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Fractional flow reserve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227067/computational-estimation-of-the-severity-of-coronary-lesions-with-intravascular-ultrasound-images-a-pilot-study
#1
Panagiotis K Siogkas, Michail I Papafaklis, Bill D Gogas, Habib Samady, Lampros K Michalis, Dimitrios I Fotiadis, Panagiotis K Siogkas, Michail I Papafaklis, Bill D Gogas, Habib Samady, Lampros K Michalis, Dimitrios I Fotiadis, Bill D Gogas, Habib Samady, Michail I Papafaklis, Dimitrios I Fotiadis, Panagiotis K Siogkas, Lampros K Michalis
The fast and accurate hemodynamic functional assessment of the coronary vasculature is of utmost importance in clinical practice due to the fact that Cardiovascular Diseases have become the leading cause of death globally. In this work we propose a novel method that combines two of the most efficient methods of hemodynamic status assessment of coronary arteries, Intravascular UtraSound and virtual Functional Assessment Index, an index that correlates well to the measured Fractional Flow Reserve. One Left Anterior Descending segment was reconstructed both in a straight manner (using only IVUS images) as well as using the actual 3D geometry of the vessel (using IvUS images combined with the respective coronary angiographic images [2])...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220273/numerical-and-experimental-investigations-of-the-flow-pressure-relation-in-multiple-sequential-stenoses-coronary-artery
#2
S Li, Cheng Chin, Vikas Thondapu, Eric K W Poon, Jason P Monty, Yingguang Li, Andrew S H Ooi, Shengxian Tu, Peter Barlis
Virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR) has been evaluated as an adjunct to invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) in the light of its operational and economic benefits. The accuracy of vFFR and the complexity of hyperemic flow simulation are still not clearly understood. This study investigates the flow-pressure relation in an idealised multiple sequential stenoses coronary artery model via numerical and experimental approaches. Pressure drop is linearly correlated with flow rate irrespective of the number of stenosis...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218958/cd137-is-a-useful-marker-for-identifying-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Zhuo-Hong Yan, Xiao-Fang Zheng, Ling Yi, Jing Wang, Xiao-Jue Wang, Pan-Jian Wei, Hong-Yan Jia, Li-Jun Zhou, Yan-Lin Zhao, Hong-Tao Zhang
Upregulation of CD137 on recently activated CD8(+) T cells has been used to identify rare viral and tumor antigen-specific T cells from the peripheral blood. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CD137 for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-reactive CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood of infected individuals by flow cytometry and to investigate the characteristics of these CD137(+) CD4(+) T cells. We initially enrolled 31 active tuberculosis (TB) patients, 31 individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI), and 25 healthy donors...
February 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218606/microvascular-dysfunction-following-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-and-its-recovery-over-time-is-associated-with-short-and-long-term-cardiac-function
#4
Mariëlla E C J Hassell, Matthijs Bax, Martijn A van Lavieren, Robin Nijveldt, Alexander Hirsch, Lourens Robbers, Koen M Marques, Jan G P Tijssen, Felix Zijlstra, Albert C van Rossum, Ronak Delewi, Jan J Piek
AIMS: It is unclear whether microvascular dysfunction following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is prognostic for long-term left ventricular function (LVF). and whether recovery of the microvasculature status is associated with LVF improvement. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 62 patients, Coronary Flow Reserve (CFR) and Hyperemic Microvascular Resistance Index (HMRI) in the infarct related artery (IRA) was assessed by intracoronary Doppler flow measurements within 1 week and at 4 months...
