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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092472/using-biomarkers-to-predict-and-to-prevent-cardiotoxicity-of-cancer-therapy
#1
Daniela Cardinale, Gina Biasillo, Michela Salvatici, Maria Teresa Sandri, Carlo Maria Cipolla
Cardiotoxicity is a common complication that may compromise the clinical effectiveness of anticancer therapy. The current standard for monitoring cardiac function detects cardiotoxicity only when a functional impairment has already occurred, not allowing for any early preventive strategy. Areas covered: A novel approach, based on the use of biomarkers has recently emerged, resulting in a very effective tool for early, real-time identification, and monitoring of cardiotoxicity. In particular, cardiac troponin elevation during chemotherapy allows to identify patients more prone to develop myocardial dysfunction and cardiac events...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091981/environmental-pollutants-limitations-in-physical-functioning-and-frailty-in-older-adults
#2
REVIEW
Esther García-Esquinas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Frailty is an age-related syndrome characterized by reductions in strength, endurance, and physiologic function that increase an individual's vulnerability for developing dependence or death. Extensive research is currently being conducted to determine preventable risk factors and mechanistic pathways of frailty. This review summarizes the existing evidence on the potential associations between environmental pollutants, limitations in physical functioning, and frailty among older adults...
January 16, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090761/modest-overexpression-of-foxo-maintains-cardiac-proteostasis-and-ameliorates-age-associated-functional-decline
#3
Anna C Blice-Baum, Alexander C Zambon, Gaurav Kaushik, Meera C Viswanathan, Adam J Engler, Rolf Bodmer, Anthony Cammarato
Heart performance declines with age. Impaired protein quality control (PQC), due to reduced ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) activity, autophagic function, and/or chaperone-mediated protein refolding, contributes to cardiac deterioration. The transcription factor FOXO participates in regulating genes involved in PQC, senescence, and numerous other processes. Here, a comprehensive approach, involving molecular genetics, novel assays to probe insect cardiac physiology, and bioinformatics, was utilized to investigate the influence of heart-restricted manipulation of dFOXO expression in the rapidly aging Drosophila melanogaster model...
February 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090292/a-new-look-at-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-postcapillary-pathophysiology-and-cardiac-dysfunction
#4
Arvind Sehgal, Andra Malikiwi, Eldho Paul, Kenneth Tan, Samuel Menahem
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular function are the focus of cardiovascular effects of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We assessed cardiac indexes reflecting systemic afterload and pulmonary venous back pressure as pathophysiologic factors. Cardiac parameters were measured by conventional echocardiography in 20 preterm infants with severe BPD and compared with those of 10 preterm infants with no BPD and 20 healthy term infants. In infants with severe BPD, PH was noted in 5 (25%) by tricuspid regurgitation Doppler jet ≥2...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090255/clinical-utility-of-echocardiography-for-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-in-children-with-bronchopulmonary-dsyplasia
#5
Young Earl Choi, Hwa Jin Cho, Eun Song Song, In Seok Jeong, Namsik Yoon, Young Youn Choi, Jae Sook Ma, Young Kuk Cho
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) may result in chronic pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Various echocardiographic assessments of RV dysfunction have been used to determine whether echocardiographic measurements of premature infants with BPD could provide sensitive measures of RV function that correlates with BPD severity. METHODS: Twenty-eight control subjects without BPD (non BPD group), 28 patients with mild BPD, 11 patients with moderate BPD, and six patients with severe BPD underwent echocardiograms with standard measurement such as ejection fraction by M-mode, tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient, myocardial performance index (MPI) derived from pulse Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) measurements...
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089999/impact-of-impaired-renal-function-in-patients-with-severely-calcified-coronary-lesions-treated-with-orbital-atherectomy
#6
Michael S Lee, Evan Shlofmitz, Gentian Lluri, Richard A Shlofmitz
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who underwent orbital atherectomy for severe coronary artery calcification (CAC) prior to stent implantation. BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of lesions with severe CAC is associated with increased rates of adverse clinical events. Patients with CKD are at increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, including vascular calcification, and have worse outcomes after PCI...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089233/epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-myocardial-ischemia-assessed-by-computed-tomography-perfusion-imaging-and-invasive-fractional-flow-reserve
#7
Rahul G Muthalaly, Nitesh Nerlekar, Dennis T L Wong, James D Cameron, Sujith K Seneviratne, Brian S Ko
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active fat depot that is associated with incident coronary artery disease (CAD) and major adverse cardiovascular events. The relationship between EAT and myocardial ischemia remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between EAT volume and the presence of perfusion defects on myocardial computed tomographic perfusion imaging (CTP) and functional stenoses on invasive fractional flow-reserve (FFR). METHODS: Data were obtained from a previous prospective cross-sectional study in patients with suspected CAD...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088920/cardiac-strain-findings-in-children-with-latent-rheumatic-heart-disease-detected-by-echocardiographic-screening
#8
Andrea Beaton, Hedda Richards, Michelle Ploutz, Lasya Gaur, Twalib Aliku, Peter Lwabi, Greg Ensing, Craig Sable
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients with latent rheumatic heart disease by echocardiography presents a unique opportunity to prevent disease progression. Myocardial strain is a more sensitive indicator of cardiac performance than traditional measures of systolic function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormalities in myocardial strain may be present in children with latent rheumatic heart disease. METHODS: Standard echocardiography images with electrocardiogram gating were obtained from Ugandan children found to have latent rheumatic heart disease as well as control subjects...
