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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052509/spatially-dependent-biotic-and-abiotic-factors-drive-survivorship-and-physical-structure-of-green-roof-vegetation
#1
Jason M Aloisio, Matthew I Palmer, Mario A Giampieri, Amy R Tuininga, James D Lewis
Plant survivorship depends on biotic and abiotic factors that vary at local and regional scales. This survivorship, in turn, has cascading effects on community composition and the physical structure of vegetation. Survivorship of native plant species is variable among populations planted in environmentally stressful habitats like urban roofs, but the degree to which factors at different spatial scales affect survivorship in urban systems is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on survivorship, composition, and physical structure of two native perennial species assemblages, one characterized by a mixture of C4 grasses and forbs (Hempstead Plains, HP) and one characterized by a mixture of C3 grasses and forbs (Rocky Summit, RS), that were initially sown at equal ratios of growth forms (5:1:4; grass, N-fixing forb and non-N-fixing forb) in replicate 2-m(2) plots planted on 10 roofs in New York City (New York, USA)...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034543/using-soil-microbial-inoculations-to-enhance-substrate-performance-on-extensive-green-roofs
#2
Chloe J Molineux, Alan C Gange, Darryl J Newport
Green roofs are increasing in popularity in the urban environment for their contribution to green infrastructure; but their role for biodiversity is not often a design priority. Maximising biodiversity will impact positively on ecosystem services and is therefore fundamental for achieving the greatest benefits from green roofs. Extensive green roofs are lightweight systems generally constructed with a specialised growing medium that tends to be biologically limited and as such can be a harsh habitat for plants to thrive in...
December 26, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012387/optimal-location-selection-for-the-installation-of-urban-green-roofs-considering-honeybee-habitats-along-with-socio-economic-and-environmental-effects
#3
Jae Ha Gwak, Bo Kyeong Lee, Won Kyung Lee, So Young Sohn
This study proposes a new framework for the selection of optimal locations for green roofs to achieve a sustainable urban ecosystem. The proposed framework selects building sites that can maximize the benefits of green roofs, based not only on the socio-economic and environmental benefits to urban residents, but also on the provision of urban foraging sites for honeybees. The framework comprises three steps. First, building candidates for green roofs are selected considering the building type. Second, the selected building candidates are ranked in terms of their expected socio-economic and environmental effects...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936895/portulaca-grandiflora-as-green-roof-vegetation-plant-growth-and-phytoremediation-experiments
#4
K Vijayaraghavan, Jesu Arockiaraj, Seralathan Kamala-Kannan
Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m(3)), high water holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%) and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/h). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810303/surface-energy-balance-of-an-extensive-green-roof-as-quantified-by-full-year-eddy-covariance-measurements
#5
Jannik Heusinger, Stephan Weber
Green roofs are discussed as a promising type of green infrastructure to lower heat stress in cities. In order to enhance evaporative cooling, green roofs should ideally have similar Bowen ratio (β=sensible heat flux/latent heat flux) characteristics such as rural sites, especially during summer periods with high air temperatures. We use the eddy-covariance (EC) method to quantify the energy balance of an 8600m(2) extensive, non-irrigated green roof at the Berlin Brandenburg Airport, Germany over a full annual cycle...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789885/toward-an-operational-tool-to-simulate-green-roof-hydrological-impact-at-the-basin-scale-a-new-version-of-the-distributed-rainfall-runoff-model-multi-hydro
#6
Pierre-Antoine Versini, Auguste Gires, Ioulia Tchinguirinskaia, Daniel Schertzer
Currently widespread in new urban projects, green roofs have shown a positive impact on urban runoff at the building scale: decrease and slow-down of the peak discharge, and decrease of runoff volume. The present work aims to study their possible impact at the catchment scale, more compatible with stormwater management issues. For this purpose, a specific module dedicated to simulating the hydrological behaviour of a green roof has been developed in the distributed rainfall-runoff model (Multi-Hydro). It has been applied on a French urban catchment where most of the building roofs are flat and assumed to accept the implementation of a green roof...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755723/plant-species-richness-enhances-nitrogen-retention-in-green-roof-plots
#7
Catherine Johnson, Shelbye Schweinhart, Ishi Buffam
Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565531/do-vegetated-rooftops-attract-more-mosquitoes-monitoring-disease-vector-abundance-on-urban-green-roofs
#8
Gwendolyn K L Wong, C Y Jim
Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521294/water-quantity-and-quality-response-of-a-green-roof-to-storm-events-experimental-and-monitoring-observations
#9
Corey M G Carpenter, Dimitar Todorov, Charles T Driscoll, Mario Montesdeoca
Syracuse, New York is working under a court-ordered agreement to limit combined sewer overflows (CSO) to local surface waters. Green infrastructure technologies, including green roofs, are being implemented as part of a CSO abatement strategy and to develop co-benefits of diminished stormwater runoff, including decreased loading of contaminants to the wastewater system and surface waters. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of discharge associated with precipitation events over an annual cycle from a green roof in Syracuse, NY and to compare measurements from this monitoring program with results from a roof irrigation experiment...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27332849/the-use-of-reactive-material-for-limiting-p-leaching-from-green-roof-substrate
#10
Agnieszka Bus, Agnieszka Karczmarczyk, Anna Baryła
The aim of the study is to assess the influence of drainage layer made of reactive material Polonite(®) on the water retention and P-PO(4) concentration in runoff. A column experiment was performed for extensive substrate underlined by 2 cm of Polonite(®) layer (SP) and the same substrate without supporting layer as a reference (S). The leakage phosphorus concentration ranged from 0.001 to 0.082 mg P-PO(4)·L(-1), with average value 0.025 P-PO(4)·L(-1) of S experiment and 0.000-0.004 P-PO(4)·L(-1) and 0...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317136/influence-of-urban-resilience-measures-in-the-magnitude-and-behaviour-of-energy-fluxes-in-the-city-of-porto-portugal-under-a-climate-change-scenario
