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cognitive reserve

Erik K St Louis
Apathy has been recently recognized as a distinct neuropsychological syndrome, overlapping with but also separable from mood disorders and cognitive impairment. While it is perhaps seen most often as a cardinal feature of depression as an amotivational symptom, it may occur independently in isolation without other prominent mood, vegetative, or cognitive symptoms or signs. The etymology of apathy is derived from the Greek "pathos" (passion), so apathy may be considered to be an amotivational state, i...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Netta Weinstein, Nicole Legate, William S Ryan, Laura Hemmy
OBJECTIVE: Work on longevity has found protective social, cognitive and emotional factors, but to date we have little understanding of the impact of motivational dynamics. Autonomy orientation, or stable patterns of self-regulation, is theorized to be a protective factor for long-term mental and physical health (Ryan & Deci, 2017), and is therefore a prime candidate for examining how stable psychosocial factors are linked to longevity, or life expectancy. METHOD: Essays written in the 1930s by participants in the Nun Study were coded for indicators of an autonomy orientation...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
D Keszthelyi, Q Aziz, J K Ruffle, O O'Daly, D Sanders, K Krause, S C Williams, M A Howard
BACKGROUND: Traditional psychometric measures aimed at characterizing the pain experience often show considerable overlap, due to interlinked affective and modulatory processes under central nervous system control. Neuroimaging studies have been employed to investigate this complexity of pain processing, in an attempt to provide a quantifiable, adjunctive description of pain perception. In this exploratory study, we examine psychometric and neuroimaging data from 38 patients with painful osteoarthritis of the carpometacarpal joint...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Nasim Sheikh-Bahaei, S Ahmad Sajjadi, Roido Manavaki, Mary McLean, John T O'Brien, Jonathan H Gillard
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the level of metabolites in MR Spectroscopy (MRS) is a representative marker of underlying pathological changes identified in PET images in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We performed PET-guided MRS in cases of probable AD, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). All participants were imaged by11 C-Pittsburgh Compound B (11 C-PiB) and18 F-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18 F-FDG)-PET followed by 3T MRS. PET images were assessed both visually and using standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR)...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Michael E Ward, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Li-Yung Lui, Yvonne Ou, Ari J Green, Katie Stone, Kathryn L Pedula, Steven R Cummings, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVE: Several cross-sectional studies have reported an association between visual contrast sensitivity (a functional measure of low contrast vision) and poor cognitive performance or dementia, but no studies have investigated this association prospectively in a population based cohort with final adjudication of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/dementia. METHODS: In a prospective, community-based study of aging women (Study of Osteoporotic Fractures), we analyzed whether visual contrast sensitivity was associated with increased risk of MCI or dementia and/or worse performance on various cognitive tests assessed 10 years later...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Jessica V Strong, Benjamin T Mast
This study examined similarities and differences in the cognitive profiles of older adult instrumental musicians and non-musicians. We compared neuropsychological test scores among older adult non-musicians, low-activity musicians (<10 years of lessons), and high-activity musicians (≥10 years of lessons), controlling for self-reported physical and social activity, years of education, and overall health. Significant differences among groups were found on tasks of visual spatial ability, naming, and executive functioning...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Guillaume Sescousse, Romain Ligneul, Ruth J van Holst, Lieneke K Janssen, Femke de Boer, Marcel Janssen, Anne S Berry, William J Jagust, Roshan Cools
Dopamine is central to a number of cognitive functions and brain disorders. Given the cost of neurochemical imaging in humans, behavioral proxy measures of dopamine have gained in popularity in the past decade, such as spontaneous eye blink rate (sEBR). Increased sEBR is commonly associated with increased dopamine function based on pharmacological evidence and patient studies. Yet, this hypothesis has not been validated using in vivo measures of dopamine function in humans. In order to fill this gap, we measured sEBR and striatal dopamine synthesis capacity using [18 F]DOPA PET in 20 participants (9 healthy individuals and 11 pathological gamblers)...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Nowell Zammit, Owen Falzon, Kenneth Camilleri, Richard Muscat
The timing of neural activity is an intriguing way of exposing behaviourally-relevant neural activity, as neural populations exploit transient windows of synchronized activations to exchange dynamic communications in the service of various cognitive operations. The link between neural synchrony and working memory (WM) has been supported at the theoretical and empirical level. However, findings have also shown that WM encoding is also related to significant alpha-beta desynchronization. These findings have been primarily recorded during subsequent memory effect paradigms that compare correct with incorrect encoding trials...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jana Annina Müller, Birger Kollmeier, Stefan Debener, Thomas Brand
The aim of this study was to investigate whether attentional influences on speech recognition are reflected in the neural phase entrained by an external modulator. Sentences were presented in 7 Hz sinusoidally modulated noise while the neural response to that modulation frequency was monitored by electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in 21 participants. We implemented a selective attention paradigm including three different attention conditions while keeping physical stimulus parameters constant. The participants' task was either to repeat the sentence as accurately as possible (speech recognition task), to count the number of decrements implemented in modulated noise (decrement detection task), or to do both (dual task), while the EEG was recorded...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Pantelis Maiovis, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Georgios Gerasimou, Anna Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Dimitrios Karacostas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) mediates the clinical expression of brain pathology in Alzheimer's disease, while there are much less relevant data in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In the present study we examined whether CR, measured using the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI), correlated with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in Greek FTD patients. METHODS: Eighty FTD patients, i.e., 47 with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and 33 with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), were enrolled into this study...
