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Muscle growth diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019405/chemical-constituents-of-bryophytes-structures-and-biological-activity
#1
Yoshinori Asakawa, Agnieszka Ludwiczuk
Comparatively little attention has been paid to the bryophytes for use in the human diet or medicine in spite of the presence of 23 000 species globally. Several hundred new compounds have been isolated from the liverworts (Marchantiophyta), and more than 40 new carbon skeletons of terpenoids and aromatic compounds were found. Most of the liverworts studied elaborate characteristic odiferous, pungent, and bitter-tasting compounds, of which many show antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, allergic contact dermatitis, cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-HIV, plant growth regulatory, neurotrophic, NO production and superoxide anion radical release inhibitory, muscle relaxing, antiobesity, piscicidal, and nematocidal activities...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990804/effects-of-a-blend-of-essential-oils-and-overcrowding-stress-on-the-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-heat-shock-protein-gene-expression-of-broilers
#2
S M Hosseini, H Farhangfar, R Nourmohammadi
1. Overcrowding stress is common in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations are characterised by welfare impairment and immunosuppression. The present study evaluated the effects of a blend of essential oils (EOB; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) and stocking density on the performance, gut microflora, meat quality, and physiological stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 360) were allocated to 4 experimental groups from d 22 to 42. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 15 chicks...
October 9, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986099/downregulation-of-pin1-in-human-atherosclerosis-and-its-association-with-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-senescence
#3
Lei Lv, Meng Ye, Rundan Duan, Kai Yuan, Jiaquan Chen, Wei Liang, Zhaoxiong Zhou, Lan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Pin1 is prevalently overexpressed in human cancers and implicated to regulate cell growth and apoptosis. Thus far, however, no role for Pin1 has been described in modulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to assess Pin1 protein level in human normal and atherosclerotic tissues. β-galactosidase staining, cumulative population doubling level, telomerase activity, and relative telomere length measurement were used to confirm VSMC senescence...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977053/large-accumulation-of-collagen-and-increased-activation-of-mast-cells-in-hearts-of-mice-with-hyperlipidemia
#4
Yunpeng Cheng, Yanqiu Zhu, Jiashu Zhang, Xingping Duan, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia, which is characterized by an elevation of lipids in the bloodstream, is a major risk factor for cardiac disease. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the role of fibrosis in the progression of hyperlipidemia in the mice heart, and whether mast cell activation was associated with the fibrosis process. METHODS: Hyperlipidemia was produced in C57BL / 6 mice by feeding them on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks.To assess tissue fibrosis, picrosirius red staining was performed...
September 28, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#5
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938451/antibody-mediated-targeting-of-the-fgfr1c-isoform-increases-glucose-uptake-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-in-male-mice
#6
Jo E Lewis, Ricardo J Samms, Scott Cooper, Jeni C Luckett, Alan C Perkins, James D Dunbar, Dennis P Smith, Paul J Emmerson, Andrew C Adams, Francis J P Ebling, Kostas Tsintzas
The increased prevalence of obesity and its cardiometabolic implications demonstrates the imperative to identify novel therapeutic targets able to effect meaningful metabolic changes in this population. Antibody-mediated targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c isoform (FGFR1c) has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia and protect from diet- and genetically-induced obesity in rodents and nonhuman primates. However, it is currently unknown which tissue(s) contribute to this glucose-lowering effect...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930566/homeostatic-regulation-of-plasma-amino-acid-concentrations
#7
Shengfa F Liao, Naresh Regmi, Guoyao Wu
One major goal of nutrition is to maximize the rate of muscle protein gain via provision of amino acids (AAs) through blood plasma. Comparing the plasma AA concentrations with the growth performance data can help to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms regulating plasma AA homeostasis, nutrient utilization, and intracellular protein turnover. Knowledge about the homeostatic regulation of plasma AA profile can aid in predicting dietary AA availabilities, the order of limiting AAs, and the whole body protein metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924423/vegan-diets-practical-advice-for-athletes-and-exercisers
#8
REVIEW
David Rogerson
