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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207980/questioning-skills-of-clinical-facilitators-supporting-undergraduate-nursing-students
#1
Nicole M Phillips, Maxine M Duke, Rona Weerasuriya
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To report on a study investigating questioning skills of clinical facilitators who support the learning of undergraduate nursing students. BACKGROUND: The ability to think critically is integral to decision-making and the provision of safe and quality patient care. Developing students' critical thinking skills is expected of those who supervise and facilitate student learning in the clinical setting. Models used to facilitate student learning in the clinical setting have changed over the years with clinicians having dual responsibility for patient care and facilitating student learning...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207976/does-increased-physical-activity-in-school-affect-children-s-executive-function-and-aerobic-fitness
#2
Silje Eikanger Kvalø, Edvin Bru, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Sindre M Dyrstad
This study seeks to explore if increased PA in school affects children's executive function and aerobic fitness. The "Active school" study was a 10-month randomized controlled trial. The sample included 449 children (10-11 years old) in five intervention and four control schools. The weekly interventions were 2x45 min physically active academic lessons, 5x10 min physically active breaks and 5x10 min physically active homework. Aerobic fitness was measured using a 10-min interval running test. Executive function was tested using four cognitive tests (Stroop, verbal fluency, digit span and Trail Making)...
February 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199771/thyroid-dysfunction-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-folate-receptor-alpha-autoimmune-disorder
#3
Richard E Frye, Rebecca Wynne, Shannon Rose, John Slattery, Leanna Delhey, Marie Tippett, Stephen G Kahler, Sirish C Bennuri, Stepan Melnyk, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Edward Quadros
Folate receptor α (FRα) autoantibodies (FRAAs) are prevalent in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). FRAAs disrupt folate transport across the blood-brain barrier by binding to the FRα. Thyroid dysfunction is frequently found in children with ASD. We measured blocking and binding FRAAs and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (FT4), total T3 (TT3), reverse T3 (rT3), thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) and other metabolites in 87 children with ASD, 84 of whom also underwent behavior and cognition testing and in 42 of whom FRAAs, TSH and FT4 were measured at two time points...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199036/edaravone-attenuates-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#4
K H Reeta, Devendra Singh, Y K Gupta
Alzheimer's disease is a major cause of dementia worldwide. Edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger, is reported to be neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic edaravone administration on intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced cognitive impairment in male Wistar rats. Cognitive impairment was developed by single ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) injection bilaterally on day 1. Edaravone (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, orally, once daily) was administered for 28 days. Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to assess cognitive functions at baseline and on days 14 and 28...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196395/spread-of-tau-down-neural-circuits-precedes-synapse-and-neuronal-loss-in-the-rtgtauec-mouse-model-of-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Eleanor K Pickett, Christopher M Henstridge, Elizabeth Allison, Rose Pitstick, Amy Pooler, Susanne Wegmann, George Carlson, Bradley T Hyman, Tara L Spires-Jones
Synaptic dysfunction and loss is the strongest pathological correlate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with increasing evidence implicating neuropathological tau protein in this process. Despite the knowledge that tau spreads through defined synaptic circuits, it is currently unknown whether synapse loss occurs before the accumulation of tau or as a consequence. To address this, we have used array tomography to examine an rTgTauEC mouse model expressing a P301L human tau transgene and a transgene labelling cytoplasm red (tdTomato) and presynaptic terminals green (Synaptophysin-EGFP)...
February 14, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192723/influence-of-age-and-cognitive-performance-on-resting-state-brain-networks-of-older-adults-in-a-population-based-cohort
#6
Christiane Jockwitz, Svenja Caspers, Silke Lux, Simon B Eickhoff, Kerstin Jütten, Stefan Lenzen, Susanne Moebus, Noreen Pundt, Andrew Reid, Felix Hoffstaedter, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Raimund Erbel, Sven Cichon, Markus M Nöthen, N Jon Shah, Karl Zilles, Katrin Amunts
Aging leads to global changes in brain structure and cognitive performance, with reorganization of functional brain networks. Importantly, these age-related changes show higher inter-individual variability in older subjects. To particularly address this variability is a challenge for studies on lifetime trajectories from early to late adulthood. The present study therefore had a dedicated focus on late adulthood to characterize the functional connectivity in resting-state networks (RSFC) in relation to age and cognitive performance in 711 older adults (55-85 years) from the 1000BRAINS project...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188659/hippocampal-subfields-at-ultra-high-field-mri-an-overview-of-segmentation-and-measurement-methods
#7
Alessia Giuliano, Graziella Donatelli, Mirco Cosottini, Michela Tosetti, Alessandra Retico, Maria Evelina Fantacci
The hippocampus is one of the most interesting and studied brain regions because of its involvement in memory functions and its vulnerability in pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative processes. In the recent years, the increasing availability of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners that operate at ultra-high field (UHF), i.e. with static magnetic field strength ≥ 7T, has opened new research perspectives. Compared to conventional high-field scanners, these systems can provide new contrasts, increased signal-to-noise ratio and higher spatial resolution, thus they may improve the visualization of very small structures of the brain, such as the hippocampal subfields...