March 7, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Johannes Passecker, Md Nurul Islam, Vincent Hok, Shane M O'Mara
The stress response serves vital adaptive functions. However, acute stress episodes often negatively impact cognitive processing. Here we aimed to elucidate whether stress detrimentally affects the head-direction cells of the postsubiculum, which may in turn impair downstream spatial information processing. We recorded neurons in the rats' postsubiculum during a pellet-chasing task during baseline non stress conditions and after a 30-minute acute photic stress exposure. Based on their baseline firing rate, we identified a subpopulation of head-direction cells that drastically decreased its firing rate as a response to stress while preserving their head-directionality...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Nicolai Franzmeier, Julia Hartmann, Alexander N W Taylor, Miguel Á Araque-Caballero, Lee Simon-Vermot, Lana Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Katharina Bürger, Cihan Catak, Daniel Janowitz, Claudia Müller, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Robert Stahl, Martin Dichgans, Marco Duering, Michael Ewers
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggests that functional hubs (i.e., highly connected brain regions) are important for mental health. We found recently that global connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex (LFC connectivity) is associated with relatively preserved memory abilities and higher levels of protective factors (education, IQ) in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that LFC connectivity supports reserve capacity, alleviating memory decline...
March 6, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Antonio Daniele, Giordano Lacidogna
Among non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive and behavioural symptoms may precede the appearance of motor symptoms and become increasingly severe over disease progression. In patients with PD, mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) refers to a condition characterized by variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction, which does not significantly interfere with independence in daily living activities. PD-MCI may occur in at least 9% of patients in early disease stages1 , is a risk factor for PD dementia (PDD), and may present with a variety of patterns of impairment across several cognitive domains (executive functions, attention/working memory, episodic memory, visuospatial skills, language)...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
E Volz-Sidiropoulou, T Rings, A Wagg, N Leistner, S Gauggel, R Kirschner-Hermanns
OBJECTIVES: To develop a new assessment tool to measure disease-related impact of incontinence and care effort in cognitively impaired adults (ICIQ-Cog). The current paper presents the initial psychometric properties of ICIQ-Cog and outlines some possible clinical implications. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The ICIQ-Cog consists of 2 scales: a 12-item scale measuring disease-specific bother (ICIQ-Cog-P) and a 4-item scale assessing care efforts (ICIQ-Cog-C). The data for 60 residents of nursing homes suffering from incontinence and cognitive impairments were obtained in a test-retest research design...
March 6, 2018: BJU International
Rotem Monsa, Michael Peer, Shahar Arzy
BACKGROUND: Conversion disorder (CD), or functional neurological disorder, is manifested as a neurological disturbance that is not macroscopically visible in clinical structural neuroimaging, and is instead ascribed to underlying psychological stress. Known for many years in neuropsychiatry, a comprehensive explanation to the way by which psychological stress leads to a neurological deficit of a structural-like origin is still a mystery. METHODS: We applied whole-brain network-based data-driven analyses on resting-state functional MRI, recorded in seven CD patients with unilateral paresis and hypoesthesia as compared to 15 age-matched healthy controls...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Sandra Guidi, Andrea Giacomini, Fiorenza Stagni, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Renata Bartesaghi
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic condition associated with impairment in several cognitive domains. Previous evidence showed a notable neurogenesis reduction in the hippocampal region of DS fetuses, which may account for the impairment of declarative memory that characterizes DS starting from early life stages. The fusiform gyrus (FG) and the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) play a key role in visual recognition memory, a function that is impaired in children and adults with DS. The goal of the current study was to establish whether fetuses with DS (17-21 weeks of gestation) exhibit neuroanatomical alterations in the FG and ITG that may underlie recognition memory impairment...
March 6, 2018: Brain Pathology
Caitlin Hilverman, Susan Wagner Cook, Melissa C Duff
Co-speech hand gesture facilitates learning and memory, yet the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. One possibility is that motor information in gesture may engage procedural memory representations. Alternatively, iconic information from gesture may contribute to declarative memory representations mediated by the hippocampus. To investigate these alternatives, we examined gesture's effects on word learning in patients with hippocampal damage and declarative memory impairment, with intact procedural memory, and in healthy and in brain-damaged comparison groups...
March 5, 2018: Hippocampus
B H Chew, R C Vos, R K Stellato, M Ismail, G E H M Rutten
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief, value-based emotion-cognition-focused educational programme (VEMOFIT) in Malay adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with a programme of active listening to participants' emotional experiences, social support and their opinion on the health clinic diabetes care services (attention control). METHODS: Malay adults with severe diabetes distress [Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS-17) mean score ≥ 3] were included...
March 5, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Mukesh Kumar, Shilpi Modi, Poonam Rana, Pawan Kumar, Ratnesh Kanwar, Tarun Sekhri, Maria D'souza, Subash Khushu
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is characterized by mild elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (range 5-10 μIU/ml) and normal free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). The cognitive function impairment is well known in thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, but little is known about deficits in brain functions in SCH subjects. Also, whether hormone-replacement treatment is necessary or not in SCH subjects is still debatable. In order to have an insight into the cognition of SCH subjects, intrinsic and extrinsic functional connectivity (FC) of the resting state networks (RSNs) was studied...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Gaël Chételat
Over the last ten years, we have conducted research in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using multimodal neuroimaging techniques to improve diagnosis, further our understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying the disease, and support the development of innovative non-pharmacological preventive strategies. Our works emphasized the interest of hippocampal subfield volumetry in early diagnosis and the need for further development in this field including optimization, standardization, and automatization of the techniques...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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