With the growth of social media as a platform to share information, veganism is becoming more visible, and could be becoming more accepted in sports and in the health and fitness industry. However, to date, there appears to be a lack of literature that discusses how to manage vegan diets for athletic purposes. This article attempted to review literature in order to provide recommendations for how to construct a vegan diet for athletes and exercisers. While little data could be found in the sports nutrition literature specifically, it was revealed elsewhere that veganism creates challenges that need to be accounted for when designing a nutritious diet...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920404/effects-of-zearalenone-on-the-localization-and-expression-of-the-growth-hormone-receptor-gene-in-the-uteri-of-post-weaning-piglets
#9
Min Zhou, LiJie Yang, Weiren Yang, Libo Huang, Xuemei Zhou, Shuzhen Jiang, Zaibin Yang
Objective: In this study, we investigated the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (0.5 to 1.5 mg•kg-1 diet) on the localization and expression of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the uteri of post-weaning gilts and explored another mechanism of the reproductive toxicity of ZEA on piglets. Methods: A total of forty healthy piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) aged 28 d were selected for study. Piglets were transferred to single cages after 10 days' adaptation on an obstetric table...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918148/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-and-ubiquitin-proteasome-related-gene-expression-in-3-different-skeletal-muscles-of-colostrum-versus-formula-fed-calves
#10
H Sadri, J Steinhoff-Wagner, Harald M Hammon, R M Bruckmaier, S Görs, H Sauerwein
The rates of protein turnover are higher during the neonatal period than at any other time in postnatal life. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are key pathways regulating cellular protein turnover. The objectives of this study were (1) to elucidate the effect of feeding colostrum versus milk-based formula on the mRNA abundance of key components of the mTOR pathway and of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle of neonatal calves and (2) to compare different muscles...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916721/loss-of-cardiac-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-2-results-in-rapamycin-resistant-acetylation-independent-hypertrophy
#11
Andrea S Pereyra, Like Y Hasek, Kate L Harris, Alycia G Berman, Frederick W Damen, Craig J Goergen, Jessica M Ellis
Cardiac hypertrophy is closely linked to impaired fatty acid oxidation, but the molecular basis of this link is unclear. Here, we investigated the loss of an obligate enzyme in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), on muscle and heart structure, function, and molecular signatures in a muscle- and heart-specific CPT2-deficient mouse (Cpt2M-/-) model. CPT2 loss in heart and muscle reduced complete oxidation of long-chain fatty acids by 87% and 69%, respectively, without altering body weight, energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, or adiposity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915727/the-protein-and-energy-metabolic-response-of-skeletal-muscle-to-the-low-protein-diets-in-growing-pigs
#12
Yinghui Li, Fengna Li, Yehui Duan, Qiuping Guo, Wenlong Wang, Chaoyue Wen, Xingguo Huang, Yulong Yin
This study was conducted to determine the effect of low-protein diets on protein and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. A total of 18 growing pigs (average initial body weight = 36.47 kg) were individually penned and assigned to three treatments; each treatment was fed one of three diets containing either 18%, 15%, or 12% CP. The results showed that reducing dietary CP contents decreased (P < 0.05) the weight of half Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912874/dietary-vitamin-b6-modulates-the-gene-expression-of-myokines-nrf2-related-factors-myogenin-and-hsp60-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-rats
#13
Sofya Suidasari, Shinji Uragami, Noriyuki Yanaka, Norihisa Kato
Previous studies have suggested that vitamin B6 is an ergogenic factor. However, the role of dietary vitamin B6 in skeletal muscle has not been widely researched. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the gene expression of 19 myokines, 14 nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated factors, 8 myogenesis-related factors and 4 heat shock proteins (HSPs), which may serve important roles in skeletal muscles. Rats were fed a diet containing 1 (marginal vitamin B6 deficiency), 7 (recommended dietary level) or 35 mg/kg of pyridoxine (PN) HCl/ for 6 weeks...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899845/upwelling-derived-oceanographic-conditions-impact-growth-performance-and-growth-related-gene-expression-in-intertidal-fish
#14
Eduardo N Fuentes, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Oscar Almarza, Katterinne Mendez, Juan Antonio Valdés, Alfredo Molina, Jose Pulgar
