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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197960/sarcopenia-during-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-oesophageal-cancer-characterising-the-impact-on-muscle-strength-and-physical-performance
#1
Emer M Guinan, S L Doyle, A E Bennett, L O'Neill, J Gannon, J A Elliott, J O'Sullivan, J V Reynolds, J Hussey
PURPOSE: Preoperative chemo(radio)therapy for oesophageal cancer (OC) may have an attritional impact on body composition and functional status, impacting postoperative outcome. Physical decline with skeletal muscle loss has not been previously characterised in OC and may be amenable to physical rehabilitation. This study characterises skeletal muscle mass and physical performance from diagnosis to post-neoadjuvant therapy in patients undergoing preoperative chemo(radio)therapy for OC...
December 2, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080065/effects-of-respiratory-muscle-training-rmt-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-obstructive-sleep-apnea-osa
#2
Simon Dominik Herkenrath, Marcel Treml, Christina Priegnitz, Wolfgang Galetke, Winfried J Randerath
PURPOSE: Different forms of training focusing on the muscles of the upper airways showed limited effects on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and/or snoring. We investigated the effect of generalized respiratory muscle training (RMT) in lean patients with mild to moderate OSA. METHODS: Nine male subjects (52.0 ± 10.8 years, BMI 29.1 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)) with obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 9-29) participated in an open, single-arm pilot study. After a 1-week build-up phase, patients underwent 4 weeks of normocapnic hyperpnea RMT five times a week for 30 min each...
October 28, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921453/upper-and-lower-limbs-composition-a-comparison-between-anthropometry-and-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-healthy-people
#3
Danila Diano, Federico Ponti, Sara Guerri, Daniele Mercatelli, Michele Amadori, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alberto Bazzocchi
The detection of changes in lean mass (LM) distribution can help to prevent disability. This study assessed the degree of association between anthropometric measurements and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition (BC) parameters of the upper and lower limbs in a healthy general population and collected DXA age- and sex-specific values of BC that can be useful to build a reference standard. PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of some widely available anthropometric measurements in the assessment of body composition (BC) at the limbs, especially in terms of muscle mass, in a large sample of healthy subjects of different age bands and sex, using fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) parameters derived by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the gold standard...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835387/supplementing-breakfast-with-a-vitamin-d-and-leucine-enriched-whey-protein-medical-nutrition-drink-enhances-postprandial-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-muscle-mass-in-healthy-older-men
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Audrey Chanet, Sjors Verlaan, Jérôme Salles, Christophe Giraudet, Véronique Patrac, Véronique Pidou, Corinne Pouyet, Nordine Hafnaoui, Adeline Blot, Noël Cano, Nicolas Farigon, Anke Bongers, Marion Jourdan, Yvette Luiking, Stéphane Walrand, Yves Boirie
Background: A promising strategy to help older adults preserve or build muscle mass is to optimize muscle anabolism through providing an adequate amount of high-quality protein at each meal.Objective: This "proof of principle" study investigated the acute effect of supplementing breakfast with a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein medical nutrition drink on postprandial muscle protein synthesis and longer-term effect on muscle mass in healthy older adults.Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted in 24 healthy older men [mean ± SD: age 71 ± 4 y; body mass index (in kg/m2) 24...
December 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642676/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-protein-and-exercise
#5
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Chad M Kerksick, Bill I Campbell, Paul J Cribb, Shawn D Wells, Tim M Skwiat, Martin Purpura, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Arny A Ferrando, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout, Paul J Arciero, Michael J Ormsbee, Lem W Taylor, Colin D Wilborn, Doug S Kalman, Richard B Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby, Jay R Hoffman, Jamie L Krzykowski, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453658/androgen-receptor-agonists-increase-lean-mass-improve-cardiopulmonary-functions-and-extend-survival-in-preclinical-models-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#6
Suriyan Ponnusamy, Ryan D Sullivan, Dahui You, Nadeem Zafar, Chuan He Yang, Thirumagal Thiyagarajan, Daniel L Johnson, Maron L Barrett, Nikki J Koehler, Mayra Star, Erin J Stephenson, Dave Bridges, Stephania A Cormier, Lawrence M Pfeffer, Ramesh Narayanan
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease that predominantly affects boys as a result of mutation(s) in the dystrophin gene. DMD is characterized by musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary complications, resulting in shorter life-span. Boys afflicted by DMD typically exhibit symptoms within 3-5 years of age and declining physical functions before attaining puberty. We hypothesized that rapidly deteriorating health of pre-pubertal boys with DMD could be due to diminished anabolic actions of androgens in muscle, and that intervention with an androgen receptor (AR) agonist will reverse musculoskeletal complications and extend survival...
