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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053673/a-chronic-cardiac-ischemia-model-in-swine-using-an-ameroid-constrictor
#1
Karen J Keeran, Kenneth R Jeffries, Arthur D Zetts, Joni Taylor, Shawn Kozlov, Timothy J Hunt
Cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of mortality in the United States. There are numerous approaches to treating these diseases, but regardless of the approach, an in vivo model is needed to test each treatment. The pig is one of the most used large animal models for cardiovascular disease. Its heart is very similar in anatomy and function to that of a human. The ameroid placement technique creates an ischemic area of the heart, which has many useful applications in studying myocardial infarction...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053424/l-carnitine-and-potential-protective-effects-against%C3%A2-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-noncardiac-organs-from-experimental-data-to-potential-clinical-applications
#2
Azadeh Moghaddas, Simin Dashti-Khavidaki
The mechanism of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is complex and multifactorial. In this condition, systemic event results in morbidity and mortality in several pathologies, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute kidney injury, trauma, and circulatory arrest. Hypoxia over ischemia phase leads to energy imbalance and changes of cellular homeostasis and functional or structural alterations. In addition, during the reperfusion period, some events, including calcium influx, release of intracellular enzymes, and cell membrane integrity breakdown, cause cell death...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053103/ultrasound-functional-imaging-in-an-i-ex-vivo-i-beating-porcine-heart-platform
#3
Niels J Petterson, Louis S Fixsen, Marcel C M Rutten, Nico H J Pijls, Frans N van de Vosse, Richard G P Lopata
In recent years, novel ultrasound functional imaging (UFI) techniques have been introduced to assess cardiac function by measuring, e.g., cardiac output (CO) and/or myocardial strain. Verification and reproducibility assessment in a realistic setting remain major issues. Simulations and phantoms are often unrealistic, whereas in vivo measurements often lack crucial hemodynamic parameters or ground truth data, or suffer from the large physiological and clinical variation between patients when attempting clinical validation...
October 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052380/-action-mechanism-of-total-flavonoids-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-in-treatment-of-myocardial-ischemia-based-on-network-pharmacology
#4
Zhi-Cheng Wei, Dong Tong, Juan Yang, Ke-Hui Zhao, Xian-Li Meng, Yi Zhang
In this study, a network pharmacological screening method was adopted to further study the active ingredients and action mechanism of total flavonoids of Hippophae rhamnoides(TFH) for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. Firstly TCMSP database and PubChem database were searched, and then the data were combined with oral bioavailability and drug analysis to screen flavonoids of H.rhamnoides compounds. Then predictive analysis was conducted for the 7 screened compounds by ChemMapper server.The obtained potential targets were imported into MAS 3...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051544/estimating-prognosis-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-using-personalized-computational-heart-models
#5
Hao Gao, Kenneth Mangion, David Carrick, Dirk Husmeier, Xiaoyu Luo, Colin Berry
Biomechanical computational models have potential prognostic utility in patients after an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In a proof-of-concept study, we defined two groups (1) an acute STEMI group (n = 6, 83% male, age 54 ± 12 years) complicated by left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction; (2) an age- and sex- matched hyper-control group (n = 6, 83% male, age 46 ± 14 years), no prior history of cardiovascular disease and normal systolic blood pressure (SBP < 130 mmHg)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051185/cgmp-elevating-compounds-and-ischemic-conditioning-provide-cardioprotection-against-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury-via-cardiomyocyte-specific-bk-channels
#6
Sandra Frankenreiter, Piotr Bednarczyk, Angelina Kniess, Nadja Bork, Julia Straubinger, Piotr Koprowski, Antoni Wrzosek, Eva Mohr, Angela Logan, Michael P Murphy, Meinrad Gawaz, Thomas Krieg, Adam Szewczyk, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Peter Ruth, Robert Lukowski
Background -The nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC)/cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)/cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI)-signaling pathway can afford protection against the ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury that occurs during myocardial infarction (MI). Reportedly, voltage and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels of the BK-type are stimulated by cGMP/cGKI and recent ex-vivo studies implicated that increased BK activity favors the survival of the myocardium at I/R. It remains unclear, however, whether the molecular events downstream of cGMP involve BK channels present in cardiomyocytes (CMs) or in other cardiac cell types...