February 21, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214966/anomalous-coronary-arteries-and-myocardial-bridges-risk-stratification-in-children-using-novel-cardiac-catheterization-techniques
#5
Hitesh Agrawal, Silvana Molossi, Mahboob Alam, S Kristen Sexson-Tejtel, Carlos M Mery, E Dean McKenzie, Charles D Fraser, Athar M Qureshi
The evaluation of the vast majority of children with anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) and/or myocardial bridges is performed with non-invasive testing. However, a subset of these patients may benefit from invasive testing for risk stratification. All patients included in the Coronary Anomalies Program (CAP) at Texas Children's Hospital who underwent cardiac catheterization were included. Techniques included selective coronary angiograms (SCA), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements with provocative testing using adenosine and/or dobutamine infusions...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207992/inhibitory-activities-of-n-butanol-fraction-from-butea-monosperma-lam-taub-bark-against-free-radicals-genotoxins-and-cancer-cells
#6
Varinder Kaur, Manish Kumar, Paramjeet Kaur, Sandeep Kaur, Satwinderjeet Kaur
The present study was undertaken to investigate antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative activity of n-butanol fraction (Bmbu) from bark of medicinal plant Butea monosperma. Antioxidant potency of Bmbu was examined by various in vitro assays. It was also investigated for antigenotoxic activity using E. coli. PQ37 employing SOS chromotest. Further, cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing activity of Bmbu was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Bmbu showed potent free radical scavenging ability in ABTS assay (IC50 56...
February 16, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202246/analysis-of-myocardial-perfusion-parameters-in-an-ex-vivo-porcine-heart-model-using-third-generation-dual-source-ct
#7
Gert Jan Pelgrim, Taylor M Duguay, J Marco A Stijnen, Akos Varga-Szemes, Sjoerd Van Tuijl, U Joseph Schoepf, Matthijs Oudkerk, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between fractional flow reserve (FFR)-determined coronary artery stenosis severity and myocardial perfusion parameters derived from dynamic myocardial CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in an ex-vivo porcine heart model. METHODS: Six porcine hearts were perfused according to Langendorff. Circulatory parameters such as arterial blood flow (ABF) (L/min), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (mmHg) and heart rate (bpm) were monitored. Using an inflatable cuff and monitored via a pressure wire, coronary artery stenoses of different FFR grades were created (no stenosis, FFR = 0...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199786/alpha-adrenergic-receptor-blockade-increases-capillarisation-and-fractional-o2-extraction-and-lowers-blood-flow-in-contracting-human-skeletal-muscle
#8
Stefan P Mortensen, Stuart Egginton, Mads Madsen, Jonas B Hansen, Gregers D W Munch, Ulrik Winning Iepsen, Thorbjörn Åkerström, Bente K Pedersen, Ylva Hellsten
AIM: To investigate the effect of elevated basal shear stress on angiogenesis in humans, and the role of enhanced skeletal muscle capillarisation on blood flow and O2 extraction. METHODS: Limb haemodynamics and O2 extraction was measured at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise (12 and 24W) in 10 healthy untrained young men before and after 4 weeks treatment with an α1 receptor-antagonist (Terazosin, 1-2 mg day(-1) ). Corresponding biopsies were taken from the m...
February 15, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198144/the-phenolic-fraction-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-modulates-the-activation-and-the-inflammatory-response-of-t-cells-from-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-healthy-donors
#9
Marina Aparicio-Soto, Marina Sanchez-Hidalgo, Ana Cárdeno Galván, Jose Manuel Lucena, Francisca Gonzalez-Escribano, Maria Jesus Castillo Palma, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra
SCOPE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multiorgan autoimmune disease characterized by immune deregulation, which involves altered T-cell response and imbalance of cytokine production. The phenolic fraction (PE) of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) possesses anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and exerts preventive effects in murine models of immune-inflammatory diseases, such as SLE. The present study was designed to determine the in vitro effects of the PE from EVOO on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from inactive patients with SLE and healthy donors...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196527/assessment-of-increasing-intravenous-adenosine-dose-in-fractional-flow-reserve
#10
David Sparv, Matthias Götberg, Jan Harnek, Tobias Persson, Bjarne Madsen Hardig, David Erlinge
BACKGROUND: Effects of increased adenosine dose in the assessment of fractional flow reserve (FFR) were studied in relation to FFR results, hemodynamic effects and patient discomfort. FFR require maximal hyperemia mediated by adenosine. Standard dose is 140 μg/kg/min administrated intravenously. Higher doses are commonly used in clinical practice, but an extensive comparison between standard intravenous dose and a high dose (220 μg/kg/min) has previously not been performed. METHODS: Seventy-five patients undergoing FFR received standard dose adenosine, followed by high dose adenosine...