#11
S Rafael, H Martins, E Sá, D Carvalho, C Borrego, M Lopes
Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293781/assessing-urban-strategies-for-reducing-the-impacts-of-extreme-weather-on-infrastructure-networks
#12
Maria Pregnolato, Alistair Ford, Craig Robson, Vassilis Glenis, Stuart Barr, Richard Dawson
Critical infrastructure networks, including transport, are crucial to the social and economic function of urban areas but are at increasing risk from natural hazards. Minimizing disruption to these networks should form part of a strategy to increase urban resilience. A framework for assessing the disruption from flood events to transport systems is presented that couples a high-resolution urban flood model with transport modelling and network analytics to assess the impacts of extreme rainfall events, and to quantify the resilience value of different adaptation options...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261425/watershed-scale-impacts-of-stormwater-green-infrastructure-on-hydrology-nutrient-fluxes-and-combined-sewer-overflows-in-the-mid-atlantic-region
#13
Michael J Pennino, Rob I McDonald, Peter R Jaffe
Stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including rain gardens, detention ponds, bioswales, and green roofs, is being implemented in cities across the globe to reduce flooding, combined sewer overflows, and pollutant transport to streams and rivers. Despite the increasing use of urban SGI, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, Washington, DC, Montgomery County, MD, and Baltimore County, MD, were selected based on the availability of data on SGI, water quality, and stream flow...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239718/drought-versus-heat-what-s-the-major-constraint-on-mediterranean-green-roof-plants
#14
Tadeja Savi, Anna Dal Borgo, Veronica L Love, Sergio Andri, Mauro Tretiach, Andrea Nardini
Green roofs are gaining momentum in the arid and semi-arid regions due to their multiple benefits as compared with conventional roofs. One of the most critical steps in green roof installation is the selection of drought and heat tolerant species that can thrive under extreme microclimate conditions. We monitored the water status, growth and survival of 11 drought-adapted shrub species grown on shallow green roof modules (10 and 13cm deep substrate) and analyzed traits enabling plants to cope with drought (symplastic and apoplastic resistance) and heat stress (root membrane stability)...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199417/living-in-cities-naturally
#15
REVIEW
Terry Hartig, Peter H Kahn
Natural features, settings, and processes in urban areas can help to reduce stress associated with urban life. In this and other ways, public health benefits from, street trees, green roofs, community gardens, parks and open spaces, and extensive connective pathways for walking and biking. Such urban design provisions can also yield ecological benefits, not only directly but also through the role they play in shaping attitudes toward the environment and environmental protection. Knowledge of the psychological benefits of nature experience supports efforts to better integrate nature into the architecture, infrastructure, and public spaces of urban areas...
May 20, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181285/solar-photochemical-synthesis-from-the-beginnings-of-organic-photochemistry-to-the-solar-manufacturing-of-commodity-chemicals
#16
Michael Oelgemöller
Natural sunlight offers a cost-efficient and sustainable energy source for photochemical reactions. In contrast to the lengthy and small-scale "flask in the sun" procedures of the past, modern solar concentrator systems nowadays significantly shorten reaction times and enable technical-scale operations. After a brief historical introduction, this review presents the most important solar reactor types and their successful application in preparative solar syntheses. The examples demonstrate that solar manufacturing of fine chemicals is technically feasible and environmentally sustainable...
September 14, 2016: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164756/-age-related-macular-degeneration-in-the-japanese
#17
Nagahisa Yoshimura
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Japanese often shows different clinical features from those described in Caucasians. For example, we often observe choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in elderly patients without drusen in the fundus. The high incidence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in AMD among Japanese is well-known. The reason why such differences occur in clinical manifestations of AMD has been one of my main interests. In this review article, I will discuss the characteristics of AMD in the Japanese population, as found in our recent study...
March 2016: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120638/contributions-to-the-design-of-rainwater-harvesting-systems-in-buildings-with-green-roofs-in-a-mediterranean-climate
#18
Cristina M Monteiro, Cristina S C Calheiros, Carla Pimentel-Rodrigues, Armando Silva-Afonso, Paula M L Castro
Green roofs (GRs) are becoming a trend in urban areas, favouring thermal performance of buildings, promoting removal of atmospheric pollutants, and acting as possible water collection spots. Rainwater harvesting systems in buildings can also contribute to the management of stormwater runoff reducing flood peaks. These technologies should be enhanced in Mediterranean countries where water scarcity is increasing and the occurrence of extreme events is becoming very significant, as a result of climate change. An extensive pilot GR with three aromatic plant species, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and Thymus pseudolanuginosus, designed to study several parameters affecting rainwater runoff, has been in operation for 12 months...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26956765/composition-and-diversity-of-avian-communities-using-a-new-urban-habitat-green-roofs
#19
Brian E Washburn, Ryan M Swearingin, Craig K Pullins, Matthew E Rice
Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions...
June 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901799/spatial-environmental-heterogeneity-affects-plant-growth-and-thermal-performance-on-a-green-roof
#20
Michael Buckland-Nicks, Amy Heim, Jeremy Lundholm
Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof...
May 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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