October 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051079/reduced-myocardial-flow-reserve-is-associated-with-diastolic-dysfunction-and-decreased-left-atrial-strain-in-patients-with-normal-ejection-fraction-and-epicardial-perfusion
#7
Matthew C Konerman, Joshua C Greenberg, Theodore J Kolias, James R Corbett, Ravi V Shah, Venkatesh L Murthy, Scott L Hummel
INTRODUCTION: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (MVD) may contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Speckle-tracking echocardiography is a feasible and reproducible method for identifying abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) function among HFpEF patients. By assessing myocardial flow reserve (MFR), positron emission tomography (PET) imaging enables quantitative assessment of coronary MVD. We hypothesized that, in patients with risk factors for HFpEF and normal epicardial perfusion on cardiac PET, abnormal MFR is associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (DD) and reduced LV and LA strain...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050744/-stress-dobutamine-echocardiography-or-resting-strain-rate-imaging-to-unveil-an-early-symptomatic-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#8
F Aboukhoudir, I Aboukhoudir, S Rekik
Diabetes mellitus has been associated with changes in the structure and function of the myocardium manifesting in the early stages of the disease as subtle systolic and diastolic dysfunction; myocardial strain imaging has recently been favored over dobutamine stress echocardiography for early detection of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We report a case of an elderly diabetic patient presenting with pulmonary edema in whom at rest echocardiographic parameters including strain rate were all within normal range, while dobutamine stress echocardiography induced a deep systolic deterioration unmasking an early-stage diabetic cardiomyopathy...
October 16, 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050564/a-missense-variant-in-plec-increases-risk%C3%A2-of-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Rosa B Thorolfsdottir, Gardar Sveinbjornsson, Patrick Sulem, Anna Helgadottir, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Stefania Benonisdottir, Audur Magnusdottir, Olafur B Davidsson, Sridharan Rajamani, Dan M Roden, Dawood Darbar, Terje R Pedersen, Marc S Sabatine, Ingileif Jonsdottir, David O Arnar, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Hilma Holm, Kari Stefansson
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded variants at >30 loci that associate with atrial fibrillation (AF), including rare coding mutations in the sarcomere genes MYH6 and MYL4. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search for novel AF associations and in doing so gain insights into the mechanisms whereby variants affect AF risk, using electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements. METHODS: The authors performed a GWAS of 14,255 AF cases and 374,939 controls, using whole-genome sequence data from the Icelandic population, and tested novel signals in 2,002 non-Icelandic cases and 12,324 controls...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050562/renal-sympathetic-denervation-protects%C3%A2-the-failing-heart-via-inhibition-of%C3%A2-neprilysin%C3%A2-activity-in-the-kidney
#10
David J Polhemus, Rishi K Trivedi, Juan Gao, Zhen Li, Amy L Scarborough, Traci T Goodchild, Kurt J Varner, Huijing Xia, Frank W Smart, Daniel R Kapusta, David J Lefer
BACKGROUND: Sustained sympathetic activation contributes to the progression of myocardial cell injury, cardiac fibrosis, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effects of radiofrequency renal nerve denervation (RF-RDN) on the pathobiology of HF and the interaction between the renal sympathetic nerves and natriuretic peptide (NP) metabolism. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were subjected to 45 min of coronary artery ligation and reperfusion for 12 weeks...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050558/similarity-and-difference-of-resting-distal%C3%A2-to-aortic-coronary-pressure-and%C3%A2-instantaneous-wave-free-ratio
#11
Joo Myung Lee, Jonghanne Park, Doyeon Hwang, Chee Hae Kim, Ki Hong Choi, Tae-Min Rhee, Yaliang Tong, Jin Joo Park, Eun-Seok Shin, Chang-Wook Nam, Joon-Hyung Doh, Bon-Kwon Koo
BACKGROUND: Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) has been used in clinical practice to identify functionally significant stenosis and to guide treatment strategy. However, there are limited clinical data regarding another resting pressure-derived index, resting distal to aortic coronary pressure (Pd/Pa), and similarities and differences between resting Pd/Pa and iFR. OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the changes in resting Pd/Pa and iFR according to anatomic and hemodynamic stenosis severity and their prognostic implications...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050528/uv-assisted-3d-bioprinting-of-nano-reinforced-hybrid-cardiac-patch-for-myocardial-tissue-engineering
#12
Mohammad Izadifar, Dean Chapman, Paul Babyn, Xiongbiao Chen, Michael E Kelly
Biofabrication of cell supportive cardiac patches that can be directly implanted on myocardial infarct is a potential solution for myocardial infarction repair. Ideally, cardiac patches should be able to mimic myocardium extracellular matrix for rapid integration with the host tissue, raising the need to develop cardiac constructs with complex features. In particular, cardiac patches should be electrically conductive, mechanically robust and elastic, biologically active and pre-vascularized.. In this study, we aim to biofabricate a nano-reinforced hybrid cardiac patch laden with human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) with improved electrical, mechanical and biological behavior...
October 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049831/improving-myocardial-fractional-flow-reserve-in-coronary-atherosclerosis-via-cx37-gene-silence-a-preclinical-validation-study-in-pigs
#13
Suxia Guo, Ying Yang, Zhenyu Yang, Huayan You, Yunke Shi, Zhao Hu, Zhaohui Meng, Jianming Xiao
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CX37 gene silence on myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR). METHODS: A total of 90 male pigs were randomly divided into saline, mock and 3 different doses (5, 10 and 20 µl) of CX37 viral suspension groups that could induce coronary plaque formation with high-fat diet. After performing myocardial FFR by intravascular ultrasound, different doses of CX37 viral suspension, saline and mock small interfering RNA (siRNA) were transfected into the related coronary...