February 14, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196358/wellens-syndrome-a-bad-omen
#11
Madalena Coutinho Cruz, Isabel Luiz, Lurdes Ferreira, Rui Cruz Ferreira
Wellens' syndrome is characterized by an electrocardiographic pattern of T-wave changes associated with a critical stenosis of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), which progresses to an extensive anterior myocardial infarction in the majority of cases. For this reason, its recognition and early treatment are extremely important. We report 2 cases of Wellens' syndrome: an 83-year-old male presenting with ill-characterized chest pain, biphasic T waves in V1-V3 during an asymptomatic period, negative cardiac biomarkers, and a 64% stenosis in LAD with a fractional flow reserve of 0...
February 15, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194801/differences-in-eosinophil-molecular-profiles-between-children-and-adults-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#12
Christine Lingblom, Timo Käppi, Henrik Bergquist, Mogens Bove, Rikard Arkel, Robert Saalman, Christine Wennerås
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) afflicts both children and adults. It has been debated whether pediatric and adult EoE represent different disease entities. The objectives of this study were to determine if the blood eosinophil molecular pattern of children with EoE is: 1) distinct from that of healthy children; and 2) different from that of adults with EoE. METHODS: Blood eosinophils from children and adults with EoE, and healthy controls, were analyzed with flow cytometry regarding levels of CD23, CD44, CD54, CRTH2, FOXP3 and galectin-10...
February 14, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191876/clinical-and-angiographic-predictors-of-hemodynamically-significant-angiographic-lesions-development-and-validation-of-a-risk-score-to-predict-positive-fractional-flow-reserve
#13
Nishtha Sareen, Usman Baber, Safwan Kezbor, Sonny Sayseng, Melissa Aquino, Roxana Mehran, Joseph Sweeny, Nitin Barman, Annapoorna Kini, Samin K Sharma
AIMS: Coronary revascularization based upon physiological evaluation of lesions improves clinical outcomes. Angiographic or visual stenosis assessment alone is insufficient in predicting hemodynamic stenosis severity by Fractional Flow reserve (FFR) and therefore cannot be used to guide revascularization, particularly in the lesion subset (<70%). Accordingly, we sought to identify independent determinants of angiographic intermediate lesions with hemodynamic significance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed consecutive intermediate lesions for patients from January 2014-April 2015 at our institution...
February 14, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191874/instantaneous-wave-free-ratio-to-guide-coronary-revascularization-physiological-framework-validation-and-differences-with-fractional-flow-reserve
#14
Guus A de Waard, Carlo Di Mario, Amir Lerman, Patrick W Serruys, Niels van Royen
Determining the optimal treatment strategy for revascularization of coronary artery stenosis involves the use of fractional flow reserve (FFR). To improve the low clinical uptake of physiological lesion assessment to guide revascularization, the instantaneous wave-free period (iFR) was proposed as a simpler alternative to FFR that does not require adenosine administration. iFR is calculated as the ratio of blood pressure distal and proximal to a coronary artery stenosis during the diastolic wave- free period...
February 14, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190263/quantifying-the-size-resolved-dynamics-of-indoor-bioaerosol-transport-and-control
#15
Stephanie A Kunkel, Parham Azimi, Haoran Zhao, Benjamin C Stark, Brent Stephens
Understanding the bioaerosol dynamics of droplets and droplet nuclei emitted during respiratory activities is important for understanding how infectious diseases are transmitted and potentially controlled. To this end, we conducted experiments to quantify the size-resolved dynamics of indoor bioaerosol transport and control in an unoccupied apartment unit operating under four different HVAC particle filtration conditions. Two model organisms (Escherichia coli K12 and bacteriophage T4) were aerosolized under alternating low and high flow rates to roughly represent constant breathing and periodic coughing...
