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Lean muscle building

Mitsuru Yagi, Hideaki Ohne, Tsunehiko Konomi, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Shinjiro Kaneko, Masakazu Takemitsu, Masafumi Machida, Yoshiyuki Yato, Takashi Asazuma
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Gait patterns and their relationship to demographic and radiographic data in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) have not been fully documented. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess gait pattern in patients with ASD and the effect of corrective spinal surgery on gait. DESIGN/SETTING: This is a prospective case series. PATIENT SAMPLE: The gait patterns of 33 consecutive women with ASD (age 67...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Jerel P Calzo, Nicholas J Horton, Kendrin R Sonneville, Sonja A Swanson, Ross D Crosby, Nadia Micali, Kamryn T Eddy, Alison E Field
OBJECTIVE: Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. METHOD: Participants were 7,067 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study. Surveys from 1999 to 2007 (spanning ages 13-26 years) provided repeated measures data on muscularity and leanness concerns, eating disorder behaviors (purging, overeating, binge eating, use of muscle-building products), and health correlates (obesity, non-marijuana drug use, binge drinking, and depressive symptoms)...
August 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
A Arnarson, O Gudny Geirsdottir, A Ramel, P V Jonsson, I Thorsdottir
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is related to the preservation of lean body mass. Its decline during ageing is thought to make old adults more susceptible to sarcopenia and functional dependency. The aim of the present study was to investigate circulating total IGF-1 in old adults who engaged in a 12-weeks of progressive resistance training. DESIGN: Intervention study. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Old Icelandic adults (N = 235, 73...
October 2015: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Paola Frati, Francesco P Busardò, Luigi Cipolloni, Enrico De Dominicis, Vittorio Fineschi
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between receptor and protein, and receptor and DNA...
January 2015: Current Neuropharmacology
Julie A Pasco, Kara L Holloway, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, David J Moloney, Mark A Kotowicz
BACKGROUND: Muscle strengthening exercises are promoted for building and maintaining a healthy skeleton. We aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip in women aged 26-97 years. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilises data from 863 women assessed for the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Measures of hip flexor and abductor strength were made using a hand-held dynamometer (Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester)...
May 24, 2015: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Anett Mau-Moeller, Martin Behrens, Sabine Felser, Sven Bruhn, Wolfram Mittelmeier, Rainer Bader, Ralf Skripitz
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD). Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2) to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD...
2015: BioMed Research International
Yehui Duan, Fengna Li, Hongnan Liu, Yinghui Li, Yingying Liu, Xiangfeng Kong, Yuzhe Zhang, Dun Deng, Yulong Tang, Zemeng Feng, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin
The metabolic roles for L-leucine, an essential branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), go far beyond serving exclusively as a building block for de novo protein synthesis. Growing evidence shows that leucine regulates protein and lipid metabolism in animals. Specifically, leucine activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, including the 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and to promote mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in enhanced cellular respiration and energy partitioning...
2015: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Chun-Jie Pan, Xiao-Dong Liu, Hui Zhang, Ying-Chun Bao
OBJECTIVE: To master the distribution of male and female soldiers' body composition with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method in order to provide data for building up the standards in comparison with those of ordinary residents. METHODS: A cluster stratified sample of 5968 graduated soldiers among different armed services colleges was measured by BIA. Five percent-95% distributions with in the upper and lower limits were established on basis of the above result...
July 2014: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Toni M Cook, Jean M Russell, Margo E Barker
BACKGROUND: The dietary content of advice in men's lifestyle magazines has not been closely scrutinised. METHODS: We carried out an analysis of such content in all 2009 issues (n = 11) of Men's Health (MH) focusing on muscularity, leanness and weight control. RESULTS: Promotion of a mesomorphic body image underpinned advice to affect muscle building and control weight. Diet advice was underpinned by a strong pseudo-scientific discourse, with citation of expert sources widely used to legitimise the information...
October 11, 2014: BMC Public Health
Zhe-rong Xu, Zhong-ju Tan, Qin Zhang, Qi-feng Gui, Yun-mei Yang
OBJECTIVE: A major reason for the loss of mobility in elderly people is the gradual loss of lean body mass known as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is associated with a lower quality of life and higher healthcare costs. The benefit of strategies that include nutritional intervention, timing of intervention, and physical exercise to improve muscle loss unclear as finding from studies investigating this issue have been inconsistent. We have performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the ability of protein or amino acid supplementation to augment lean body mass or strength of leg muscles in elderly patients...
2014: PloS One
Roshini Prakash, Maribeth Johnson, Susan C Fagan, Adviye Ergul
We previously reported intense pial cerebral collateralization and arteriogenesis in a mild and lean model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Increased cerebral neovascularization differed regionally and was associated with poor vessel wall maturity. Building upon these findings, the goals of this study were to determine whether a) glycemic control prevents this erratic cerebral neovascularization in the GK model, and b) this pathological neovascularization pattern occurs in Lepr(db/db) model, which is the most commonly used model of T2D for studies involving cerebral complications of diabetes...
2013: PloS One
Noboru Hara, Fumio Ishizaki, Toshihiro Saito, Tsutomu Nishiyama, Takashi Kawasaki, Kota Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanism of the androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-related decrease in lean body mass (LBM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The LBM and blood samples were studied before and after 6 months of ADT in 72 patients with localized prostate cancer. The LBM was assessed using a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analyzer. RESULTS: Before ADT, the LBM correlated with none of the serum sex steroid levels; however, it correlated closely with serum 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0...
