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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913981/the-challenges-of-anaesthesia-and-pain-relief-in-hip-fracture-care
#1
Rachel Cowan, Jun Hao Lim, Terence Ong, Ashok Kumar, Opinder Sahota
The care of the older person with hip fracture is complicated by their comorbid condition, limited physiological reserve, cognitive impairment and frailty. Two aspects of hip fracture management that have received considerable attention are how best to manage the pain associated with it and the ideal mode of anaesthesia. Existing literature has reported on the suboptimal treatment of pain in this orthogeriatric cohort. With recent advancements in medical care, a number of options have emerged as alternatives to conservative systemic analgesia...
December 3, 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911474/is-chelation-therapy-efficient-for-the-treatment-of-intravenous-metallic-mercury-intoxication
#2
Daniela Pelclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Ondrej Bezdicek, Manuela Vaneckova, Pavel Urban, Petr Ridzon, Pavel Diblik, Tomas Navratil, Pavlina Klusackova, Kamil Vlcek, Olga Benesova, Pavel Trestik, Jiri Homolka, Sergey Zakharov
The efficacy of treatment for intravenous elemental mercury intoxication has not been fully studied with regard to clinical outcomes, and treatment recommendations vary. We treated a 41-year-old man with a history of drug abuse and depression who attempted suicide using 1 mL (13.53 g) metallic Hg i.v. He was admitted to the hospital two months later for dyspnoea and thoracic pain and was diagnosed with pneumonia. Hg deposits were seen in the lungs and extra-pulmonary organs. His blood level (372 μg/L) exceeded the population level of 5 μg/L by more than 70-fold...
December 2, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895474/efficacy-of-l-carnitine-supplementation-on-frailty-status-and-its-biomarkers-nutritional-status-and-physical-and-cognitive-function-among-prefrail-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
M Badrasawi, Suzana Shahar, A M Zahara, R Nor Fadilah, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a biological syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors due to decline in multiple physiological systems. Amino acid deficiency, including L-carnitine, has been proposed to be associated with its pathophysiology. Nevertheless, the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status has not been documented. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of 10-week L-carnitine supplement (1.5 g/day) on frailty status and its biomarkers and also physical function, cognition, and nutritional status among prefrail older adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889911/multiregional-analysis-of-global-5-methylcytosine-and-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-throughout-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Elizabeth M Ellison, Erin L Abner, Mark A Lovell
Epigenetic modifications to cytosine are known to alter transcriptional states and deregulate gene expression in cancer, embryonic development, and most recently in neurodegeneration. To test the hypothesis that global levels of cytosine modification are altered throughout the progression of Alzheimer's disease, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxmethylcytosine (5-hmC) were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and stable labeled internal standards of cytosine, 5-mC, and 5-hmC. Cytosine modifications were quantified in DNA extracted from tissue specimens of four brain regions (cerebellum, inferior parietal lobe, superior and middle temporal gyrus, and hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus) of cognitively normal control (NC) subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), preclinical Alzheimer's disease (PCAD), late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884040/personality-makes-a-difference-attachment-orientation-moderates-theory-of-planned-behavior-prediction-of-cardiac-medication-adherence
#5
Shira Peleg, Noa Vilchinsky, William A Fisher, Abed Khaskia, Morris Mosseri
OBJECTIVE: To achieve a comprehensive understanding of patients' adherence to medication following acute coronary syndrome (ACS), we assessed the possible moderating role played by attachment orientation on the effects of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC), as derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), on intention and reported adherence. METHOD: A prospective longitudinal design was employed. During hospitalization, ACS male patients (N=106) completed a set of self-report questionnaires including socio-demographic variables, attachment orientation, and measures of TPB constructs...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880990/neurodegeneration-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-expression-in-the-anterior-thalamus-of-sod1-g93a-als-mice
#6
Berthold Debye, Lena Schmülling, Lepu Zhou, Gabriele Rune, Cordian Beyer, Sonja Johann
Nowadays, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is considered as a multisystem disorder, characterized by a primary degeneration of motor neurons as well as neuropathological changes in non-motor regions. Neurodegeneration in subcortical areas, such as the thalamus, are believed to contribute to cognitive and behavioural abnormalities in ALS patients. In the present study, we investigated neurodegenerative changes including neuronal loss and glia pathology in the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus (AD) of SOD1(G93A) mice, a widely used animal model for ALS...
