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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440739/featured-article-pharmacological-postconditioning-with-delta-opioid-attenuates-myocardial-reperfusion-injury-in-isolated-porcine-hearts
#1
Maria Seewald, James A Coles, Daniel C Sigg, Paul A Iaizzo
Ischemic preconditioning has been utilized to protect the heart from ischemia prior to ischemia onset, whereas postconditioning is employed to minimize the consequences of ischemia at the onset of reperfusion. The underlying mechanisms and pathways of ischemic pre- and postconditioning continue to be investigated as therapeutic targets. We evaluated the administration of a delta opioid agonist or cariporide on various parameters associated with myocardial reperfusion injury upon reperfusion of isolated porcine hearts...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440606/pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-radiation-induced-myocardial-fibrosis
#2
Li Kun Liu, Weiwei Ouyang, Xing Zhao, Sheng Fa Su, Yan Yang, Wen Jin Ding, Da Xian Luo, Zhi Xu He, Bing Lu
Radiation therapy is one of the most important methods for the treatment of malignant tumors. However, in radiotherapy for thoracic tumors such as breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and mediastinal lymphoma, the heart, located in the mediastinum, is inevitably affected by the irradiation, leading to pericardial disease, myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, valvular lesions, and cardiac conduction system injury, which are considered radiation-induced heart diseases. Delayed cardiac injury especially myocardial fibrosis is more prominent, and its incidence is as high as 20–80%...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440472/human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-acute-myocarditis-by-modulating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-1-2-mediated-apoptosis
#3
Changyi Zhang, Guichi Zhou, Chanxin Cai, Jindi Li, Fen Chen, Lichun Xie, Wei Wang, Yonggang Zhang, Xiulan Lai, Lian Ma
Acute myocarditis is a non-ischemic inflammatory disease of the myocardium, and there is currently no standard treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can alleviate myosin‑induced myocarditis; however, the mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, the authors investigated the ability of human umbilical cordMSCs (HuMSCs) to attenuate myocardial injury and dysfunction during the acute phase of experimental myocarditis. Male Lewis rats (aged 8 weeks) were injected with porcine myosin to induce myocarditis...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440414/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-promotes-the-survival-and-angiogenesis-of-transplanted-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-the-infarcted-myocardium
#4
Zhe Quan, Qiang-Li Wang, Pei Zhou, Guo-Dong Wang, Yu-Zhen Tan, Hai-Jie Wang
The survival of transplanted stem cells in ischemic tissue is poor. In the present study, the effects of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) on the survival and angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and improvement in cardiac functions after transplantation of Tβ4-treated EPCs in the infarcted myocardium were investigated. EPCs were isolated from bone marrow of adult male rats and incubated in Endothelial Basal Medium-2. Then the cells were treated with Tβ4 at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 µM), and cells incubated with DMEM were set as controls...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439851/exploring-the-pathophysiology-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#5
REVIEW
Wengen Chen, Vasken Dilsizian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to explore the pathophysiology of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy by appraising the interplay between myocardial perfusion, function, metabolism, and, particularly, sympathetic innervation. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which include (1) catecholamine cardiac toxicity, (2) myocardial sympathetic innervation disruption, (3) coronary vasospasm, (4) myocardial microvascular dysfunction, and (5) aborted myocardial infarction...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439849/aortic-valve-replacement-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-with-the-in-situ-right-gastroepiploic-artery-to-the-occluded-right-coronary-artery-using-a-temporary-vein-graft-for-cardioplegia
#6
Yoshifumi Fuke, Toru Yasutsune, Masato Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: The operation of aortic valve replacement (AVR) after CABG is a technically challenging procedure in respect to dissection of living grafts from its surrounding tissue, myocardial protection, and so on, especially that procedure to patients with living in situ functional arterial grafts to occluded native coronary arteries has a special problem in regard to myocardial protection because myocardial blood supply originates from various arteries including the left internal thoracic artery (LITA), the right internal thoracic artery (RITA), and the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA); hence, adequate myocardial protection should be fastidiously considered...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439731/il-10-improves-cardiac-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction-by-stimulating-m2-macrophage-polarization-and-fibroblast-activation
#7
Mira Jung, Yonggang Ma, Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer, Kristine Y DeLeon-Pennell, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Michael R Garrett, Merry L Lindsey
Inflammation resolution is important for scar formation following myocardial infarction (MI) and requires the coordinated actions of macrophages and fibroblasts. In this study, we hypothesized that exogenous interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, promotes post-MI repair through actions on these cardiac cell types. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice (male, 3- to 6-month old, n = 24/group) were treated with saline or IL-10 (50 μg/kg/day) by osmotic mini-pump infusion starting at day (d) 1 post-MI and sacrificed at d7 post-MI...
