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Green roof

Jannik Heusinger, Stephan Weber
Green roofs are discussed as a promising type of green infrastructure to lower heat stress in cities. In order to enhance evaporative cooling, green roofs should ideally have similar Bowen ratio (β=sensible heat flux/latent heat flux) characteristics such as rural sites, especially during summer periods with high air temperatures. We use the eddy-covariance (EC) method to quantify the energy balance of an 8600m(2) extensive, non-irrigated green roof at the Berlin Brandenburg Airport, Germany over a full annual cycle...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Pierre-Antoine Versini, Auguste Gires, Ioulia Tchinguirinskaia, Daniel Schertzer
Currently widespread in new urban projects, green roofs have shown a positive impact on urban runoff at the building scale: decrease and slow-down of the peak discharge, and decrease of runoff volume. The present work aims to study their possible impact at the catchment scale, more compatible with stormwater management issues. For this purpose, a specific module dedicated to simulating the hydrological behaviour of a green roof has been developed in the distributed rainfall-runoff model (Multi-Hydro). It has been applied on a French urban catchment where most of the building roofs are flat and assumed to accept the implementation of a green roof...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Catherine Johnson, Shelbye Schweinhart, Ishi Buffam
Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Gwendolyn K L Wong, C Y Jim
Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Corey M G Carpenter, Dimitar Todorov, Charles T Driscoll, Mario Montesdeoca
Syracuse, New York is working under a court-ordered agreement to limit combined sewer overflows (CSO) to local surface waters. Green infrastructure technologies, including green roofs, are being implemented as part of a CSO abatement strategy and to develop co-benefits of diminished stormwater runoff, including decreased loading of contaminants to the wastewater system and surface waters. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of discharge associated with precipitation events over an annual cycle from a green roof in Syracuse, NY and to compare measurements from this monitoring program with results from a roof irrigation experiment...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Agnieszka Bus, Agnieszka Karczmarczyk, Anna Baryła
The aim of the study is to assess the influence of drainage layer made of reactive material Polonite(®) on the water retention and P-PO(4) concentration in runoff. A column experiment was performed for extensive substrate underlined by 2 cm of Polonite(®) layer (SP) and the same substrate without supporting layer as a reference (S). The leakage phosphorus concentration ranged from 0.001 to 0.082 mg P-PO(4)·L(-1), with average value 0.025 P-PO(4)·L(-1) of S experiment and 0.000-0.004 P-PO(4)·L(-1) and 0...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
S Rafael, H Martins, E Sá, D Carvalho, C Borrego, M Lopes
Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Maria Pregnolato, Alistair Ford, Craig Robson, Vassilis Glenis, Stuart Barr, Richard Dawson
Critical infrastructure networks, including transport, are crucial to the social and economic function of urban areas but are at increasing risk from natural hazards. Minimizing disruption to these networks should form part of a strategy to increase urban resilience. A framework for assessing the disruption from flood events to transport systems is presented that couples a high-resolution urban flood model with transport modelling and network analytics to assess the impacts of extreme rainfall events, and to quantify the resilience value of different adaptation options...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Michael J Pennino, Rob I McDonald, Peter R Jaffe
Stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including rain gardens, detention ponds, bioswales, and green roofs, is being implemented in cities across the globe to reduce flooding, combined sewer overflows, and pollutant transport to streams and rivers. Despite the increasing use of urban SGI, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, Washington, DC, Montgomery County, MD, and Baltimore County, MD, were selected based on the availability of data on SGI, water quality, and stream flow...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Tadeja Savi, Anna Dal Borgo, Veronica L Love, Sergio Andri, Mauro Tretiach, Andrea Nardini
Green roofs are gaining momentum in the arid and semi-arid regions due to their multiple benefits as compared with conventional roofs. One of the most critical steps in green roof installation is the selection of drought and heat tolerant species that can thrive under extreme microclimate conditions. We monitored the water status, growth and survival of 11 drought-adapted shrub species grown on shallow green roof modules (10 and 13cm deep substrate) and analyzed traits enabling plants to cope with drought (symplastic and apoplastic resistance) and heat stress (root membrane stability)...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Terry Hartig, Peter H Kahn
Natural features, settings, and processes in urban areas can help to reduce stress associated with urban life. In this and other ways, public health benefits from, street trees, green roofs, community gardens, parks and open spaces, and extensive connective pathways for walking and biking. Such urban design provisions can also yield ecological benefits, not only directly but also through the role they play in shaping attitudes toward the environment and environmental protection. Knowledge of the psychological benefits of nature experience supports efforts to better integrate nature into the architecture, infrastructure, and public spaces of urban areas...
