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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103398/cognitive-behavioral-and-psycho-social-factors-associated-with-successful-and-maintained-quit-smoking-status-among-patients-who-received-smoking-cessation-intervention-with-nurses-counseling
#1
Chie Taniguchi, Hideo Tanaka, Hideo Saka, Isao Oze, Kazunobu Tachibana, Yasuhiro Nozaki, Yukio Suzuki, Hisataka Sakakibara
AIM: To identify cognitive, behavioral and psycho-social factors associated with successful and maintained quit smoking status after patients received smoking cessation intervention with nurses' counseling. BACKGROUND: Although nurses' intervention for smoking cessation is effective for patients, few studies have been conducted to identify cognitive, behavioral and psycho-social factors associated with the success of quitting smoking. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study METHODS: In a multi-institutional study between October 2008 - October 2014, we administered the Japanese smoking cessation therapy, which consists of smoking cessation intervention five times with nurses' counseling over 12 weeks...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100033/relaxin-3-inputs-target-hippocampal-interneurons-and-deletion-of-hilar-relaxin-3-receptors-in-floxed-rxfp3-mice-impairs-spatial-memory
#2
M Haidar, G Guèvremont, C Zhang, Rad Bathgate, E Timofeeva, C M Smith, A L Gundlach
Hippocampus is innervated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) 'projection' neurons of the nucleus incertus (NI), including a population expressing the neuropeptide, relaxin-3 (RLN3). In studies aimed at gaining an understanding of the role of RLN3 signaling in hippocampus via its Gi/o -protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, we examined the distribution of RLN3-immunoreactive nerve fibres and RXFP3 mRNA-positive neurons in relation to hippocampal GABA neuron populations. RLN3-positive elements were detected in close-apposition with a substantial population of somatostatin (SST)- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons, and a smaller population of parvalbumin- and calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in different hippocampal areas, consistent with the relative distribution patterns of RXFP3 mRNA and these marker transcripts...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099989/effects-of-a-dietary-ketone-ester-on-hippocampal-glycolytic-and-tca-cycle-intermediates-and-amino-acids-in-a-3xtgad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Robert J Pawlosky, Martin F Kemper, Yoshihero Kashiwaya, M Todd King, Mark P Mattson, Richard L Veech
In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a triple transgenic (3xTgAD) mouse model of AD low glucose metabolism in the brain precedes loss of memory and cognitive decline. The metabolism of ketones in the brain by-passes glycolysis and therefore may correct several deficiencies that are associated with glucose hypometabolism. A dietary supplement composed of an ester of D-β-hydroxybutyrate and R-1,3 butane diol referred to as ketone ester (KE) was incorporated into a rodent diet and fed to 3xTgAD mice for 8 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092015/enhancing-cognitive-functioning-in-healthly-older-adults-a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-significance-of-commercially-available-computerized-cognitive-training-in-preventing-cognitive-decline
#4
REVIEW
Tejal M Shah, Michael Weinborn, Giuseppe Verdile, Hamid R Sohrabi, Ralph N Martins
Successfully assisting older adults to maintain or improve cognitive function, particularly when they are dealing with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains a major challenge. Cognitive training may stimulate neuroplasticity thereby increasing cognitive and brain reserve. Commercial brain training programs are computerized, readily-available, easy-to-administer and adaptive but often lack supportive data and their clinical validation literature has not been previously reviewed...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075519/an-update-of-management-of-insomnia-in-patients-with-chronic-orofacial-pain
#5
REVIEW
Galit Almoznino, Yaron Haviv, Yair Sharav, Rafael Benoliel
In this review we discuss the management of chronic orofacial pain (COFP) patients with insomnia. Diagnostic work-up and follow-up routines of COFP patients should include assessment of sleep problems. Management is based on a multidisciplinary approach, addressing the factors that modulate the pain experience as well as insomnia and including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Parallel to treatment, patients should receive therapy for co-morbid medical and psychiatric disorders, and possible substance abuse that may be that may trigger or worsen the COFP and/or their insomnia...
January 11, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075504/anxiety-and-burnout-in-young-athletes-the-mediating-role-of-cognitive-appraisal
#6
A Rui Gomes, Susana Faria, Carla Vilela
This study tested the relationship between trait anxiety, cognitive appraisal, and athletes' burnout proposing two hypotheses: (a) there is a direct relationship between athletes' trait anxiety and cognitive appraisal and burnout; and (b) cognitive appraisal mediates the relationship between trait anxiety and burnout and this mediation occurs despite the competitive level and sport records of athletes. The study included 673 young athletes and provided measures of trait anxiety, cognitive appraisal, and burnout...