July 31, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049454/association-of-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-with-cardiovascular-disease
#14
Foram N Ashar, Yiyi Zhang, Ryan J Longchamps, John Lane, Anna Moes, Megan L Grove, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Kent D Taylor, Josef Coresh, Jerome I Rotter, Eric Boerwinkle, Nathan Pankratz, Eliseo Guallar, Dan E Arking
Importance: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a core component of the aging process and may play a key role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), which represents the number of mitochondria per cell and number of mitochondrial genomes per mitochondrion, is an indirect biomarker of mitochondrial function. Objective: To determine whether mtDNA-CN, measured in an easily accessible tissue (buffy coat/circulating leukocytes), can improve risk classification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and help guide initiation of statin therapy for primary prevention of CVD...
October 11, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049183/identifying-key-genes-associated-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#15
Ming Cheng, Shoukuan An, Junquan Li
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by reanalyzing microarray data. METHODS: Three gene expression profile datasets GSE66360, GSE34198, and GSE48060 were downloaded from GEO database. After data preprocessing, genes without heterogeneity across different platforms were subjected to differential expression analysis between the AMI group and the control group using metaDE package. P < .05 was used as the cutoff for a differentially expressed gene (DEG)...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047417/levosimendan-for-patients-with-severely-reduced-left-ventricular-systolic-function-and-or-low-cardiac-output-syndrome-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Filippo Sanfilippo, Joshua B Knight, Sabino Scolletta, Cristina Santonocito, Federico Pastore, Ferdinando L Lorini, Luigi Tritapepe, Andrea Morelli, Antonio Arcadipane
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown beneficial effects of levosimendan in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Two large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), however, showed no advantages of levosimendan. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis (MEDLINE and Embase from inception until March 30, 2017), investigating whether levosimendan offers advantages compared with placebo in high-risk cardiac surgery patients, as defined by preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% and/or low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS)...
October 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047367/effectiveness-and-safety-of-beta-blockers-in-the-management-of-hypertension-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-to-help-reduce-inappropriate-prescribing
#17
REVIEW
Anna Vögele, Tim Johansson, Anna Renom-Guiteras, David Reeves, Anja Rieckert, Lisa Schlender, Anne-Lisa Teichmann, Andreas Sönnichsen, Yolanda V Martinez
BACKGROUND: The benefit from a blood pressure lowering therapy with beta blockers may not outweigh its risks, especially in older populations. The aim of this study was to look for evidence on risks and benefits of beta blockers in older adults and to use this evidence to develop recommendations for the electronic decision support tool of the PRIMA-eDS project. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature using a stage approach with searches for systematic reviews and meta-analyses first, and individual studies only if the previous searches are inconclusive...
October 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047363/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-alleviates-renal-fibrosis-and-tubular-cell-apoptosis-through-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway-inhibition-in-uuo-rat-models
#18
Jing Yuan, Yan Shen, Xia Yang, Ying Xie, Xin Lin, Wen Zeng, Yingting Zhao, Maolu Tian, Yan Zha
BACKGROUND: Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is closely associated with the cytoskeleton, inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and myocardial regeneration, but the effects of Tβ4 treatment on chronic renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (CRTIF) are poorly known. This study aimed to examine the effects of Tβ4 on the renal apoptosis and the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF-β), E-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in CRTIF rat models. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomized into four groups (sham group, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) group, UUO + low-dose Tβ4 group, and UUO + high-dose Tβ4 group)...
October 18, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047036/the-falconoid-luteolin-mitigates-the-myocardial-inflammatory-response-induced-by-high-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-in-wistar-rats
#19
Nashwa Abu-Elsaad, Amr El-Karef
Luteolin is a major component of many medicinal plants and traditional medicines. The current study aims at testing its protective effect against high-carbohydrate/high-fat (HCHF) diet-induced cardiac dysfunction in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups as follows: control group that received standard rat chow, group received HCHF diet (~ 30% carbohydrate and 42% fat) daily for 16 weeks, and four groups received HCHF diet concurrently with luteolin (10, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg; 10% w/v suspension in 0...
October 19, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046934/-knowledge-of-the-population-about-leading-symptoms-of-cardiovascular-emergencies-and-the-responsibility-and-accessibility-of-medical-facilities-in-emergencies-results-of-the-kzen-study-in-western-palatinate
#20
T Luiz, S Dittrich, G Pollach, C Madler
BACKGROUND: The Westpfalz is a mainly rural region in the southwestern part of the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate with 527,000 inhabitants and demonstrates a higher than average cardiovascular mortality compared to the rest of Germany. The reasons are not known. Our study attempted to investigate whether significant deficits in knowledge of the population on cardiovascular emergencies, the accessibility of emergency medical services (EMS) or the different responsibilities and abilities of the medical facilities could be held responsible for this...
October 18, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
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