July 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415067/effect-of-whey-protein-in-conjunction-with-a-caloric-restricted-diet-and-resistance-training
#7
Wesley D Dudgeon, Elizabeth P Kelley, Timothy P Scheett
Dudgeon, WD, Kelley, EP, and Scheett, TP. Effect of whey protein in conjunction with a caloric-restricted diet and resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1353-1361, 2017-Caloric-restricted weight loss, especially rapid weight loss, results from a decrease in both lean and fat mass (FM). The goal for many is to lose FM while retaining lean body mass (LBM) and muscular performance thus many turn to supplements. Sixteen resistance-trained men (24 ± 1.6 years of age) completed a 4 d·wk body building style split resistance training program for 8 weeks in conjunction with a pre-exercise, periexercise, and postexercise ingestion of whey protein (WHEY) nutritional supplement or carbohydrate (CON)-based nutritional supplement...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765712/walking-balance-and-compensatory-gait-mechanisms-in-surgically-treated-patients-with-adult-spinal-deformity
#8
Mitsuru Yagi, Hideaki Ohne, Tsunehiko Konomi, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Shinjiro Kaneko, Masakazu Takemitsu, Masafumi Machida, Yoshiyuki Yato, Takashi Asazuma
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Gait patterns and their relationship to demographic and radiographic data in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) have not been fully documented. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess gait pattern in patients with ASD and the effect of corrective spinal surgery on gait. DESIGN/SETTING: This is a prospective case series. PATIENT SAMPLE: The gait patterns of 33 consecutive women with ASD (age 67...
March 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453083/male-eating-disorder-symptom-patterns-and-health-correlates-from-13-to-26-years-of-age
#9
Jerel P Calzo, Nicholas J Horton, Kendrin R Sonneville, Sonja A Swanson, Ross D Crosby, Nadia Micali, Kamryn T Eddy, Alison E Field
OBJECTIVE: Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. METHOD: Participants were 7,067 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study. Surveys from 1999 to 2007 (spanning ages 13-26 years) provided repeated measures data on muscularity and leanness concerns, eating disorder behaviors (purging, overeating, binge eating, use of muscle-building products), and health correlates (obesity, non-marijuana drug use, binge drinking, and depressive symptoms)...
August 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26412290/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-resistance-exercise-in-community-dwelling-old-adults
#10
A Arnarson, O Gudny Geirsdottir, A Ramel, P V Jonsson, I Thorsdottir
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is related to the preservation of lean body mass. Its decline during ageing is thought to make old adults more susceptible to sarcopenia and functional dependency. The aim of the present study was to investigate circulating total IGF-1 in old adults who engaged in a 12-weeks of progressive resistance training. DESIGN: Intervention study. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Old Icelandic adults (N = 235, 73...
October 2015: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074749/anabolic-androgenic-steroid-aas-related-deaths-autoptic-histopathological-and-toxicological-findings
#11
REVIEW
Paola Frati, Francesco P Busardò, Luigi Cipolloni, Enrico De Dominicis, Vittorio Fineschi
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between receptor and protein, and receptor and DNA...
January 2015: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26003407/muscle-strength-and-areal-bone-mineral-density-at-the-hip-in-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Julie A Pasco, Kara L Holloway, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, David J Moloney, Mark A Kotowicz
BACKGROUND: Muscle strengthening exercises are promoted for building and maintaining a healthy skeleton. We aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip in women aged 26-97 years. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilises data from 863 women assessed for the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Measures of hip flexor and abductor strength were made using a hand-held dynamometer (Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester)...
May 24, 2015: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25793194/modulation-and-predictors-of-periprosthetic-bone-mineral-density-following-total-knee-arthroplasty
#13
Anett Mau-Moeller, Martin Behrens, Sabine Felser, Sven Bruhn, Wolfram Mittelmeier, Rainer Bader, Ralf Skripitz
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD). Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2) to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25553480/nutritional-and-regulatory-roles-of-leucine-in-muscle-growth-and-fat-reduction
#14
REVIEW
Yehui Duan, Fengna Li, Hongnan Liu, Yinghui Li, Yingying Liu, Xiangfeng Kong, Yuzhe Zhang, Dun Deng, Yulong Tang, Zemeng Feng, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin
The metabolic roles for L-leucine, an essential branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), go far beyond serving exclusively as a building block for de novo protein synthesis. Growing evidence shows that leucine regulates protein and lipid metabolism in animals. Specifically, leucine activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, including the 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and to promote mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in enhanced cellular respiration and energy partitioning...