January 16, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088910/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-sglt2i-their-role-in-cardiometabolic-risk-management
#9
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Michael J Theodorakis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel category of oral antidiabetic drugs that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and increase renal glucose excretion, thus lowering plasma glucose levels. This unique mechanism of SGLT2i action is insulin independent, thus improving glycemic control without promoting hypoglycemia in the absence of exogenously administered insulin. METHODS: The present narrative review addresses the putative associations between SGLT2i and several cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular risk factors, as well as their effects on cardiac and renal function...
January 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088331/eicosapentaenoic-acid-ameliorates-palmitate-induced-lipotoxicity-via-the-amp-kinase-dynamin-related-protein-1-signaling-pathway-in-differentiated-h9c2-myocytes
#10
Atsushi Sakamoto, Masao Saotome, Prottoy Hasan, Terumori Satoh, Hayato Ohtani, Tsuyoshi Urushida, Hideki Katoh, Hiroshi Satoh, Hideharu Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggested the preferable effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) against cardiac lipotoxicity, which worsens cardiac function by means of excessive serum free fatty acids due to chronic adrenergic stimulation under heart failure. Nonetheless, the precise molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we focused on dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) as a possible modulator of the EPA-mediated cardiac protection against cardiac lipotoxicity, and investigated the causal relation between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Drp1...
January 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087519/sympathetic-modulation-of-electrical-activation-in-normal-and-infarcted-myocardium-implications-for-arrhythmogenesis
#11
Olujimi A Ajijola, Robert L Lux, Anadjeet Khahera, OhJin Kwon, Eric Aliotta, Daniel Ennis, Michael C Fishbein, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
: Background The influence of cardiac sympathetic innervation on electrical activation in normal and chronically infarcted ventricular myocardium is not understood. Methods and Results Yorkshire pigs with normal hearts (NL, n=12) or anterior myocardial infarction (MI, n=9) underwent high-resolution mapping of the anteroapical left ventricle, at baseline, and during left and right stellate ganglion stimulation (LSGS & RSGS, respectively). Conduction velocity (CV), activation times (AT), & directionality of propagation were measured...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087265/myocardial-relaxation-is-accelerated-by-fast-stretch-not-reduced-afterload
#12
Charles S Chung, Charles W Hoopes, Kenneth S Campbell
Fast relaxation of cross-bridge generated force in the myocardium facilitates efficient diastolic function. Recently published research studying mechanisms that modulate the relaxation rate has focused on molecular factors. Mechanical factors have received less attention since the 1980s when seminal work established the theory that reducing afterload accelerates the relaxation rate. Clinical trials using afterload reducing drugs, partially based on this theory, have thus far failed to improve outcomes for patients with diastolic dysfunction...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087126/cardiac-lymphatics-a-new-avenue-for-therapeutics
#13
REVIEW
Taina Vuorio, Annakaisa Tirronen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Recent progress in lymphatic vessel biology and in novel imaging techniques has established the importance of the lymphatic vasculature as part of the cardiovascular system. The lymphatic vessel network regulates many physiological processes important for heart function such as fluid balance, transport of extravasated proteins, and trafficking of immune cells. Therefore, lymphangiogenic therapy could be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, for example by improving reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) from atherosclerotic lesions or by resolving edema and fibrosis after myocardial infarction...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086951/sodium-glucose-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibition-with-empagliflozin-improves-cardiac-diastolic-function-in-a-female-rodent-model-of-diabetes
#14
Javad Habibi, Annayya R Aroor, James R Sowers, Guanghong Jia, Melvin R Hayden, Mona Garro, Brady Barron, Eric Mayoux, R Scott Rector, Adam Whaley-Connell, Vincent G DeMarco
Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for impairments in diastolic relaxation and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The impairments in diastolic relaxation are especially pronounced in obese and diabetic women and predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in this population. Recent clinical data suggest sodium glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduces CVD events in diabetic individuals, but the mechanisms of this CVD protection are unknown. To determine whether targeting SGLT2 improves diastolic relaxation, we utilized empagliflozin (EMPA) in female db/db mice...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086885/harnessing-the-early-post-injury-inflammatory-responses-for-cardiac-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
Bill Cheng, H C Chen, I W Chou, Tony W H Tang, Patrick C H Hsieh
