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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920191/effect-of-in-ovo-injection-of-raffinose-on-growth-performance-and-gut-health-parameters-of-broiler-chicken
#1
J D Berrocoso, R Kida, A K Singh, Y S Kim, R Jha
The effects of in ovo injection of raffinose (RFO) as a prebiotic on growth performance, relative weight of proventriculus, gizzard, drumstick and breast muscles, and ileum mucosa morphology were examined in Cobb 500 broilers. A total of 240 fertilized eggs were divided into 4 groups: a non-injected with intact shell and 3 levels of RFO solution (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mg in 0.2 mL of an aqueous diluents). The RFO solution was injected into the air sac on d 12 of incubation. In total 144 birds were fed a standard diet and management and sacrificed at d 21 post hatch for collection of samples...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917336/effect-of-diets-with-different-energy-concentrations-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-meat-chemical-composition-of-broiler-chickens-in-dry-tropics
#2
F Infante-Rodríguez, J Salinas-Chavira, M F Montaño-Gómez, O M Manríquez-Nuñez, V M González-Vizcarra, O F Guevara-Florentino, J A Ramírez De León
BACKGROUND: Diets with increasing levels of energy were fed for 42 days to 200, 1-day old male broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat. The study was performed in the subtropical area of northeastern Mexico. Treatments diets (T) for starter and finisher phases had apparent metabolizable energy (AME; kcal/kg) of: 2960 and 3040 (T1); 3000 and 3080 (T2); 3040 and 3120 (T3); 3080 and 3160 (T4), respectively. Within each of the growing phases the four treatment diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude protein, amino acids, and other nutrients...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916928/the-effect-of-lupinus-albus-and-calcium-chloride-on-growth-performance-body-composition-plasma-biochemistry-and-meat-quality-of-male-pigs-immunized-against-gonadotrophin-releasing-factor
#3
Karen Moore, Bruce Mullan, Jae Cheol Kim, Frank Dunshea
Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates) and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05), backfat (p > 0...
December 1, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913275/dietary-fish-oil-replacement-by-linseed-oil-effect-on-growth-nutrient-utilization-tissue-fatty-acid-composition-and-desaturase-gene-expression-in-silver-barb-puntius-gonionotus-fingerlings
#4
Madhusmita Nayak, Ashis Saha, Avinash Pradhan, Mrinal Samanta, Shiba Shankar Giri
Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33...
November 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906092/alterations-to-mtorc1-signaling-in-the-skeletal-muscle-differentially-affect-whole-body-metabolism
#5
Maitea Guridi, Barbara Kupr, Klaas Romanino, Shuo Lin, Denis Falcetta, Lionel Tintignac, Markus A Rüegg
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central node in a network of signaling pathways controlling cell growth and survival. This multiprotein complex integrates external signals and affects different nutrient pathways in various organs. However, it is not clear how alterations of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle affect whole-body metabolism. RESULTS: We characterized the metabolic phenotype of young and old raptor muscle knock-out (RAmKO) and TSC1 muscle knock-out (TSCmKO) mice, where mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle is inhibited or constitutively activated, respectively...
March 21, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886623/liver-bcatm-transgenic-mouse-model-reveals-the-important-role-of-the-liver-in-maintaining-bcaa-homeostasis
#6
Elitsa A Ananieva, Cynthia G Van Horn, Meghan R Jones, Susan M Hutson
Unlike other amino acids, the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) largely bypass first-pass liver degradation due to a lack of hepatocyte expression of the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm). This sets up interorgan shuttling of BCAAs and liver-skeletal muscle cooperation in BCAA catabolism. To explore whether complete liver catabolism of BCAAs may impact BCAA shuttling in peripheral tissues, the BCATm gene was stably introduced into mouse liver. Two transgenic mouse lines with low and high hepatocyte expression of the BCATm transgene (LivTg-LE and LivTg-HE) were created and used to measure liver and plasma amino acid concentrations and determine whether the first two BCAA enzymatic steps in liver, skeletal muscle, heart and kidney were impacted...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883936/relationship-between-fgf21-and-ucp1-levels-under-time-restricted-feeding-and-high-fat-diet
#7
Nava Chapnik, Yoni Genzer, Oren Froy
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) exhibits a circadian oscillation, and its induction is critical during fasting. When secreted by liver and skeletal muscle, FGF21 enhances thermogenic activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by utilizing uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) to dissipate energy as heat. Recently, it has been reported that UCP1 is not required for FGF21-mediated reduction in body weight or improvements in glucose homeostasis. As the relationship between FGF21 and UCP1 induction in tissues other than BAT is less clear, we tested the effect of restricted feeding (RF) and high dietary fat on FGF21 circadian expression and its correlation with UCP1 expression in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879253/the-yin-yang-dynamics-of-dna-methylation-is-the-key-regulator-for-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-switch-and-vascular-remodeling
#8
Jianhui Zhuang, Peipei Luan, Hailing Li, Kai Wang, Pei Zhang, Yawei Xu, Wenhui Peng
OBJECTIVE: DNA methylation plays an important role in chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of our study is to indicate the regulatory mechanisms of DNA methylation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its roles in atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In ApoE(-/-) mice fed a Western diet, DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, significantly attenuated atherosclerotic lesions (20...