May 20, 2016: Science
Michael Oelgemöller
Natural sunlight offers a cost-efficient and sustainable energy source for photochemical reactions. In contrast to the lengthy and small-scale "flask in the sun" procedures of the past, modern solar concentrator systems nowadays significantly shorten reaction times and enable technical-scale operations. After a brief historical introduction, this review presents the most important solar reactor types and their successful application in preparative solar syntheses. The examples demonstrate that solar manufacturing of fine chemicals is technically feasible and environmentally sustainable...
September 14, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Nagahisa Yoshimura
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Japanese often shows different clinical features from those described in Caucasians. For example, we often observe choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in elderly patients without drusen in the fundus. The high incidence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in AMD among Japanese is well-known. The reason why such differences occur in clinical manifestations of AMD has been one of my main interests. In this review article, I will discuss the characteristics of AMD in the Japanese population, as found in our recent study...
March 2016: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
Cristina M Monteiro, Cristina S C Calheiros, Carla Pimentel-Rodrigues, Armando Silva-Afonso, Paula M L Castro
Green roofs (GRs) are becoming a trend in urban areas, favouring thermal performance of buildings, promoting removal of atmospheric pollutants, and acting as possible water collection spots. Rainwater harvesting systems in buildings can also contribute to the management of stormwater runoff reducing flood peaks. These technologies should be enhanced in Mediterranean countries where water scarcity is increasing and the occurrence of extreme events is becoming very significant, as a result of climate change. An extensive pilot GR with three aromatic plant species, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and Thymus pseudolanuginosus, designed to study several parameters affecting rainwater runoff, has been in operation for 12 months...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Brian E Washburn, Ryan M Swearingin, Craig K Pullins, Matthew E Rice
Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions...
June 2016: Environmental Management
Michael Buckland-Nicks, Amy Heim, Jeremy Lundholm
Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof...
May 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Marla C Maniquiz-Redillas, Lee-Hyung Kim
Low-impact development (LID) and green infrastructure (GI) have recently become well-known methods to capture, collect, retain, and remove pollutants in stormwater runoff. The research was conducted to assess the efficiency of LID/GI systems applied in removing the particulate and dissolved heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Fe) from urban stormwater runoff. A total of 82 storm events were monitored over a four-year period (2010-2014) on six LID/GI systems including infiltration trenches, tree box filter, rain garden, and hybrid constructed wetlands employed for the management of road, parking lot, and roof runoff...
September 2016: Environmental Technology
Luis A M Carrascosa, Dario S Facio, Maria J Mosquera
Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced...
March 4, 2016: Nanotechnology
Jiyun Song, Zhi-Hua Wang
An advanced Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach called Subset Simulation is described in Au and Beck (2001) [1] was used to quantify parameter uncertainty and model sensitivity of the urban land-atmospheric framework, viz. the coupled urban canopy model-single column model (UCM-SCM). The results show that the atmospheric dynamics are sensitive to land surface conditions. The most sensitive parameters are dimensional parameters, i.e. roof width, aspect ratio, roughness length of heat and momentum, since these parameters control the magnitude of sensible heat flux...
December 2015: Data in Brief
Xiao-ping Chen, Pei Huang, Zhi-xiang Zhou, Chi Gao
Green roof has a significant influence on reducing runoff volume, delaying runoff-yielding time, reducing the peak flow and improving runoff quality. This paper addressed the related research around the world and concluded from several aspects, i.e., the definition of green roof of different types, the mechanism how green roof manages runoff quantity and quality, the ability how green roof controls roof runoff, and the influence factors of green roof toward runoff quantity and quality. Afterwards, there was a need for more future work on research of green roof toward roof runoff, i...
August 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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