February 11, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188306/left-frontal-cortex-connectivity-underlies-cognitive-reserve-in-prodromal-alzheimer-disease
#8
Nicolai Franzmeier, Marco Duering, Michael Weiner, Martin Dichgans, Michael Ewers
OBJECTIVE: To test whether higher global functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex (LFC) in Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with more years of education (a proxy of cognitive reserve [CR]) and mitigates the association between AD-related fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET hypometabolism and episodic memory. METHODS: Forty-four amyloid-PET-positive patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI-Aβ+) and 24 amyloid-PET-negative healthy controls (HC) were included...
February 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186680/the-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-agonist-ly354740-and-the-d2-receptor-antagonist-haloperidol-reduce-locomotor-hyperactivity-but-fail-to-rescue-spatial-working-memory-in-glua1-knockout-mice
#9
Thomas Boerner, Alexei Bygrave, Jingkai Chen, Anushka Fernando, Stephanie Jackson, Chris Barkus, Rolf Sprengel, Peter H Seeburg, Paul J Harrison, Gary Gilmour, David M Bannerman, David J Sanderson
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists have been suggested as potential anti-psychotics, at least in part, based on the observation that the agonist LY354740 appeared to rescue the cognitive deficits caused by non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, including spatial working memory deficits in rodents. Here, we tested the ability of LY354740 to rescue spatial working memory performance in mice that lack the GluA1 subunit of the AMPA glutamate receptor, encoded by Gria1, a gene recently implicated in schizophrenia by genome-wide association studies...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185318/cognitive-function-after-heart-transplantation-comparing-everolimus-based-and-calcineurin-inhibitor-based-regimens
#10
Britta S Bürker, Lars Gullestad, Einar Gude, Anne R Authen, Ingelin Grov, Per K Hol, Arne K Andreassen, Satish Arora, Mary Amanda Dew, Arnt E Fiane, Ira R H Haraldsen, Ulrik F Malt, Stein Andersson
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown conflicting results concerning the occurrence of cognitive impairment after successful heart transplantation (HTx). Another unresolved issue is the possible differential impact of immunosuppressants on cognitive function. In this study, we describe cognitive function in a cohort of HTx recipients and subsequently compare cognitive function between subjects on either everolimus- or calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression. METHODS: Cognitive function, covering attention, processing speed, executive functions, memory, and language functions, was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178375/melatonin-restores-hippocampal-neural-precursor-proliferation-and-prevents-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-jet-lag-simulation-in-adult-mice
#11
Deetje Iggena, York Winter, Barbara Steiner
Frequent flyers and shift workers undergo circadian dysrhythmia with adverse impact on body and mind. The circadian rhythm disorder "jet lag" disturbs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial cognition, which represent morphological and functional adult brain plasticity. This raises the question if pro-neurogenic stimuli might prevent those consequences. However, suitable measures to mitigate jet lag induced adverse effects on brain plasticity have been neglected so far. Here, we used adult C57Bl6 mice to investigate the pro-neurogenic stimuli melatonin (8mg/kg i...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178370/barriers-and-enablers-to-adherence-to-anticoagulation-in-heart-failure-with-atrial-fibrillation-patient-and-provider-perspectives
#12
Caleb Ferguson, Sally C Inglis, Phillip J Newton, Sandy Middleton, Peter S Macdonald, Patricia M Davidson
AIMS & OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the barriers and enablers to adherence to anticoagulation in individuals with chronic heart failure (CHF) with concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF) from the perspective of patients and providers. BACKGROUND: CHF and AF commonly coexist and are associated with increased stroke risk and mortality. Oral anticoagulation significantly reduces stroke risk and improves outcomes. Yet, in approximately 30% of cases anticoagulation is not commenced for a variety of reasons...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177571/optimizing-for-generalization-in-the-decoding-of-internally-generated-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#13
Matthijs A A van der Meer, Alyssa A Carey, Youki Tanaka
The decoding of a sensory or motor variable from neural activity benefits from a known ground truth against which decoding performance can be compared. In contrast, the decoding of covert, cognitive neural activity, such as occurs in memory recall or planning, typically cannot be compared to a known ground truth. As a result, it is unclear how decoders of such internally generated activity should be configured in practice. We suggest that if the true code for covert activity is unknown, decoders should be optimized for generalization performance using cross-validation...