Growth is one of the main biological processes in aquatic organisms that is affected by environmental fluctuations such as upwelling (characterized by food-rich waters). In fish, growth is directly related with skeletal muscle increase; which represents the largest tissue of body mass. However, the effects of upwelling on growth, at the physiological and molecular level, are unknown. This study used Girella laevifrons (one of the most abundant intertidal fish in Eastern South Pacific) as a biological model, considering animals from upwelling (U) and non-upwelling (NU) areas...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873520/improvement-of-feed-pellet-characteristics-by-dietary-pre-gelatinized-starch-and-their-subsequent-effects-on-growth-and-physiology-in-tilapia
#15
Naga Kanmani, Nicholas Romano, Mahdi Ebrahimi, S M Nurul Amin, Mohd Salleh Kamarudin, Ali Karami, Vikas Kumar
A 9-week study was conducted to compare dietary corn starch (CS) or tapioca starch (TS), with or without being pre-gelatinized (PG), on the growth, feeding efficiencies, plasma and muscle biochemistry, intestinal short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and liver glycogen of triplicate groups of 20 red hybrid tilapia (Orecohromis sp.). Various pellet characteristics were evaluated, along with their surface and cross sectional microstructure. The PG diets had significantly higher water stability, bulk density, and protein solubility, along with a smoother surface...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870047/-expert-consensus-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-gitelman-syndrome
#16
(no author information available yet)
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive, salt-losing tubulopathy caused by inactivating mutations in the SLC12A3 gene that encodes the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). GS is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. GS is one of the most common inherited renal tubulopathy with a prevalence estimated at about one to ten per 40 000 people. The prevalence of GS is even higher in Asia than other countries. The majority of GS patients present mild and nonspecific symptoms during adolescence or adulthood...
September 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866802/effects-of-a-high-fat-diet-on-adipose-tissue-cd8-t-cells-in-young-vs-adult-mice
#17
Lijun Dong, Yao Zhang, Li Yang, Guoyan Liu, Jianping Ye, Hui Wang
T cells are involved in chronic inflammation of adipose tissue in obese conditions. However, the impact of age on the adipose T cells remains unknown. In this study, we investigated T cells in the white adipose tissue of young and adult mice. Obesity was induced in the mice using a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. The young mice were fed an HFD at 3 weeks old, and adult mice were fed the HFD at 12 weeks old. Relative to adult mice, the young mice gained less fat and exhibited better glucose tolerance. Their adipose tissue contained more CD8+ T cells and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
September 2, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855872/a-novel-method-to-detect-3d-mandibular-changes-related-to-soft-diet-feeding
#18
Kana Kono, Chihiro Tanikawa, Takeshi Yanagita, Hiroshi Kamioka, Takashi Yamashiro
Craniofacial morphology varies among individuals, which is regulated by the interaction between genes and the environment. Soft-diet feeding is a widely-used experimental model for studying the association between the skeletal morphology and muscle-related loading on the bone. Traditionally, these studies have been based on linear and angular measurements provided on two-dimensional (2D) radiographs in the lateral view. However, 2D observation is based on simplification of the anatomical structures and cannot detect three-dimensional (3D) changes in detail...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854755/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-provided-during-embryonic-development-improve-the-growth-performance-and-welfare-of-muscovy-ducks-cairina-moschata
#19
E Baéza, P Chartrin, T Bordeau, M Lessire, J M Thoby, V Gigaud, M Blanchet, A Alinier, C Leterrier
The welfare of ducks can be affected by unwanted behaviors such as excessive reactivity and feather pecking. Providing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) during gestation and early life has been shown to improve the brain development and function of human and rodent offspring. The aim of this study was to test whether the pecking behavior of Muscovy ducks during rearing could be reduced by providing LC n-3 PUFA during embryonic and/or post-hatching development of ducklings. Enrichment of eggs, and consequently embryos, with LC n-3 PUFA was achieved by feeding female ducks (n-3F) a diet containing docosahexaenoic (DHA) and linolenic acids (microalgae and linseed oil)...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843684/short-communication-supplementation-of-fructo-oligosaccharides-does-not-improve-insulin-sensitivity-in-heavy-veal-calves-fed-different-sources-of-carbohydrates
#20
A J Pantophlet, M S Gilbert, W J J Gerrits, R J Vonk
Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin sensitivity. We therefore studied the effects of scFOS supplementation on insulin sensitivity in heavy veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian calves (BW = 190 ± 2.9 kg; age = 162 ± 1.4 d at the start of the trial) were fed either a control milk replacer (MR) diet or a diet in which one-third of the lactose was replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol for 10 wk prior to the start of the trial...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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