January 1, 2015: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25330664/-research-on-body-composition-of-soldiers-in-the-graduating-class-of-armed-services-colleges
#15
Chun-Jie Pan, Xiao-Dong Liu, Hui Zhang, Ying-Chun Bao
OBJECTIVE: To master the distribution of male and female soldiers' body composition with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method in order to provide data for building up the standards in comparison with those of ordinary residents. METHODS: A cluster stratified sample of 5968 graduated soldiers among different armed services colleges was measured by BIA. Five percent-95% distributions with in the upper and lower limits were established on basis of the above result...
July 2014: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25304148/dietary-advice-for-muscularity-leanness-and-weight-control-in-men-s-health-magazine-a-content-analysis
#16
Toni M Cook, Jean M Russell, Margo E Barker
BACKGROUND: The dietary content of advice in men's lifestyle magazines has not been closely scrutinised. METHODS: We carried out an analysis of such content in all 2009 issues (n = 11) of Men's Health (MH) focusing on muscularity, leanness and weight control. RESULTS: Promotion of a mesomorphic body image underpinned advice to affect muscle building and control weight. Diet advice was underpinned by a strong pseudo-scientific discourse, with citation of expert sources widely used to legitimise the information...
October 11, 2014: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25268791/clinical-effectiveness-of-protein-and-amino-acid-supplementation-on-building-muscle-mass-in-elderly-people-a-meta-analysis
#17
Zhe-rong Xu, Zhong-ju Tan, Qin Zhang, Qi-feng Gui, Yun-mei Yang
OBJECTIVE: A major reason for the loss of mobility in elderly people is the gradual loss of lean body mass known as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is associated with a lower quality of life and higher healthcare costs. The benefit of strategies that include nutritional intervention, timing of intervention, and physical exercise to improve muscle loss unclear as finding from studies investigating this issue have been inconsistent. We have performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the ability of protein or amino acid supplementation to augment lean body mass or strength of leg muscles in elderly patients...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23441170/cerebral-neovascularization-and-remodeling-patterns-in-two-different-models-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
Roshini Prakash, Maribeth Johnson, Susan C Fagan, Adviye Ergul
We previously reported intense pial cerebral collateralization and arteriogenesis in a mild and lean model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Increased cerebral neovascularization differed regionally and was associated with poor vessel wall maturity. Building upon these findings, the goals of this study were to determine whether a) glycemic control prevents this erratic cerebral neovascularization in the GK model, and b) this pathological neovascularization pattern occurs in Lepr(db/db) model, which is the most commonly used model of T2D for studies involving cerebral complications of diabetes...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23374809/decrease-in-lean-body-mass-in-men-with-prostate-cancer-receiving-androgen-deprivation-therapy-mechanism-and-biomarkers
#19
Noboru Hara, Fumio Ishizaki, Toshihiro Saito, Tsutomu Nishiyama, Takashi Kawasaki, Kota Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanism of the androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-related decrease in lean body mass (LBM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The LBM and blood samples were studied before and after 6 months of ADT in 72 patients with localized prostate cancer. The LBM was assessed using a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analyzer. RESULTS: Before ADT, the LBM correlated with none of the serum sex steroid levels; however, it correlated closely with serum 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0...
February 2013: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23271681/long-term-exposure-to-cr-3-o-o-2-cch-2-ch-3-6-h-2-o-3-in-wistar-rats-fed-normal-or-high-fat-diets-does-not-alter-glucose-metabolism
#20
Betty J Herring, Amanda L Logsdon, Jarrett E Lockard, Brittany M Miller, Hanna Kim, Eric A Calderon, John B Vincent, Melissa M Bailey
The essentiality of chromium(III) has been the subject of much debate, particularly in healthy subjects. Chromium(III)-containing supplements are widely used for body mass loss, building of lean muscle mass, and improving glucose and lipid metabolism. [Cr(3)O(O(2)CCH(2)CH(3))(6)(H(2)O)(3)](+), Cr3, is one of the most-studied chromium nutritional supplements. The current study evaluates the effects of long-term (15 months) supplementation with Cr3 on body mass and glucose metabolism in Wistar rats on traditional and cafeteria-style (high fat, high carbohydrate) diets...
March 2013: Biological Trace Element Research
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