Cardiac inflammation is considered by many as the main driving force in prolonging the pathological condition in the heart after myocardial infarction. Immediately after cardiac ischemic injury, neutrophils are the first innate immune cells recruited to the ischemic myocardium within the first 24 h. Once they have infiltrated the injured myocardium, neutrophils would then secret proteases that promote cardiac remodeling and chemokines that enhance the recruitment of monocytes from the spleen, in which the recruitment peaks at 72 h after myocardial infarction...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086779/the-effect-of-electrical-conductivity-of-myocardium-on-cardiac-pumping-efficacy-a-computational-study
#16
Ana Rahma Yuniarti, Ki Moo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The existence of non-excitable cells in the myocardium leads to the increasing conduction non-uniformity and decreasing myocardial electrical conductivity. Slowed myocardial conduction velocity (MCV) believed to enhance the probability of cardiac arryhthmia and alter the cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, even in sinus rhythm. Though several studies on the correlation between MCV and cardiac electrical instabilities exist, there has been no study concerning correlation or causality between MCV and cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, due to the limitation in clinical methods to document and evaluate cardiac mechanical responses directly...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081214/cold-pressor-stress-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-myocardial-flow-reserve-is-not-useful-for-detection-of-coronary-endothelial-dysfunction-in-women-with-signs-and-symptoms-of-ischemia-and-no-obstructive-cad
#17
Sofy Landes, Sherwin Dela Cruz, Janet Wei, Ahmed AlBadri, Chrisandra Shufelt, Puja Mehta, Louise E Thomson, Marcio A Diniz, Xiao Zhang, John W Petersen, R David Anderson, Carl J Pepine, Daniel S Berman, C Noel Bairey Merz
BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial function testing using acetylcholine is not routinely available, while non-pharmacological cold pressor testing (CPT) is considered an endothelial stressor. Noninvasive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) can detect coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). We evaluated if CPT stress CMRI MPRI could detect invasive coronary endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Coronary reactivity testing was performed in 189 women with symptoms and signs of ischemic but no obstructive coronary artery disease as previously described plus CPT stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081170/an-alpha-1a-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-prevents-acute-doxorubicin-cardiomyopathy-in-male-mice
#18
Megan D Montgomery, Trevor Chan, Philip M Swigart, Bat-Erdene Myagmar, Rajesh Dash, Paul C Simpson
Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors mediate adaptive effects in the heart and cardiac myocytes, and a myocyte survival pathway involving the alpha-1A receptor subtype and ERK activation exists in vitro. However, data in vivo are limited. Here we tested A61603 (N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl]methanesulfonamide), a selective imidazoline agonist for the alpha-1A. A61603 was the most potent alpha-1-agonist in activating ERK in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. A61603 activated ERK in adult mouse ventricular myocytes and protected the cells from death caused by the anthracycline doxorubicin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081038/impact-of-hiv-infection-and-antiretroviral-treatment-on-n-terminal-prohormone-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-as-surrogate-of-myocardial-function
#19
Christopher Schuster, Christina Binder, Robert Strassl, Maximilian C Aichelburg, Emma Blackwell, Noemi Pavo, Michael Ramharter, Martin Hülsmann, Katharina Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Armin Rieger, Georg Goliasch
OBJECTIVE: Vasoactive cardiovascular hormones such as the N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are produced upon ventricular stretch and play a central role in neurohumoral pathways of the heart regulating cardiovascular remodeling and volume homeostasis. The impact of HIV infection on these neurohumoral pathways of the heart and its potential reversibility by combinations of antiretroviral therapies remain unclear. METHODS: We assessed serum levels of NT-proBNP in 219 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected patients with a normal cardiac and renal status at treatment initiation and after attainment of viremic control...
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079976/maresin-1-induces-a-novel-pro-resolving-phenotype-in-human-platelets
#20
Katie L Lannan, Sherry L Spinelli, Neil Blumberg, Richard P Phipps
BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet therapy is a cornerstone of modern medical practice and is routinely employed to reduce the likelihood of myocardial infarction, thrombosis, and stroke. However, current antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin, often have adverse side effects, including increased risk of bleeding, and some patients are relatively "aspirin-resistant". Platelets are intimately involved in hemostasis and inflammation, and clinical consequences are associated with excessive or insufficient platelet activation...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
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