May 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439652/myocardial-extracellular-volume-fraction-quantified-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-is-increased-in-hypertension-and-associated-with-left-ventricular-remodeling
#8
Shuli Wang, Hongjie Hu, Minjie Lu, Arlene Sirajuddin, Jinghui Li, Jing An, Xiuyu Chen, Gang Yin, Tian Lan, Linlin Dai, Yan Zhang, Xiaorong Yin, Lei Song, Aimin Dang, Peter Kellman, Andrew E Arai, Shihua Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether extracellular volume fraction (ECV) quantification by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can demonstrate left ventricle (LV) abnormalities and relationship between ECV and LV remodeling in hypertension (HTN) patients METHODS: ECV quantification was prospectively performed in 134 consecutive HTN patients and 97 healthy subjects. Individual and regional ECV were compared to the regions on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Statistical analysis of the relationship between LV global functional parameters and ECV was carried out using Pearson's correlation, Student's t test and multiple regressions...
April 24, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439258/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Paras K Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K Patel, Sushil K Mahata
The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438735/comparative-effectiveness-and-safety-of-dabigatran-and-rivaroxaban-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients
#10
Chao-Lun Lai, Ho-Min Chen, Min-Tsun Liao, Ting-Tse Lin, K Arnold Chan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the comparative effectiveness and safety between dabigatran and rivaroxaban in atrial fibrillation patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective, new-user cohort study based on the National Health Insurance claims database in Taiwan. Adult atrial fibrillation patients who initiated dabigatran (N=10 625) or rivaroxaban (N=4609) between June 1, 2012 and May 31, 2014 were identified as the overall population...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438659/the-nrf2-activator-dh404-attenuates-adverse-ventricular-remodelling-post-myocardial-infarction-by-modifying-redox-signalling
#11
Kristen J Bubb, Cindy Kok, Owen Tang, Nathalie B Rasko, Asa Birna Birgisdottir, Thomas Hansen, Rebecca Ritchie, Ravinay Bhindi, Scott A Reisman, Colin Meyer, Keith Ward, Keyvan Karimi Galougahi, Gemma A Figtree
BACKGROUND: The novel synthetic triterpenoid, bardoxolone methyl, has the ability to upregulate cytoprotective proteins via induction of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. This makes it a promising therapeutic agent in disease states characterized by dysregulated oxidative signalling. We have examined the effect of a Nrf2 activator, dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (DH404), a derivative of bardoxolone methyl, on post-infarct cardiac remodeling in rats. METHODS/RESULTS: DH404, administered from day 2 post myocardial infarction (MI: 30 min transient ischemia followed by reperfusion) resulted in almost complete protection against adverse ventricular remodeling as assessed at day 28 (left ventricular end-systolic area: sham 0...
April 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438649/pathophysiological-roles-of-canstatin-on-myofibroblasts-after-myocardial-infarction-in-rats
#12
Akira Sugiyama, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Myofibroblasts play an important role during remodeling process after myocardial infarction through proliferation, migration, production and degradation of extracellular matrix and contraction. Canstatin, a 24kDa polypeptide, is cleaved from α2 chain of type IV collagen, which is a major component of basement membrane around cardiomyocytes. We examined the effects of canstatin on myofibroblasts isolated from the areas of myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction model was made by ligating left anterior descending artery of Wistar rats...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438640/neutralizing-il-6-reduces-heart-injury-by-decreasing-nerve-growth-factor-precursor-in-the-heart-and-hypothalamus-during-rat-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#13
Chi Cheng, Jun-Mei Xu, Tian Yu
AIMS: To investigate whether the expression of nerve growth factor precursor (proNGF) changes during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and whether neutralizing interleukin-6 (IL-6) during CPB has cardiac benefits. MAIN METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing CPB were recruited and their serum proNGF and troponin-I (TNI) were detected. In addition, rats were divided into three groups: CPB group, CPB with cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group, and a control group. The pre-CPB standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN) and post-CPB SDNN were compared...
April 21, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437634/convolutional-neural-network-regression-for-short-axis-left-ventricle-segmentation-in-cardiac-cine-mr-sequences
#14
Li Kuo Tan, Yih Miin Liew, Einly Lim, Robert A McLaughlin
Automated left ventricular (LV) segmentation is crucial for efficient quantification of cardiac function and morphology to aid subsequent management of cardiac pathologies. In this paper, we parameterize the complete (all short axis slices and phases) LV segmentation task in terms of the radial distances between the LV centerpoint and the endo- and epicardial contours in polar space. We then utilize convolutional neural network regression to infer these parameters. Utilizing parameter regression, as opposed to conventional pixel classification, allows the network to inherently reflect domain-specific physical constraints...
