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Facial expressions and affect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337563/role-of-low-level-laser-therapy-added-to-facial-expression-exercises-in-patients-with-idiopathic-facial-bell-s-palsy
#1
Banu Ordahan, Ali Yavuz Karahan
The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy in conjunction with conventional facial exercise treatment on functional outcomes during the early recovery period in patients with facial paralysis. Forty-six patients (mean age 41 ± 9.7 years; 40 women and 6 men) were randomized into two groups. Patients in the first group received low-level laser treatment as well as facial exercise treatment, while patients in the second group participated in facial exercise intervention alone...
March 23, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334849/icf-specific-dnmt3b-dysfunction-interferes-with-intragenic-regulation-of-mrna-transcription-and-alternative-splicing
#2
Sole Gatto, Miriam Gagliardi, Monica Franzese, Sylwia Leppert, Mariarosaria Papa, Marco Cammisa, Giacomo Grillo, Guillame Velasco, Claire Francastel, Shir Toubiana, Maurizio D'Esposito, Claudia Angelini, Maria R Matarazzo
Hypomorphic mutations in DNA-methyltransferase DNMT3B cause majority of the rare disorder Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies syndrome cases (ICF1). By unspecified mechanisms, mutant-DNMT3B interferes with lymphoid-specific pathways resulting in immune response defects. Interestingly, recent findings report that DNMT3B shapes intragenic CpG-methylation of highly-transcribed genes. However, how the DNMT3B-dependent epigenetic network modulates transcription and whether ICF1-specific mutations impair this process remains unknown...
March 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332851/empathy-and-facial-expression-recognition-in-children-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-effects-of-stimulant-medication-on-empathic-skills-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Funda Gumustas, Ibrahim Yilmaz, Yasemin Yulaf, Sebla Gokce, Osman Sabuncuoglu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to healthy children and adolescents in terms of state and trait empathy and emotion expression recognition skills. The goal was also to determine whether there are changes in emotion recognition and empathy measures in children with ADHD after methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. METHODS: The research sample consisted of outpatient drug-naive children and adolescents between the age of 8 and 14 years (n = 65) with ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321290/in-your-face-startle-to-emotional-facial-expressions-depends-on-face-direction
#4
Ole Åsli, Henriette Michalsen, Morten Øvervoll
Although faces are often included in the broad category of emotional visual stimuli, the affective impact of different facial expressions is not well documented. The present experiment investigated startle electromyographic responses to pictures of neutral, happy, angry, and fearful facial expressions, with a frontal face direction (directed) and at a 45° angle to the left (averted). Results showed that emotional facial expressions interact with face direction to produce startle potentiation: Greater responses were found for angry expressions, compared with fear and neutrality, with directed faces...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302196/-association-between-intelligence-development-and-facial-expression-recognition-ability-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Ning Pan, Gui-Hua Wu, Ling Zhang, Ya-Fen Zhao, Han Guan, Cai-Juan Xu, Jin Jing, Yu Jin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of intelligence development, facial expression recognition ability, and the association between them in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: A total of 27 ASD children aged 6-16 years (ASD group, full intelligence quotient >70) and age- and gender-matched normally developed children (control group) were enrolled. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition and Chinese Static Facial Expression Photos were used for intelligence evaluation and facial expression recognition test...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299412/tdcs-application-over-the-stg-improves-the-ability-to-recognize-and-appreciate-elements-involved-in-humor-processing
#6
Mirella Manfredi, Alice Mado Proverbio, Ana Paula Gonçalves Donate, Sofia Macarini Gonçalves Vieira, William Edgar Comfort, Mariana De Araújo Andreoli, Paulo Sérgio Boggio
The superior temporal gyrus (STG) has been found to play a crucial role in the recognition of actions and facial expressions and may, therefore, be critical for the processing of humorous information. Here we investigated whether tDCS application to the STG would modulate the ability to recognize and appreciate the comic element in serious and comedic situations of misfortune. To this aim, the effects of different types of tDCS stimulation on the STG were analyzed during a task in which the participants were instructed to categorize various misfortunate situations as "comic" or "not comic"...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293537/a-rare-case-of-concomitant-sicca-keratopathy-and-ipsilateral-central-facial-palsy-in-wallenberg-s-dorsolateral-medullary-syndrome
#7
Deborah De Bruyn, Elisabeth Van Aken, Kristien Herman
Objective: To describe a patient with a right-sided supranuclear facial palsy and concomitant sicca keratopathy of the right eye following right-sided dorsolateral medullary infarction. Methods: Our patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic and neurologic examination including biomicroscopy, fundus examination, cranial nerve examination, Shirmer I test, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Results: A 61-year-old woman presented in emergency with a central facial nerve palsy on the right side and truncal ataxia...
2017: GMS Ophthalmology Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292217/influence-of-social-anxiety-on-recognition-memory-for-happy-and-angry-faces-comparison-between-own-and-other-race-faces
#8
Mariko Kikutani
The reported experiment investigated memory of unfamiliar faces and how it is influenced by race, facial expression, direction of gaze, and observers' level of social anxiety. Eighty- seven Japanese participants initially memorized images of Oriental and Caucasian faces displaying either happy or angry expressions with direct or averted gaze. They then saw the previously seen faces and additional distractor faces displaying neutral expressions, and judged if they had seen them before. Their level of social anxiety was measured with a questionnaire...
