in glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) predicts conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tracks disease progression, signifying its importance in AD. We aimed to use decline in PCC glucose metabolism as a proxy for the development and progression of AD to discover common genetic variants associated with disease vulnerability. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of decline in PCC [(18) F] FDG PET measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants (n=606)...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125631/the-convergence-and-divergence-of-impulsivity-facets-in-daily-life
#6
Sarah H Sperry, Donald P Lynam, Thomas R Kwapil
OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity appears to be best conceptualized as a multidimensional construct. For example, the UPPS-P model posits that there are five underlying facets of impulsivity. The present study examined the expression of the UPPS-P facets in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM). A specific goal of the study was to examine positive urgency, a facet added to the original UPPS model, and its convergence and divergence from the negative urgency facet. METHODS: A large non-clinical sample of young adults (n=294) completed the UPPS-P scale and were signaled to complete questionnaires assessing daily affect, cognitions, sense of self, and impulsive behaviors eight times a day for seven days in their daily life...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125432/association-between-baseline-cognitive-impairment-and-postoperative-delirium-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-adult-spinal-deformity
#7
Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Victoria D Vuong, Jared Fialkoff, Joseph Cheng, Isaac O Karikari, Carlos A Bagley
OBJECTIVE Postoperative delirium is common in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery and is associated with a longer and more costly hospital course, functional decline, postoperative institutionalization, and higher likelihood of death within 6 months of discharge. Preoperative cognitive impairment may be a risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium in geriatric patients undergoing surgery for degenerative scoliosis...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121403/mechanisms-of-radial-glia-progenitor-cell-lineage-progression
#8
REVIEW
Robert Beattie, Simon Hippenmeyer
The mammalian cerebral cortex is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, and acquiring and processing information. The neocortex is organized into six distinct laminae, each composed of a rich diversity of cell types which assemble into highly complex cortical circuits. Radial glia progenitors (RGPs) are responsible for producing all neocortical neurons and certain glia lineages. Here, we discuss recent discoveries emerging from clonal lineage analysis at the single RGP cell level that provide us with an inaugural quantitative framework of RGP lineage progression...
November 9, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120490/determination-of-moca-cutoff-score-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#9
V Ewert, S Pelletier, R Alarcon, B Nalpas, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, R Trouillet, P Perney
BACKGROUND: The MoCA score is a convenient and promising tool for estimating alcoholic patients' global cognitive functioning, a major challenge for all specialized alcohol treatment centers. However, whether or not the score should be corrected for education level and whether the proposed cutoff is relevant in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) should be determined. DESIGN: We compared the MoCA scores in patients hospitalized for AUD with and without cognitive impairment (CI) assessed by a battery of neuropsychological tests...
November 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119637/verbal-responses-depressive-symptoms-reminiscence-functions-and-cognitive-emotion-regulation-in-older-women-receiving-individual-reminiscence-therapy
#10
Dongmei Wu, Taolin Chen, Hao Yang, Qiyong Gong, Xiuying Hu
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of individual reminiscence therapy in community-dwelling older women with depressive symptoms, and to explore the characteristics of participants' verbalization in the process. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found reminiscence was related to depression and anxiety. Although reminiscence therapy is widely used to reduce depression, little is known about how it works, and the content of verbalizations might provide one explanation...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119612/are-you-surprised-to-hear-this-longitudinal-spectral-speech-exposure-in-older-compared-to-middle-aged-normal-hearing-adults
#11
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Julia Bauer, Susann Widmer, Martin Meyer
Cognitive abilities such as attention or working memory can support older adults during speech perception. However, cognitive abilities as well as speech perception decline with age, leading to the expenditure of effort during speech processing. This longitudinal study therefore investigated age-related differences in electrophysiological processes during speech discrimination, and assessed the extent of enhancement to such cognitive auditory processes through repeated auditory exposure. For that purpose, accuracy and reaction time were compared between 13 older adults (62-76y) and 15 middle-aged (28-52y) controls in an active oddball paradigm which was administered at three consecutive measurement time points at an interval of two weeks, while EEG was recorded...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118710/cognitive-vulnerability-in-aging-may-be-modulated-by-education-and-reserve-in-healthy-people
#12
María D Roldán-Tapia, Rosa Cánovas, Irene León, Juan García-Garcia
Aging is related to a deterioration of cognitive performance and to multiple alterations in the brain. Even before the beginning of a noticeable cognitive decline, the framework which holds cognitive function experiences these alterations. From a system-vulnerability point of view of cognition, the deterioration associated with age would be the collection of repercussions during a life. Brain function and structure are modified in a multidimensional way, which could concern different aspects like structural integrity, functional activity, connectivity, or glucose metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117924/red-flags-in-epilepsy-surgery-identifying-the-patients-who-pay-a-high-cognitive-price-for-an-unsuccessful-surgical-outcome
#13
Sallie Baxendale, Pamela Thompson
Preoperative estimates of cognitive and seizure outcome must be as accurate as possible if the candidate is to make an informed decision about epilepsy surgery. Significant declines in memory function are reported in approximately 30% of temporal lobe surgery patients. The percentage varies according to the ways in which a postoperative deterioration is defined but since the majority of outcome studies do not take into account the patient's capacity to deteriorate if they are functioning at or close to the floor of a memory test prior to surgery, the published percentages may be an underrepresentation of the true extent of memory decline following epilepsy surgery...