November 23, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878873/the-effects-of-spaced-retrieval-training-in-improving-hyperphagia-of-people-living-with-dementia-in-residential-settings
#7
Chia-Ning Hsu, Li-Chan Lin, Shiao-Chi Wu
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of spaced retrieval for improving hyperphagia in patients with dementia in residential care settings. BACKGROUND: Although 10-30% of patients with dementia have hyperphagia, most studies have focused on eating difficulties. Only a few studies have focused on hyperphagia. Various memory problems cause hyperphagia in patients with dementia. Spaced retrieval (SR), a cognitive technique for information learning, can be used as a training method to improve memory loss...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878848/the-effectiveness-of-the-cope-healthy-lifestyles-teen-program-a-school-based-intervention-in-middle-school-adolescents-with-12-month-follow-up
#8
Aysun Ardic, Semra Erdogan
AIM: The goal of this study is to assess the applicability and long-term effectiveness of the T-COPE Healthy TEEN program on adolescent health. BACKGROUND: Obesity and mental health disorders are major public health problems in adolescents. In this context, including long-term and multiple behavioural obesity prevention programs are becoming increasingly important. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental design with pre-test/post-test control group and repeated measurements METHODS: Eighty-seven (45 in intervention group, 42 in control group) adolescents were included from two different middle schools in the intervention program...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#9
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874976/etidronate-rescues-cognitive-deficits-through-improving-synaptic-transmission-and-suppressing-apoptosis-in-2-vessel-occlusion-model-rats
#10
Wen Li, Huijuan Yuan, Yao Yu, Yuen-Ki Cheong, Guogang Ren, Zhuo Yang
Vascular dementia (VD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the reduction of cerebral blood flow. It shows a progressive cognitive impairment. In our previous study, we found that etidronate (ET) showed neuroprotective effects against glutamate-injured PC12 cells. Thus in this study, we aimed to observe the effects of ET on learning and memory impairment and the related mechanism in 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model rats. Rats were administered a permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce VD model...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874975/structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#11
Anja Meissner, Jens Minnerup, Guadalupe Soria Rodriguez, Anna M Planas
Hypertension is a main risk factor for the development of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) - a major contributor to stroke and the most common cause of vascular dementia. Despite the increasing socio-economic importance arising from cSVD, currently only a few specific treatment strategies with proven efficacy are known. Fundamental to the lack of specific treatments is poor understanding of the disease pathogenesis and a lack of appropriate animal models resembling all symptoms of the human disease. However, chronic hypertensive rat models have been shown to bear similarities to most key features of cSVD...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872402/effect-of-training-exercise-on-urinary-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-cognitive-performances-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-pilot-study
#12
Angelo Russo, Livia Buratta, Roberto Pippi, Cristina Aiello, Claudia Ranucci, Elisa Reginato, Valerio Santangelo, Pierpaolo DeFeo, Claudia Mazzeschi
Exercise-mediated, brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction benefits health and cognitive functions. The multifaceted interplay between physical activity, urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive functioning has been largely neglected in previous literature. In this pilot study, two bouts of training exercise (65% and 70% of heart rate reserve) influenced urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive performances in 12 overweight and obese participants. Percent heart rate reserve, expenditure energy, brain-derived neurotrophic factor urinary levels and cognitive performances were measured before and after the exercise...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869890/-anmco-sic-sici-gise-sicch-consensus-document-risk-stratification-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-and-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#13
Giovanni Pulignano, Michele Massimo Gulizia, Samuele Baldasseroni, Francesco Bedogni, Giovanni Cioffi, Ciro Indolfi, Francesco Romeo, Adriano Murrone, Francesco Musumeci, Alessandro Parolari, Leonardo Patanè, Paolo Giuseppe Pino, Annalisa Mongiardo, Carmen Spaccarotella, Roberto Di Bartolomeo, Giuseppe Musumeci
Aortic stenosis is one the most frequent valvular diseases in developed countries, and its impact on public healthcare resources and assistance is increasing. A substantial proportion of elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis is frequently not eligible for surgery because of advanced age, frailty and multiple comorbidities. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) enables the treatment of very elderly patients at high or prohibitive surgical risk considered ineligible for surgery and with an acceptable life expectancy...