February 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177555/new-perspectives-in-mental-health-addressing-cognitive-deficits-in-remitted-depression
#14
Jason I Chen, Danielle C Hergert
The purpose of this essay is to explore the long-term impact of depression on cognitive functioning and to discuss possible treatment strategies that mental health and psychiatric nurses may employ in practice or pursue in research to improve patient outcomes. As psychiatric and mental health nurses play a valuable role in promoting recovery from depression, addressing cognitive difficulties associated with depression may be an important area for nursing practice. This essay will first introduce the rationale for evaluating cognitive deficits in remitted depression in regards to the impact on quality of life (QOL)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177158/neuronal-responses-support-a-role-for-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-cognitive-set-reconfiguration
#15
Brianna J Sleezer, Giuliana Loconte, Meghan D Castagno, Benjamin Y Hayden
We are often faced with the need to abandon no-longer beneficial rules and adopt new ones. This process, known as cognitive set reconfiguration, is a hallmark of executive control. Although cognitive functions like reconfiguration are most often associated with dorsal prefrontal structures, recent evidence suggests that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may play an important role as well. We recorded activity of OFC neurons while rhesus macaques performed an analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task that involved a trial-and-error stage...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177157/variations-on-the-theme-of-musical-expertise-cognitive-and-sensory-processing-in-percussionists-vocalists-and-non-musicians
#16
Jessica Slater, Andrea Azem, Trent Nicol, Britta Swedenborg, Nina Kraus
Comparisons of musicians and non-musicians have revealed enhanced cognitive and sensory processing in musicians, with longitudinal studies suggesting these enhancements may be due in part to experience-based plasticity. Here, we investigate the impact of primary instrument on the musician signature of expertise by assessing three groups of young adults: percussionists, vocalists, and non-musician controls. We hypothesize that primary instrument engenders selective enhancements reflecting the most salient acoustic features to that instrument, whereas cognitive functions are enhanced regardless of instrument...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176400/effect-of-a-hallucinogenic-serotonin-5-ht2a-receptor-agonist-on-visually-guided-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-cognition-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#17
Gongliang Zhang, David Cinalli, Robert W Stackman
By acting on serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2A Rs), serotonergic psychedelic drugs induce perceptual and visual hallucinations by increasing neuronal excitability and altering visual-evoked neuronal responses. The present study was designed to examine whether the perceptual alterations induced by a serotonergic psychedelic drug would affect the integrity of hippocampal-dependent, visually guided spatial cognition. phenylalkylamine hallucinogen TCB-2 is a selective agonist of 5-HT2A Rs. Mice received TCB-2 (1...
February 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173618/organizational-stressors-and-basic-psychological-needs-the-mediating-role-of-athletes-appraisal-mechanisms
#18
Kimberley J Bartholomew, Rachel Arnold, Richard J Hampson, David Fletcher
This paper reports the first study to quantitatively examine the relationships between the demands encountered by athletes that are associated with the organization within which they are operating, cognitive appraisals, and basic psychological need experiences. Three hundred and fifteen high-level British athletes completed a multi-section questionnaire which assessed each of the aforementioned constructs. A series of path analyses provided valuable insight into the way in which the three dimensions (i.e., frequency, intensity and duration) of five organizational stressor categories were evaluated by athletes and, in turn, how such threat or challenge appraisals predicted feelings of need satisfaction and need frustration...
February 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170141/response-to-letter-to-the-editor
#19
Catherine Varner
We kindly thank the journal for the opportunity to respond to the recent comments made regarding our manuscript entitled, "Cognitive rest and graduated return to usual activities versus usual care for mild traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial of emergency department discharge instructions." This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 7, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170134/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-is-something-missing-when-comparing-cognitive-rest-and-graduated-return-to-usual-activities-versus-usual-care
#20
Vaitsa Giannouli
I read with great interest the article by Varner et al.(1) which aims to determine in a simple, concise, and neat way if mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients randomized to graduated return to usual activity discharge instructions have a decrease in their Post Concussion Symptom Score (PCSS) two weeks after MTBI, compared to patients who receive usual care MTBI discharge instructions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 7, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
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