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Facial expressions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444316/oxytocin-facilitates-reciprocity-in-social-communication
#1
Franny B Spengler, Dirk Scheele, Nina Marsh, Charlotte Kofferath, Aileen Flach, Sarah Schwarz, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Wolfgang Maier, René Hurlemann
Synchrony in social groups may confer significant evolutionary advantages by improving group cohesion and social interaction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms translating social synchrony into refined social information transmission between interacting individuals are still elusive. In two successively conducted experiments involving a total of 199 healthy volunteers, we explored the involvement of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in reciprocal social interaction. First, we show that synchronous social interactions evoke heightened endogenous OXT release in dyadic partners...
April 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444223/gene-organizer-linking-genes-to-the-organs-they-affect
#2
David Gokhman, Guy Kelman, Adir Amartely, Guy Gershon, Shira Tsur, Liran Carmel
One of the biggest challenges in studying how genes work is understanding their effect on the physiology and anatomy of the body. Existing tools try to address this using indirect features, such as expression levels and biochemical pathways. Here, we present Gene ORGANizer (geneorganizer.huji.ac.il), a phenotype-based tool that directly links human genes to the body parts they affect. It is built upon an exhaustive curated database that links >7000 genes to ∼150 anatomical parts using >150 000 gene-organ associations...
April 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442710/lsh-hells-regulates-self-renewal-proliferation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#3
Yixing Han, Jianke Ren, Eunice Lee, Xiaoping Xu, Weishi Yu, Kathrin Muegge
Epigenetic mechanisms are known to exert control over gene expression and determine cell fate. Genetic mutations in epigenetic regulators are responsible for several neurologic disorders. Mutations of the chromatin remodeling protein Lsh/HELLS can cause the human Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome, which is associated with neurologic deficiencies. We report here a critical role for Lsh in murine neural development. Lsh depleted neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) display reduced growth, increases in apoptosis and impaired ability of self-renewal...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442295/the-effects-of-repeated-nitroglycerin-administrations-in-rats-modeling-migraine-related-endpoints-and-chronification
#4
Hannah M Harris, Jessica M Carpenter, Jonathan R Black, Todd A Smitherman, Kenneth J Sufka
BACKGROUND: Rodent models typically use a single nitroglycerin injection to induce migraine, yet migraine in clinical populations presents as recurrent episodes. Further, these models quantify behavioral endpoints that do not align with the clinical features of episodic migraine or migraine chronification and therefore may limit translational relevance. NEW METHOD: Rats received 5 nitroglycerin (10mg/kg/2ml), propylene glycol/ethanol vehicle, or saline injections every third day over 15 days...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440577/variable-developmental-delays-and-characteristic-facial-features-a-novel-7p22-3p22-2-microdeletion-syndrome
#5
Andrea C Yu, Regina M Zambrano, Ingrid Cristian, Sue Price, Birgitta Bernhard, Marc Zucker, Sunita Venkateswaran, Jean McGowan-Jordan, Christine M Armour
Isolated 7p22.3p22.2 deletions are rarely described with only two reports in the literature. Most other reported cases either involve a much larger region of the 7p arm or have an additional copy number variation. Here, we report five patients with overlapping microdeletions at 7p22.3p22.2. The patients presented with variable developmental delays, exhibiting relative weaknesses in expressive language skills and relative strengths in gross, and fine motor skills. The most consistent facial features seen in these patients included a broad nasal root, a prominent forehead a prominent glabella and arched eyebrows...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439689/divergent-schwannoma-like-phenotype-in-a-pleomorphic-adenoma
#6
Srinivasa R Chandra, Farah Karim, Yeshwant B Rawal
The schwannoma-like pleomorphic adenoma is a rare histopathological variant of the pleomorphic adenoma. Five previous reports with seven cases exist in English language literature. These tumors present in the parotid gland most commonly. Intraparotid schwannomas of the facial nerve and schwannomas with glandular differentiation have also been reported. A 60-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic swelling over the left angle of the mandible. The swelling had been present for about 12 years with a recent increase in size...