February 11, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168977/diffuse-coronary-artery-disease-among-other-atherosclerotic-plaque-characteristics-by-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-for-predicting-coronary-vessel-specific-ischemia-by-fractional-flow-reserve
#16
Asim Rizvi, Bríain Ó Hartaigh, Ibrahim Danad, Donghee Han, Ji Hyun Lee, Heidi Gransar, Jackie Szymonifka, Fay Y Lin, James K Min
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) permits effective identification of diffuse CAD and atherosclerotic plaque characteristics (APCs). We sought to examine the usefulness of diffuse CAD beyond luminal narrowing and APCs by CCTA to detect vessel-specific ischemia. METHODS: 407 vessels (n = 252 patients) from the DeFACTO diagnostic accuracy study were retrospectively analyzed for percent plaque diffuseness (PD). Percent plaque diffuseness (PD) was obtained on per-vessel level by summation of all contiguous lesion lengths and divided by total vessel length, and was logarithmically transformed (log percent PD)...
January 16, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164013/stenotic-flow-reserve-derived-from-quantitative-coronary-angiography-has-modest-but-incremental-value-in-predicting-functionally-significant-coronary-stenosis-as-evaluated-by-fractional-flow-reserve
#17
Elizabeth L Potter, Colin Machado, Yuvaraj Malaiapan, Om Narayan, Brian S H Ko, Peter J Psaltis, Kiran Munnur, James D Cameron, Ian T Meredith, Dennis Thiam Leong Wong
BACKGROUND: Stenotic flow reserve (SFR) derived from quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) has been correlated with myocardial ischaemia as determined by pharmacological stress echocardiography. However, the diagnostic accuracy of SFR in predicting functionally significant coronary stenosis as assessed by the gold standard, fractional flow reserve (FFR), has not been previously characterised. METHODS: Patients who underwent coronary angiography and FFR assessment between January 2010 and February 2012 in a single tertiary centre were retrospectively assessed...
February 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161129/navvus-ffr-to-reduce-contrast-cost-and-radiation-contract-insights-from-a-single-centre-clinical-and-economical-evaluation-with-the-rxi-rapid-exchange-ffr-device
#18
Kaneshka Masdjedi, Nicolas M Van Mieghem, Roberto Diletti, Robert-Jan van Geuns, Peter de Jaegere, Evelyn Regar, Felix Zijlstra, Ron T van Domburg, Joost Daemen
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the RXi Navvus system compared to the use of standard Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) wires reduces total contrast volume, radiation and overall study cost in a real world patient population referred for coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention. BACKGROUND: FFR is the mainstay of functional hemodynamic assessment of coronary artery lesions. The RXi Navvus system (ACIST Medical Systems, Eden Prairie, MN) is a monorail microcatheter with FFR-measurement capability through optical pressure sensor technology...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160376/fractional-flow-reserve-and-resting-indices-for-coronary-physiologic-assessment-practical-guide-tips-and-tricks
#19
Fabien Picard, Michele Pighi, Hung Q Ly
Physiologic assessment using fractional flow reserve (FFR) to guide percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) has been demonstrated to improve clinical outcomes, compared to angiography-guided PCI. Recently, resting indices such as resting Pd/Pa, "instantaneous wave-free ratio", and contrast medium induced FFR have been evaluated for the assessment of the functional consequences of coronary lesions. Herein, we review and discuss the use of FFR and other indices for the functional assessment of coronary lesions...
February 4, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154267/contrast-induced-hyperemia-as-an-alternative-to-drug-induced-hyperemia-in-the-evaluation-of-the-fractional-flow-reserve-in-coronary-lesions
#20
Nobuo Shiode, Tomokazu Okimoto, Hiromichi Tamekiyo, Tomoharu Kawase, Kenichi Yamane, Yuzo Kagawa, Yuto Fujii, Yusuke Ueda, Naoya Hironobe, Yasuko Kato, Yasuhiko Hayashi
Objective Measuring the fractional flow reserve (FFR) requires the induction of coronary hyperemia, usually with adenosine, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), or papaverine. However, adenosine can induce rhythmic complications, and intracoronary boluses of papaverine that prolong the QT interval can cause ventricular tachycardia. Injection of contrast media, which is routinely performed to validate the FFR guidewire placement, also induces hyperemia and may be an alternative method of measuring the FFR. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the FFR after contrast hyperemia (FFRcont) compared to FFR evaluated after intracoronary papaverine (FFRpp)...
2017: Internal Medicine
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