November 5, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114969/apathy-in-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behaviour-disorder-is-common-and-under-recognised
#14
Thomas R Barber, Kinan Muhammed, Daniel Drew, Michael Lawton, Marie Crabbe, Michal Rolinski, Timothy Quinnell, Zenobia Zaiwalla, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Masud Husain, Michele Tm Hu
BACKGROUND: Apathy is an important neuropsychiatric feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), which often emerges before the onset of motor symptoms. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) have a high probability of developing Parkinson's disease in future. Neuropsychiatric problems are common in RBD, but apathy has not previously been detailed in this key prodromal population. METHODS: 88 patients with polysomnographically proven RBD, 65 patients with PD and 33 controls were assessed for apathy using the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS)...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113027/detect-correct-retract-how-to-manage-incorrect-structural-models
#15
REVIEW
Alexander Wlodawer, Zbigniew Dauter, Przemyslaw J Porebski, Wladek Minor, Robyn Stanfield, Mariusz Jaskolski, Edwin Pozharski, Christian X Weichenberger, Bernhard Rupp
The massive technical and computational progress of biomolecular crystallography has generated some adverse side effects. Most crystal structure models, produced by crystallographers or well-trained structural biologists, constitute useful sources of information, but occasional extreme outliers remind us that the process of structure determination is not fail-safe. The occurrence of severe errors or gross misinterpretations raises fundamental questions: Why do such aberrations emerge in the first place? How did they evade the sophisticated validation procedures which often produce clear and dire warnings, and why were severe errors not noticed by the depositors themselves, their supervisors, referees, and editors? Once detected, what can be done to either correct, improve, or eliminate such models? How do incorrect models affect the underlying claims or biomedical hypotheses they were intended, but failed, to support? What is the long-range effect of the propagation of such errors? And finally, what mechanisms can be envisioned to restore the validity of the scientific record and, if necessary, retract publications that are clearly invalidated by the lack of experimental evidence? We suggest that cognitive bias and flawed epistemology are likely at the root of the problem...
November 7, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105114/cortical-thickness-in-adolescents-with-a-family-history-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#16
Kate E Henderson, Jatin G Vaidya, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Douglas R Langbehn, Daniel S O'Leary
BACKGROUND: Individuals with a family history (FH+) of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a higher risk for developing an AUD than those with no family history (FH-) of AUD. In addition, FH+ individuals tend to perform worse on neuropsychological measures and show heightened impulsivity, which may be due to underlying differences in brain structure such as cortical thickness. The primary aim of this study was to investigate differences in cortical thickness in FH+ compared to FH- adolescents...
November 3, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105065/reduced-blood-brain-barrier-expression-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-5-is-associated-with-increased-vulnerability-of-app-ps1-mice-to-cognitive-deficits-from-low-omega-3-fatty-acid-diets
#17
Yijun Pan, Kwok H C Choy, Philip J Marriott, Siew Y Chai, Martin J Scanlon, Christopher J H Porter, Jennifer L Short, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Lower levels of the cognitively-beneficial docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are often observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Brain DHA levels are regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of plasma-derived DHA, a process facilitated by fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). This study reports a 42.1 ± 12.6% decrease in the BBB transport of (14) C-DHA in 8-month AD transgenic mice (APPswe,PSEN1∆E9) relative to wild-type, associated with a 34.5 ± 6.7% reduction in FABP5 expression in isolated brain capillaries of AD mice...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103037/circulating-progenitor-cells-correlate-with-memory-posterior-cortical-thickness-and-hippocampal-perfusion
#18
Daniel A Nation, Alick Tan, Shubir Dutt, Elissa C McIntosh, Belinda Yew, Jean K Ho, Anna E Blanken, Jung Yun Jang, Kathleen E Rodgers, Aimée Gaubert
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells survey the vasculature and home to sites of tissue injury where they can promote repair and regeneration. It has been hypothesized that these cells may play a protective role neurodegenerative and vascular cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate progenitor cell levels in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to relate circulating levels to memory, brain volume, white matter lesion volume, and cerebral perfusion...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102504/strategy-for-semantic-association-memory-sesame-training-effects-on-brain-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#19
Synthia Guimond, Sophie Béland, Martin Lepage
Self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies is impoverished in schizophrenia and contributes to memory impairments. Recently, we observed that following a brief training, schizophrenia patients had the potential to increase the self-initiation of these strategies. In this study, we investigated the neural correlates underlying such memory improvements. Fifteen schizophrenia patients with deficits in self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies were enrolled in a Strategy for Semantic Association Memory (SESAME) training...
October 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100612/long-lasting-active-lifestyle-and-successful-cognitive-aging-in-a-healthy-elderly-population-the-proof-cohort
#20
M Saint Martin, E Sforza, J C Barthélémy, F Roche, P Lefèvre, G Liénard, C Thomas-Anterion
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether cognitive reserve in the elderly affects the evolution of cognitive performance and what its relationship is with active lifestyles in later life. METHODS: Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and 8 years later in 543 participants of the PROOF cohort, initially aged 67 years. Subjects were categorized as Cognitively Elite (CE), Cognitively Normal (CN) or Cognitively Impaired (CI) at each evaluation...
October 31, 2017: Revue Neurologique
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