February 2013: Urology
Betty J Herring, Amanda L Logsdon, Jarrett E Lockard, Brittany M Miller, Hanna Kim, Eric A Calderon, John B Vincent, Melissa M Bailey
The essentiality of chromium(III) has been the subject of much debate, particularly in healthy subjects. Chromium(III)-containing supplements are widely used for body mass loss, building of lean muscle mass, and improving glucose and lipid metabolism. [Cr(3)O(O(2)CCH(2)CH(3))(6)(H(2)O)(3)](+), Cr3, is one of the most-studied chromium nutritional supplements. The current study evaluates the effects of long-term (15 months) supplementation with Cr3 on body mass and glucose metabolism in Wistar rats on traditional and cafeteria-style (high fat, high carbohydrate) diets...
March 2013: Biological Trace Element Research
K M Winters-Stone, J Dobek, L M Nail, J A Bennett, M C Leo, B Torgrimson-Ojerio, S-W Luoh, A Schwartz
UNLABELLED: Our randomized controlled trial in prematurely menopausal breast cancer survivors showed that impact + resistance training prevented increases in percentage of body fat compared with controls and also improved BMD at the hip and prevented BMD loss at the spine among exercise-trained women who were menopausal for >1 year. INTRODUCTION: Cancer treatment-related menopause worsens bone health and body composition in breast cancer survivors (BCS). We investigated whether impact + resistance training could improve bone mineral density (BMD), reduce bone turnover, build muscle, and decrease fat mass in BCS with premature menopause...
May 2013: Osteoporosis International
N K Lebrasseur
The obesity epidemic is an overwhelming global health concern. Interventions to improve body weight and composition aim to restore balance between nutrient intake and energy expenditure. Myostatin, a powerful negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus because of the prominent role skeletal muscle plays in metabolic rate and insulin-mediated glucose disposal. In fact, inhibition of myostatin by genetic manipulation or pharmacological means leads to a hypermuscular and very lean build in mice...
January 2012: Diabetologia
Sarah E Aamidor, Ulf Bauchinger, Ortal Mizrahy, Scott R McWilliams, Berry Pinshow
During migration, birds undergo alternating periods of fasting and re-feeding that are associated with dynamic changes in body mass (m(b)) and in organ size, including that of the digestive tract. After arrival at a migratory stopover site, following a long flight, a bird must restore the tissues of its digestive tract before it can refuel. In the present study we examined how the availability of dietary protein influences refueling of migrating blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) during a migratory stopover. We tested the following predictions in blackcaps deprived of food and water for 1-2 days to induce stopover behavior: (1) birds provided with a low-protein diet will gain m(b), lean mass and fat mass, and increase in pectoral muscle size slower than do birds fed a high-protein diet; (2) since stopover time is shorter in spring, birds will gain m(b) and build up fat tissue and lean tissue faster than in autumn; and (3) if low dietary protein limits a bird's ability to gain m(b) and fat reserves, then birds that do not obtain enough protein will initiate migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) earlier than will birds with adequate dietary protein...
September 2011: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Kerri M Winters-Stone, Jessica Dobek, Lillian Nail, Jill A Bennett, Michael C Leo, Arpana Naik, Anna Schwartz
Targeted exercise training could reduce risk factors for fracture and obesity-related diseases that increase from breast cancer treatment, but has not been sufficiently tested. We hypothesized that progressive, moderate-intensity resistance + impact training would increase or maintain hip and spine bone mass, lean mass and fat mass and reduce bone turnover compared to controls who participated in a low-intensity, non-weight bearing stretching program. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in 106 women with early stage breast cancer who were >1 year post-radiation and/or chemotherapy, ≥ 50 years of age at diagnosis and postmenopausal, free from osteoporosis and medications for bone loss, resistance and impact exercise naïve, and cleared to exercise by a physician...
June 2011: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Cynthia Thompson, Marc Bélanger, Joyce Fung
Modulation of lower limb somatosensory information by tendon or plantar vibration produces directionally specific, vibration-induced falling reactions that depend on the tendon or the region of the sole that is vibrated. This study characterized the effects of different patterns of plantar cutaneo-muscular vibration and bilateral Achilles tendon vibration (ATV) on the postural strategies observed during quiet and perturbed stance. Twelve healthy young participants stood barefooted, with their vision blocked, on two sets of plantar vibrators placed on two AMTI force plates embedded in a moveable support surface...
April 2011: Human Movement Science
Ross E Andersen, John M Jakicic
Exercise interventions are powerful tools for helping many patient populations. For those who need to manage their weight, an exercise program combined with diet modification may be key to losing weight and keeping it off. Many patients who are already at healthy weights find that physical activity helps to prevent weight gain. The good news is that accumulating frequent short bouts of moderately intense activity can be as effective as performing longer exercise sessions less often. Aerobic exercise alone may not be enough to preserve lean muscle mass when weight is lost, but incorporating resistance exercise may prevent reductions in resting metabolic rate and lean body mass...
November 2003: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Elaine C Rush, Ismael Freitas, Lindsay D Plank
Although there is evidence that Asian Indians, Polynesians and Europeans differ in their body fat (BF)-BMI relationships, detailed comparative analysis of their underlying body composition and build characteristics is lacking. We investigated differences in the relationships between body fatness and BMI, fat distribution, muscularity, bone mineral mass, leg length and age-related changes in body composition between these ethnic groups. Cross-sectional analysis of 933 European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adult volunteers was performed for total and percentage of BF, abdominal fat, thigh fat, appendicular muscle mass, bone mineral content and leg length measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
August 2009: British Journal of Nutrition
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