April 24, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438673/infants-and-adults-have-similar-regional-functional-brain-organization-for-the-perception-of-emotions
#7
N Rotem-Kohavi, T F Oberlander, N Virji-Babul
An infant's ability to perceive emotional facial expressions is critical for developing social skills. Infants are tuned to faces from early in life, however the functional organization of the brain that supports the processing of emotional faces in infants is still not well understood. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) brain responses in 8-10 month old infants and adults and applied graph theory analysis on the functional connections to compare the network organization at the global and the regional levels underlying the perception of negative and positive dynamic facial expressions (happiness and sadness)...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438072/facial-expressions-as-performances-in-mime
#8
Mahsa Ershadi, Thalia R Goldstein, Joseph Pochedly, James A Russell
That facial expressions are universal emotion signals has been supported by observers agreeing on the emotion mimed by actors. We show that actors can mime a diverse range of states: emotions, cognitions, physical states, and actions. English, Hindi, and Malayalam speakers (N = 1200) viewed 25 video clips and indicated the state conveyed. Within each language, at least 23 of the 25 clips were recognised above chance and base rate. Facial expressions of emotions are not special in their recognisability, and it is miming that may be the universal human ability...
April 25, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434585/translating-dynamic-defense-patterns-from-rodents-to-people
#9
REVIEW
D Caroline Blanchard
Specific defensive behaviors of rodents are shaped by features of the eliciting threat stimuli and situation. Threat scenarios confirmed these relationships in people, with results substantially replicated in 4 additional scenario studies. Subsequent human studies involve computer games measuring fear as flight from threat stimuli and anxiety as alternation between two threats. Stabilometric studies have shown reduction in sway (freezing) to inescapable (e.g. with gun pointed at subject) threatening photographs; but enhanced lateral sway (flight attempts) to escapable threats; (gun pointed away from subject)...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434136/facial-expressions-and-speech-acts-experimental-evidences-on-the-role-of-the-upper-face-as-an-illocutionary-force-indicating-device-in-language-comprehension
#10
Filippo Domaneschi, Marcello Passarelli, Carlo Chiorri
Language scientists have broadly addressed the problem of explaining how language users recognize the kind of speech act performed by a speaker uttering a sentence in a particular context. They have done so by investigating the role played by the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs), i.e., all linguistic elements that indicate the illocutionary force of an utterance. The present work takes a first step in the direction of an experimental investigation of non-verbal IFIDs because it investigates the role played by facial expressions and, in particular, of upper-face action units (AUs) in the comprehension of three basic types of illocutionary force: assertions, questions, and orders...
April 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433950/an-electrocortical-investigation-of-emotional-face-processing-in-military-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Julia A DiGangi, Katie L Burkhouse, Darrin M Aase, Joseph M Babione, Christopher Schroth, Amy E Kennedy, Justin E Greenstein, Eric Proescher, K Luan Phan
PTSD is a disorder of emotion dysregulation. Although much work has intended to elucidate the neural underpinnings of the disorder, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates of emotion dysregulation in PTSD. In order to assess the relationship between a neural measure of attention to emotion (i.e. the late positive potential; LPP) and PTSD symptoms, EEG was recorded and examined as a potential predictor of military-related PTSD symptoms in a sample of 73 OEF/OIF/OND veterans. Results revealed that higher PTSD symptoms were related to an attenuated LPP response to angry facial expressions...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433401/relaxed-open-mouth-reciprocity-favours-playful-contacts-in-south-american-sea-lions-otaria-flavescens
#12
Clara Llamazares-Martín, Chiara Scopa, Federico Guillén-Salazar, Elisabetta Palagi
Fine-tuning communication is well documented in mammalian social play which relies on a large variety of specific and non-specific signals. Facial expressions are one of the most frequent patterns in play communication. The reciprocity of facial signals expressed by the players provides information on their reciprocal attentional state and on the correct perception/decoding of the signal itself. Here, for the first time, we explored the Relaxed Open Mouth (ROM), a widespread playful facial expression among mammals, in the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)...