January 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074573/structural-functional-and-clinical-characterization-of-a-novel-ptpn11-mutation-cluster-underlying-noonan-syndrome
#7
Luca Pannone, Gianfranco Bocchinfuso, Elisabetta Flex, Cesare Rossi, Giuseppina Baldassarre, Christina Lissewski, Francesca Pantaleoni, Federica Consoli, Francesca Lepri, Monia Magliozzi, Massimiliano Anselmi, Giovanni Sorge, Kadri Karaer, Goran Cuturilo, Alessandro Sartorio, Sigrid Tinschert, Maria Accadia, Maria C Digilio, Giuseppe Zampino, Alessandro De Luca, Hélène Cavé, Martin Zenker, Bruce D Gelb, Bruno Dallapiccola, Lorenzo Stella, Giovanni B Ferrero, Simone Martinelli, Marco Tartaglia
Germline mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2), cause Noonan syndrome (NS), a relatively common, clinically variable, multisystem disorder. Here, we report on the identification of five different PTPN11 missense changes affecting residues Leu(261) , Leu(262) and Arg(265) in 16 unrelated individuals with clinical diagnosis of NS or with features suggestive for this disorder, specifying a novel disease-causing mutation cluster. Expression of the mutant proteins in HEK293T cells documented their activating role on MAPK signaling...
January 10, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074478/ultrastructural-analysis-of-parvalbumin-synapses-in-human-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Jill R Glausier, Rosalinda C Roberts, David A Lewis
Coordinated activity of neural circuitry in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) supports a range of cognitive functions. Altered DLPFC activation is implicated in a number of human psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Proper DLPFC activity is, in part, maintained by two populations of neurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV): local inhibitory interneurons that form Type II synapses, and long-range glutamatergic inputs from the thalamus that form Type I synapses. Understanding the contributions of each PV neuronal population to human DLPFC function requires a detailed examination of their anatomical properties...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073146/value-based-care-in-hepatology
#9
REVIEW
Mario Strazzabosco, John I Allen, Elizabeth O Teisberg
The migration from legacy fee-for-service reimbursement to payments linked to high value health care is accelerating in the United States because of new legislation and re-design of payments from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Since patients with chronic diseases account for substantial use of health care resources, payers and health systems are focusing on maximizing the value of care for these patients. Since chronic liver diseases impose a major health burden worldwide affecting the health and lives of many individuals and families as well as substantial costs for individuals and payers, hepatologists must understand how they can improve their practices ...
January 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067419/how-to-create-a-successful-reader-milestones-in-reading-development-from-birth-to-adolescence-the-contribution-of-language-cognition-and-literacy-to-reading-development
#10
REVIEW
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Rachelle Schmitz, John S Hutton, Jayna Schumacher
: Reading is one of the most important academic abilities that establishes the foundation for a child's success in school. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis of reading challenges is crucial for prevention of later academic failure. One challenge in early detection of reading difficulties is that the ability to read typically is acquired explicitly when a child is 4-6 years of age. However, reading ability relies on development of more basic abilities prior to reading acquisition, starting from birth...
January 9, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067185/effect-of-formal-education-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-after-stroke-a-meta-analysis-and-study-in-young-stroke-patients
#11
Roy P C Kessels, Willem Sake Eikelboom, Pauline Schaapsmeerders, Noortje A M Maaijwee, Renate M Arntz, Ewoud J van Dijk, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
OBJECTIVES: The extent of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) after stroke varies greatly across individuals, even when the same amount of brain damage is present. Education level is a potentially protective factor explaining these differences, but results on its effects on VCI are inconclusive. METHODS: First, we performed a meta-analysis on formal education and VCI, identifying 21 studies (N=7770). Second, we examined the effect of formal education on VCI in young-stroke patients who were cognitively assessed on average 11...
January 9, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067184/cognitive-reserve-and-self-efficacy-as-moderators-of-the-relationship-between-stress-exposure-and-executive-functioning-among-spousal-dementia-caregivers
#12
M M Pertl, C Hannigan, S Brennan, I H Robertson, B A Lawlor
BACKGROUND: A substantial literature has reported that stress negatively impacts on cognitive processes. As dementia caregiving can be stressful, it has been hypothesized that the challenges of dementia care may increase caregivers' own vulnerability to cognitive decline. Prefrontal processes are thought to be most vulnerable to stress; however, few studies have examined whether greater caregiver stress predicts poorer executive dysfunction, and no previous research has considered potential moderators of this relationship...