September 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866231/presynaptic-proteins-complexin-i-and-complexin-ii-differentially-influence-cognitive-function-in-early-and-late-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Ken Sawada, Andrea A Jones, Allen E Thornton, Alasdair M Barr, Sue E Leurgans, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, William G Honer
Progressive accumulation of Alzheimer's disease-related pathology is associated with cognitive dysfunction. Differences in cognitive reserve may contribute to individual differences in cognitive function in the presence of comparable neuropathology. The protective effects of cognitive reserve could contribute differentially in early versus late stages of the disease. We investigated presynaptic proteins as measures of brain reserve (a subset of total cognitive reserve), and used Braak staging to estimate the progression of Alzheimer's disease...
November 19, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864848/age-related-small-vessel-disease-a-potential-contributor-to-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Ruth Geraldes, Margaret M Esiri, Gabriele C DeLuca, Jacqueline Palace
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system wherein, after an initial phase of transient neurological defects, slow neurological deterioration due to progressive neuronal loss ensues. Age is a major determinant of MS progression onset and disability. Over the past years, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the key drivers of neurodegeneration and disability accumulation in MS. However, the effect of commonly encountered age-related cerebral vessel disease, namely small vessel disease (SVD), has been largely neglected and constitutes the aim of this review...
November 19, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863112/label-free-quantitative-comparison-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-glycoproteins-and-endogenous-peptides-in-subjects-with-alzheimer-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-healthy-individuals
#16
Jingxin Wang, Robert Cunningham, Henrik Zetterberg, Sanjay Asthana, Cynthia Carlsson, Ozioma Okonkwo, Lingjun Li
PURPOSE: The goal of this study is to investigate putative molecular dynamic changes in cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) collected from individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as compared to healthy controls. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The CSF samples from 12 subjects comprised of four cognitively normal individuals and eight patients with MCI and AD, respectively. Two aliquots of each CSF samples (total 1 mL) of each participant were used for this study...
November 9, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862513/memory-under-stress-from-single-systems-to-network-changes
#17
REVIEW
Lars Schwabe
Stressful events have profound effects on learning and memory. These effects are mainly mediated by catecholamines and glucocorticoid hormones released from the adrenals during stressful encounters. It has been known for long that both catecholamines and glucocorticoids influence the functioning of the hippocampus, a critical hub for episodic memory. However, areas implicated in other forms of memory, such as the insula or the dorsal striatum, can be affected by stress as well. Beyond changes in single memory systems, acute stress triggers the reconfiguration of large scale neural networks which sets the stage for a shift from thoughtful, 'cognitive' control of learning and memory towards more reflexive, 'habit' processes...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860258/sesamol-supplementation-prevents-systemic-inflammation-induced-memory-impairment-amyloidogenesis-via-inhibition-of-nuclear-factor-kappab
#18
Zhigang Liu, Yuwei Chen, Qinglian Qiao, Yali Sun, Qian Liu, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu
SCOPE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of sesamol, a phenolic lignan from sesame, on the systemic inflammation-induced neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis as well as memory impairment. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were treated with 0.05% sesamol (w/v) in the drinking water for 7 weeks, and then the mice were treated by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0.25 mg/kg) for 9 days. Sesamol supplementation significantly improved (by 36...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859916/mild-thyrotoxicosis-leads-to-brain-perfusion-changes-an-arterial-spin-labeling-study
#19
Anna Göbel, Marcus Heldmann, Alexander Sartorius, Martin Göttlich, Anna-Luise Dirk, Georg Brabant, Thomas F Münte
Hypo- and hyperthyroidism have effects on brain structure and function as well as cognitive processes, including memory. However, little is known about the influence of thyroid hormones on brain perfusion and the relationship of such perfusion changes to cognition. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of short-term experimental hyperthyroidism on brain perfusion in healthy volunteers and to assess whether perfusion changes, if present, are related to cognitive performance. It is known that an interaction exists between brain perfusion and cerebral oxygen consumption rate and it is believed that neural activation increases cerebral regional perfusion rate in brain areas associated with memory...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859911/psychological-distress-and-cognitive-coping-in-pregnant-women-diagnosed-with-cancer-and-their-partners
#20
Tineke Vandenbroucke, Sileny N Han, Kristel Van Calsteren, Tom F Wilderjans, Bea R H Van den Bergh, Laurence Claes, Frédéric Amant
OBJECTIVE: A cancer diagnosis during pregnancy may be considered as an emotional challenge for pregnant women and their partners. We aimed to identify women and partners at risk for high levels of distress based on their coping profile. METHODS: Sixty-one pregnant women diagnosed with cancer and their partners filled out the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) and the newly constructed Cancer and Pregnancy Questionnaire (CPQ). K-means cluster analysis was performed on the CERQ scales...
November 8, 2016: Psycho-oncology
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