April 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432866/shared-genetic-influences-among-childhood-shyness-social-competences-and-cortical-responses-to-emotions
#13
Marco Battaglia, Giorgia Michelini, Elettra Pezzica, Anna Ogliari, Corrado Fagnani, Maria-Antonietta Stazi, Eleonora Bertoletti, Simona Scaini
Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by facial expressions are useful to map socioemotional responses among shy children and to predict transition into social phobia. We investigated the sources of covariation among childhood shyness, social competences, and ERPs to other children's happy, neutral, and angry expressions. Electrophysiological and twin analyses examined the phenotypic and etiological association among an index of childhood shyness, an index of social competences, and ERP responses to facial expressions in 200 twins (mean age=9...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432314/the-effect-of-acute-social-stress-on-the-recognition-of-facial-expression-of-emotions
#14
Camille Daudelin-Peltier, Hélène Forget, Caroline Blais, Andréa Deschênes, Daniel Fiset
This study investigates the effect of acute social stress on the recognition of facial expression of emotions in healthy young men. Participants underwent both a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (TSST-G) and a control condition. Then, they performed a homemade version of the facial expressions megamix. All six basic emotions were included in the task. First, our results show a systematic increase in the intensity threshold for disgust following stress, meaning that the participants' performance with this emotion was impaired...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429707/the-human-amygdala-parametrically-encodes-the-intensity-of-specific-facial-emotions-and-their-categorical-ambiguity
#15
Shuo Wang, Rongjun Yu, J Michael Tyszka, Shanshan Zhen, Christopher Kovach, Sai Sun, Yi Huang, Rene Hurlemann, Ian B Ross, Jeffrey M Chung, Adam N Mamelak, Ralph Adolphs, Ueli Rutishauser
The human amygdala is a key structure for processing emotional facial expressions, but it remains unclear what aspects of emotion are processed. We investigated this question with three different approaches: behavioural analysis of 3 amygdala lesion patients, neuroimaging of 19 healthy adults, and single-neuron recordings in 9 neurosurgical patients. The lesion patients showed a shift in behavioural sensitivity to fear, and amygdala BOLD responses were modulated by both fear and emotion ambiguity (the uncertainty that a facial expression is categorized as fearful or happy)...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429376/daily-crying-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-older-adult-persons-living-in-nursing-homes-findings-from-a-regional-study
#16
Alvisa Palese, Arianna Simeoni, Antonio Ranieri Zuttion, Barbara Ferrario, Sandra Ponta, Elisa Ambrosi
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of nursing home (NH) resident crying and associated factors at the individual and NH levels. DESIGN: A regional retrospective study design has been used. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 8875 residents, living in 105 NHs, were included. MEASUREMENTS: The occurrence of an episode of crying on at least a daily basis in the last month was the dependent variable; independent variables were set at individual and at the NH levels as reported in the Val...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425838/attending-to-emotional-expressions-no-evidence-for-automatic-capture-in-the-dot-probe-task
#17
Swantje Puls, Klaus Rothermund
Research on automatic attention to emotional faces offers mixed results. Therefore we examined validity effects for facial expressions of different emotions (compared to neutral faces) with a dot-probe paradigm in seven studies (total N = 308). Systematic variations of type of emotion, CTI, task, cue size, and masking allow for a differentiated assessment of attentional capture by emotions and possible moderating factors. Results indicate a general absence of emotional validity effects as well as a lack of significant interactions with either of the manipulated factors, indicating that facial expressions of emotions do not capture attention in a fully automatic fashion...
April 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425760/polar-phase-indices-of-perioral-muscle-reciprocity-during-syllable-production-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Shin Ying Chu, Steven M Barlow, Jaehoon Lee, Jingyan Wang
PURPOSE: This research characterised perioral muscle reciprocity and amplitude ratio in lower lip during bilabial syllable production [pa] at three rates to understand the neuromotor dynamics and scaling of motor speech patterns in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHOD: Electromyographic (EMG) signals of the orbicularis oris superior [OOS], orbicularis oris inferior [OOI] and depressor labii inferioris [DLI] were recorded during syllable production and expressed as polar-phase notations...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423221/facial-asymmetry-in-head-and-neck-rhabdomyosarcoma-survivors
#19
Reineke A Schoot, Marinka L F Hol, Johannes H M Merks, Michael Suttie, Olga Slater, Marinde van Lennep, Saskia M J Hopman, David Dunaway, Jonathan Syme-Grant, Ludi E Smeele, Koos H Zwinderman, Huib N Caron, Peter Hammond
INTRODUCTION: Radiotherapy is essential for achieving and maintaining local control in head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma (HNRMS) patients. However, radiotherapy may cause outgrowth disturbances of facial bone and soft tissue, resulting in facial asymmetry. The aim of this study was to develop a method to visualize and measure facial asymmetry in HNRMS survivors using three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques. METHODS: Facial deformity was evaluated in a multidisciplinary clinical assessment of 75 HNRMS survivors, treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT, n = 26) or Ablative surgery, MOulage brachytherapy, and REconstruction (AMORE, n = 49)...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422994/the-sheep-grimace-scale-as-an-indicator-of-post-operative-distress-and-pain-in-laboratory-sheep
#20
C Häger, S Biernot, M Buettner, S Glage, L M Keubler, N Held, E M Bleich, K Otto, C W Müller, S Decker, S R Talbot, A Bleich
The EU Directive 2010/63/EU changed the requirements regarding the use of laboratory animals and raised important issues related to assessing the severity of all procedures undertaken on laboratory animals. However, quantifiable parameters to assess severity are rare, and improved assessment strategies need to be developed. Hence, a Sheep Grimace Scale (SGS) was herein established by observing and interpreting sheep facial expressions as a consequence of pain and distress following unilateral tibia osteotomy...
2017: PloS One
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