April 12, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437342/left-ventricular-mechanics-assessed-by-2-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-in-children-and-adolescents-with-idiopathic-scoliosis
#15
Shujuan Li, Junlin Yang, Ling Zhu, Yunquan Li, Huimin Peng, Yuese Lin, Xuandi Li, Zifang Huang, Huishen Wang
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of data collected prospectively. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the possible effects of idiopathic scoliosis on left ventricular (LV) myocardial performance in children and adolescent patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spine anomaly may impair cardiorespiratory function. It has been confirmed that respiratory function decreased in patients with scoliosis. However, limited study of the effect of scoliosis on heart function has been published, and no assessment of myocardial deformation of these patients has been reported to our knowledge...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437263/a-randomised-trial-to-evaluate-preoperative-oral-carbohydrate-administration-on-insulin-resistance-in-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-patients
#16
Bora Lee, Sarah Soh, Jae-Kwang Shim, Ha Y Kim, Hyelin Lee, Young-Lan Kwak
BACKGROUND: In fasting cardiac surgery patients, preoperative carbohydrate (CHO) drink intake attenuated insulin resistance and improved cardiac metabolism, although its beneficial effects were not evident after cardiac surgery possibly due to cardiopulmonary bypass-related extreme systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether preoperative CHO intake affected insulin resistance and free-fatty acid (FFA) concentrations in off-pump coronary revascularisation...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436119/maternal-hypertrophy-and-diastolic-disfunction-and-brain-natriuretic-peptide-concentration-in-early-and-late-pre-eclampsia
#17
V T M Borges, S G Zanati, M T S PeraÇoli, J R Poiati, M Romão-Veiga, J C PeraÇoli, B Thilaganathan
OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia is associated with maternal cardiac remodelling and diastolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to assess and compare maternal left ventricular structure and diastolic function and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) levels in women with early-onset pre-eclampsia (<34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset pre-eclampsia (≥34weeks of gestation). METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional observational study was performed in 30 women with early-onset pre-eclampsia, 32 with late-onset pre-eclampsia and 23 normotensive controls...
April 23, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435120/the-role-of-platelets-in-hemostasis-and-the-effects-of-snake-venom-toxins-on-platelet-function
#18
REVIEW
Mayara Ribeiro de Queiroz, Bruna Barbosa de Sousa, Déborah Fernanda da Cunha Pereira, Carla Cristine Neves Mamede, Mariana Santos Matias, Nadia Cristina Gomes de Morais, Júnia de Oliveira Costa, Fábio de Oliveira
The human body has a set of physiological processes, known as hemostasis, which keeps the blood fluid and free of clots in normal vessels; in the case of vascular injury, this process induces the local formation of a hemostatic plug, preventing hemorrhage. The hemostatic system in humans presents complex physiological interactions that involve platelets, plasma proteins, endothelial and subendothelial structures. Disequilibrium in the regulatory mechanisms that control the growth and the size of the thrombus is one of the factors that favors the development of diseases related to vascular disorders such as myocardial infarction and stroke, which are among the leading causes of death in the western world...
April 20, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435004/improvements-in-left-ventricular-diastolic-mechanics-after-parachute-device-implantation-in-patients-with-ischemia-heart-failure-a-cardiac-ct-study
#19
Chun-Ho Yun, Jing-Yi Sun, Barry Templin, Shih-Hsuan Lin, Kuan-Ming Chen, Tung-Hsin Wu, Chung-Lieh Hung, Chun-Chieh Liu, Hsi-Hsien Hsu, Mohamad Amer Alaiti, Anas Fares, Anthony DeCicco, Hiram G Bezerra
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous ventricular restoration therapy using left ventricle (LV) partitioning Parachute device has emerged as a clinical treatment option for LV apical aneurysm post extensive anterior myocardial infarction (AMI). We assessed changes of diastolic mechanics and accompanied functional improvements following LV parachute device implantation by cardiac computed tomography (CCT). METHODS AND RESULTS: CCT data from 28 patients in the pre- and post-implantation of LV parachute device implantation...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434533/performance-of-fixed-heart-rate-increment-targets-of-20-vs-30-beats-per-minute-for-exercise-rehabilitation-prescription-in-outpatients-with-heart-failure
#20
Jennifer L Reed, Angelica Z Blais, Marja-Leena Keast, Andrew L Pipe, Robert D Reid
BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) should exercise at 40%-60% heart rate reserve (HRR) during the first 3 weeks of an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program and at 50%-80% HRR thereafter. Arbitrary methods to prescribe exercise intensity such as resting HR (RHR) plus 20 or 30 beats per minute (bpm) (RHR + 20 or RHR + 30) are recommended for inpatients after a myocardial infarction or those recovering from heart surgery. This approach has been repurposed by outpatient CR programs to prescribe exercise intensity for patients with HF, yet its efficacy has not been evaluated...
February 2, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
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