November 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876617/canagliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-attenuates-obesity-induced-inflammation-in-the-nodose-ganglion-hypothalamus-and-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#9
Farhana Naznin, Hideyuki Sakoda, Tadashi Okada, Hironobu Tsubouchi, T M Zaved Waise, Kenji Arakawa, Masamitsu Nakazato
Chronic inflammation in systemic organs, such as adipose tissue, nodose ganglion, hypothalamus, and skeletal muscles, is closely associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Because sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects by promoting urinary excretion of glucose and subsequent caloric loss, we investigated the effect of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, on obesity-induced inflammation in neural tissues and skeletal muscles of mice. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed male C57BL/6J mice were treated with canagliflozin for 8 weeks...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875740/conditional-knockout-of-tfpi-1-in-vsmcs-of-mice-accelerates-atherosclerosis-by-enhancing-amot-yap-pathway
#10
Jiajun Xiao, Kaiyue Jin, Jiping Wang, Jing Ma, Jin Zhang, Nan Jiang, Huijun Wang, Xinping Luo, Jian Fei, Zhugang Wang, Xiao Yang, Duan Ma
BACKGROUND: Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1) has multiple functions and its precise role and molecular mechanism during the development of atherosclerosis are not clear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect and molecular mechanism of TFPI-1 deficiency in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mouse. METHODS AND RESULTS: A mouse model with a conditional knockout of TFPI-1 in VSMCs in an atherosclerosis-prone background (ApoE(-/-)) was generated...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865349/whey-protein-increases-muscle-weight-gain-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-effects-induced-by-resistance-exercise-in-rats
#11
Kely R Teixeira, Marcelo E Silva, Wanderson G de Lima, Maria L Pedrosa, Fabiano K Haraguchi
Whey protein (WP) is known for its nutritional value and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antioxidant properties of WP could contribute to muscle weight gain in response to resistance exercise (RE). We hypothesized that WP ingestion could increase muscle weight gain in rats subjected to an RE program, through inhibition of oxidative effects induced by high-intensity RE. Thirty-two male Fischer rats were randomly assigned to control sedentary, control exercised, WP sedentary, and WP exercised groups (n=8/group)...
October 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865159/dietary-glutamine-supplementation-enhances-endothelial-progenitor-cell-mobilization-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice-subjected-to-limb-ischemia
#12
Shiau-Tsz Su, Chiu-Li Yeh, Yu-Chen Hou, Man-Hui Pai, Sung-Ling Yeh
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with increased risk of vascular diseases. Tissue ischemia may occur with diabetic vascular complications. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute a reparative response to ischemic injury. This study investigated the effects of oral glutamine (GLN) supplementation on circulating EPC mobilization and expression of tissue EPC-releasing markers in diabetic mice subjected to limb ischemia. Diabetes was induced by a daily intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin for 5 days...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859677/plane-of-nutrition-affects-growth-rate-organ-size-and-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cell-activity-in-newborn-calves
#13
M E MacGhee, J S Bradley, S R McCoski, A M Reeg, A D Ealy, S E Johnson
Plane of nutrition effects on body, tissue and cellular growth in the neonatal calf are poorly understood. The hypothesis that a low plane of nutrition (LPN) would limit skeletal muscle size by reducing fibre growth and muscle progenitor cell activity was tested. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to either a LPN (20% CP, 20% fat; GE=1.9 Mcal/days) or a high plane of nutrition (HPN; 27% CP, 10% fat, GE = 3.8 Mcal/days) in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the impact of diet on neonatal calf growth, organ weight and skeletal muscle morphometry with time...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848012/of-pigs-and-men-comparing-the-development-of-calliphora-vicina-diptera-calliphoridae-on-human-and-porcine-tissue
#14
V Bernhardt, C Schomerus, M A Verhoff, J Amendt
Over the last decades, studies on juvenile development of forensically important Diptera were performed by using non-human tissues (e.g., beef liver) as a nutrition medium. Such developmental data are used as a reference in determining the age of juvenile necrophagous insects sampled from a human body and thereby to estimate the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). Despite the acceptance of these studies in the forensic community, some might ask whether such data appropriately reflect the growth of blow flies on human tissue...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847551/caspase-3-deletion-promotes-necrosis-in-atherosclerotic-plaques-of-apoe-knockout-mice