January 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063244/single-sided-deafness-affects-language-and-auditory-development-a-case-control-study
#13
Anouk Sangen, Liesbeth Royackers, Christian Desloovere, Jan Wouters, Astrid van Wieringen
OBJECTIVES: To examine auditory, linguistic and cognitive outcomes of children with single sided deafness (SSD). An increasing body of research suggests that children with SSD lag behind with respect to their normal hearing (NH) peers. In the present study we tap into certain developmental skills. DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: 21 children with SSD between 5 and 15 years of age participated. Per child with SSD two NH control children were matched on age and gender...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060454/trait-and-neurobiological-underpinnings-of-negative-emotion-regulation-in-gambling-disorder
#14
Juan F Navas, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Juan Verdejo-Román, Ana Perandrés-Gómez, Natalia Albein-Urios, Antonio Verdejo-García, José C Perales
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gambling disorder is characterized by poor regulation of negative emotions and impulsive behaviors. This study aimed to (1) compare gambling disorder patients (GDPs) and healthy controls (HCs) in self-report and brain activation measures of emotion regulation; and (2) establish its relationship with negative emotion-driven impulsivity. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional case-control studies including GDPs and HCs. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: GDPs and HCs were recruited from specialized gambling clinics in Andalusia (Spain), where they were following outpatient treatment, and from the community, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054436/low-dose-of-caffeine-enhances-the-efficacy-of-antidepressants-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-the-underlying-neural-substrates
#15
Qing-Shan Liu, Ran Deng, Yuyan Fan, Keqin Li, Fanggang Meng, Xueli Li, Rui Liu
SCOPE: Caffeine is one of the most frequently used psychoactive substances ingested mainly via beverage or food products. Major depressive disorder is a serious and devastating psychiatric disorder. Emerging evidence indicates that caffeine enhances the antidepressant-like activity of common antidepressant drugs in rodents. However, whether joint administration of low dose of caffeine enhances the antidepressant actions in depressed patients remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 95 male inpatients were assigned to three groups and were asked to take either caffeine (60, 120mg) or placebo (soymilk powder) daily for 4 weeks on the basis of their current antidepressant medications...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049565/adapting-the-concepts-of-brain-and-cognitive-reserve-to-post-stroke-cognitive-deficits-implications-for-understanding-neglect
#16
Roza M Umarova
Advanced lesion mapping and connectivity analyses are currently the main tools used to understand the mechanisms underlying post-stroke cognitive deficits. However, the factors contributing to pre-stroke architecture of cognitive networks are often ignored, even though they reportedly play a decisive role in the manifestation of cognitive impairment in neurodegeneration. The present review on post-stroke cognitive deficits therefore adopts the concept of brain and cognitive reserve, which was originally developed to account for the individual differences in the course of aging and neurodegenerative diseases...
December 16, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043160/validation-of-a-dynamic-measure-of-current-cognitive-reserve-in-a-longitudinally-assessed-sample-of-healthy-older-adults
#17
Mathew J Summers, Megan E Thow, David D Ward, Nichole L Saunders, Shannon Z Klekociuk, Abbie-Rose Imlach, Jeffery J Summers, James C Vickers
Cognitive reserve (CR) is a theoretical construct describing the underlying cognitive capacity of an individual that confers differential levels of resistance to, and recovery from, brain injuries of various types. To date, estimates of an individual's level of CR have been based on single proxy measures that are retrospective and static in nature. To develop a measure of dynamic change in CR across a lifetime, we previously identified a latent factor, derived from an exploratory factor analysis of a large sample of healthy older adults, as current CR (cCR)...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041947/cognitive-reserve-and-cognitive-performance-of-patients-with-focal-frontal-lesions
#18
Sarah E MacPherson, Colm Healy, Michael Allerhand, Barbara Spanò, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Mark White, Daniela Smirni, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Marco Bozzali, Lisa Cipolotti
The Cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesis was put forward to account for the variability in cognitive performance of patients with similar degrees of brain pathology. Compensatory neural activity within the frontal lobes has often been associated with CR. For the first time we investigated the independent effects of two CR proxies, education and NART IQ, on measures of executive function, fluid intelligence, speed of information processing, verbal short term memory (vSTM), naming, and perception in a sample of 86 patients with focal, unilateral frontal lesions and 142 healthy controls...
December 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039950/ageing-causes-prominent-neurovascular-dysfunction-associated-with-loss-of-astrocytic-contacts-and-gliosis
#19
Jessica Duncombe, Ross J Lennen, Maurits A Jansen, Ian Marshall, Joanna M Wardlaw, Karen Horsburgh
AIMS: Normal neurovascular coupling, mediated by the fine interplay and communication of cells within the neurovascular unit, is critical for maintaining normal brain activity and cognitive function. This study investigated whether, with advancing age there is disruption of neurovascular coupling and specific cellular components of the neurovascular unit, and whether the effects of increasing amyloid (a key feature of Alzheimer's disease) would exacerbate these changes. METHODS: Wild-type mice, in which amyloid deposition is absent, were compared to transgenic APP littermates (TgSwDI) which develop age-dependent increases in amyloid...
December 31, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034812/surgery-independent-language-function-decline-in-patients-undergoing-awake-craniotomy
#20
Tal Gonen, Gal Sela, Ranin Yanakee, Zvi Ram, Rachel Grossman
BACKGROUND: Despite selection process before awake-craniotomy, some patients experience an unexpected decline in language functions in the operating-room (OR), compared to their baseline evaluation, which may impair their functional monitoring. To investigate this phenomenon we prospectively compared language function day-before surgery and upon entrance to the OR. METHODS: Data was prospectively collected from consecutive patients undergoing awake-craniotomy with intra-operative cortical mapping for resection of gliomas affecting language areas...
December 26, 2016: World Neurosurgery
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