#15
Mandy O J Grootaert, Dorien M Schrijvers, Marthe Hermans, Viviane O Van Hoof, Guido R Y De Meyer, Wim Martinet
Apoptosis of macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in advanced atherosclerotic plaques contributes to plaque progression and instability. Caspase-3, a key executioner protease in the apoptotic pathway, has been identified in human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques but its role in atherogenesis is not fully explored. We therefore investigated the impact of caspase-3 deletion on atherosclerosis by crossbreeding caspase-3 knockout (Casp3(-/-)) mice with apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837118/effects-of-dietary-organic-zinc-and-%C3%AE-tocopheryl-acetate-supplements-on-growth-performance-meat-quality-tissues-minerals-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-deposition-in-broiler-chickens
#16
R Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R Bakhshalinejad, A Hassanabadi, P Ferket
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of zinc (Zn) and α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) on broilers performance, meat quality, Zn, selenium (Se), and α-tocopherol (α-TO) tissue depositions. A total of 1,080 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens (mixed-sex) were allocated to nine dietary treatments. Three levels of supplemental Zn (0, 60, and 120 mg/kg of diet) and three levels of α-TOA (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg of diet) were combined as a completely randomized design with 3 × 3 factorial arrangement...
November 11, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822248/proteomic-analysis-of-muscle-tissue-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-fed-dietary-%C3%AE-glucan
#17
Gh Ghaedi, S Keyvanshokooh, H Mohammadi Azarm, M Akhlaghi
The aim of this study was to examine the changes in muscle proteome of the rainbow trout fed dietary β-glucan. The experimental diets contained 0 (control), 0.1% and 0.2% β-1,3/1,6 yeast glucan. First, feeding larvae were fed to apparent satiation nine times per day with their respective diets over two months. The percentage of body weight gain and feed efficiency of fish fed 0.2% diet was significantly higher than those of fish fed the control and 0.1% diets. Fish fed the control and 0.2% diets were subjected to proteomic analysis...
2016: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822236/effect-of-substituting-increasing-levels-of-organic-zn-for-inorganic-zn-on-performance-hematological-and-serum-biochemical-constituents-antioxidant-status-and-immune-response-in-rat
#18
D Nagalakshmi, K Sridhar, P S Swain, A G Reddy
The effect of replacing dietary Zn supplemented from inorganic (ZnCO3) source with organic Zn (Zn methionine; Zn-met) was investigated in 72 rats (98.42 ± 1.483 g) by randomly allotting to 4 diets (6 replicates/diet, 3 rats/replicate). Basal diet was prepared with purified ingredients without Zn. The control diet (AIN-76A) contained 12 ppm of Zn from ZnCO3 (100-I). In the other diets ZnCO3 was replaced with Zn-met at the rates of 50 (50I:50O), 75 (25I:75O) or 100% (100-O). Weekly body weight and daily feed intake were recorded for 14 weeks...
2016: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821223/effect-of-substitution-of-oat-hulls-for-traditional-fiber-source-on-digestion-and-performance-of-fattening-rabbits
#19
S Liangzhan, J Xiang, Z Caixia, F Zhaohui, L Fuchang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of oat hulls (OH) to substitute traditional fiber (a mixture of rice hulls and mugwort (RHM) leaf) in the diets of fattening rabbits by examining on its effect on the growth performance, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients, gastrointestinal tract development, cecum fermentation and carcass traits. A total of 160 mixed sex Hyla commercial meat rabbits (40/treatment) were used to study the effects of including OH in the diet from 30 to 80 days of age...
November 8, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820817/impact-of-the-b-cell-growth-factor-april-on-the-qualitative-and-immunological-characteristics-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#20
Sophie J Bernelot Moens, Sander I van Leuven, Kang H Zheng, Stefan R Havik, Miranda V Versloot, Leonie M van Duivenvoorde, Michael Hahne, Erik S G Stroes, Dominique L Baeten, Anouk A J Hamers
Studies on the role of B lymphocytes in atherosclerosis development, have yielded contradictory results. Whereas B lymphocyte-deficiency aggravates atherosclerosis in mice; depletion of mature B lymphocytes reduces atherosclerosis. These observations led to the notion that distinct B lymphocyte subsets have different roles. B1a lymphocytes exert an atheroprotective effect, which has been attributed to secretion of IgM, which can be deposited in atherosclerotic lesions thereby reducing necrotic core formation...
2016: PloS One
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