March 15, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276275/facial-affect-processing-in-social-anxiety-disorder-with-early-onset-evidence-of-an-intensity-amplification-bias
#9
Daniela Schwab, Anne Schienle
The present event-related potential (ERP) study investigated for the first time whether children with early-onset social anxiety disorder (SAD) process affective facial expressions of varying intensities differently than non-anxious controls. Participants were 15 SAD patients and 15 non-anxious controls (mean age of 9 years). They were presented with schematic faces displaying anger and happiness at four intensity levels (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%), as well as with neutral faces. ERPs in early and later time windows (P100, N170, late positivity), as well as affective ratings (valence and arousal) for the faces, were recorded...
March 9, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276052/perception-of-emotional-prosody-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
B Kis, N Guberina, M Kraemer, F Niklewski, I Dziobek, J Wiltfang, M Abdel-Hamid
OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with social conflicts. The purpose of this study was to explore domains of social cognition in adult patients with ADHD. METHODS: The assessment of social cognition was based on established neuropsychological tests: the Tübinger Affect Battery (TAB) for prosody and the Cambridge Behaviour Scale (CBS) for empathy. The performance of adults with ADHD (N = 28) was compared with the performance of a control group (N = 29) matched according to basic demographic variables...
March 9, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268815/differentiating-facial-incongruity-and-flatness-in-schizophrenia-using-structured-light-camera-data
#11
Talia Tron, Abraham Peled, Alexander Grinsphoon, Daphna Weinshall
Incongruity between emotional experience and its outwardly expression is one of the prominent symptoms in schizophrenia. Though widely reported and used in clinical evaluation, this symptom is inadequately defined in the literature and may be confused with mere affect flattening. In this study we used structured-light depth camera and dedicated software to automatically measure facial activity of schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals during an emotionally evocative task. We defined novel measures for the congruence of emotional experience and emotional expression and for Flat Affect, compared them between patients and controls, and examined their consistency with clinical evaluation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267761/the-perceptual-saliency-of-fearful-eyes-and-smiles-a-signal-detection-study
#12
Mahmoud Medhat Elsherif, Muhammet Ikbal Saban, Pia Rotshtein
Facial features differ in the amount of expressive information they convey. Specifically, eyes are argued to be essential for fear recognition, while smiles are crucial for recognising happy expressions. In three experiments, we tested whether expression modulates the perceptual saliency of diagnostic facial features and whether the feature's saliency depends on the face configuration. Participants were presented with masked facial features or noise at perceptual conscious threshold. The task was to indicate whether eyes (experiments 1-3A) or a mouth (experiment 3B) was present...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263638/training-the-face-strategic-practice-as-a-means-to-regulate-affect-induced-facial-muscle-contractions
#13
Julia Kozlik, Roland Neumann
Recently, it has been shown that the activation of affect-induced emotional reactions (i.e., manual approach/avoidance movements) can be modulated by strategic practice. The present study explored whether this modulation would also apply to affect-induced facial muscle contractions, which have been discussed to be relatively inflexibly linked to the processing of affective stimuli. In 2 experiments, participants conducted 2 different categorization tasks on positive and negative pictures of facial expressions (Experiment 1) or emotional scenes (Experiment 2) which were randomly framed in different colors...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227010/differentiating-facial-incongruity-and-flatness-in-schizophrenia-using-structured-light-camera-data
#14
Talia Tron, Abraham Peled, Alexander Grinsphoon, Daphna Weinshall, Talia Tron, Abraham Peled, Alexander Grinsphoon, Daphna Weinshall, Alexander Grinsphoon, Abraham Peled, Talia Tron
Incongruity between emotional experience and its outwardly expression is one of the prominent symptoms in schizophrenia. Though widely reported and used in clinical evaluation, this symptom is inadequately defined in the literature and may be confused with mere affect flattening. In this study we used structured-light depth camera and dedicated software to automatically measure facial activity of schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals during an emotionally evocative task. We defined novel measures for the congruence of emotional experience and emotional expression and for Flat Affect, compared them between patients and controls, and examined their consistency with clinical evaluation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214916/facial-expression-an-under-utilised-tool-for-the-assessment-of-welfare-in-mammals
#15
Kris A Descovich, Jennifer Wathan, Matthew C Leach, Hannah M Buchanan-Smith, Paul Flecknell, David Farningham, Sarah-Jane Vick
Animal welfare is a key issue for industries that use or impact upon animals. The accurate identification of welfare states is particularly relevant to the field of bioscience, where the 3Rs framework encourages refinement of experimental procedures involving animal models. The assessment and improvement of welfare states in animals is reliant on reliable and valid measurement tools. Behavioural measures (activity, attention, posture and vocalisation) are frequently used because they are immediate and non-invasive, however no single indicator can yield a complete picture of the internal state of an animal...
February 8, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211817/post-stroke-acquired-amusia-a-comparison-between-right-and-left-brain-hemispheric-damages
#16
Zahra Jafari, Mahdiye Esmaili, Ahmad Delbari, Masoud Mehrpour, Majid H Mohajerani
BACKGROUND: Although extensive research has been published about the emotional consequences of stroke, most studies have focused on emotional words, speech prosody, voices, or facial expressions. The emotional processing of musical excerpts following stroke has been relatively unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic stroke on the recognition of basic emotions in music. METHODS: Seventy persons, including 25 normal controls (NC), 25 persons with right brain damage (RBD) from stroke, and 20 persons with left brain damage (LBD) from stroke between the ages of 31-71 years were studied...
February 15, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208076/how-does-gaze-direction-affect-facial-processing-in-social-anxiety-an-erp-study
#17
Dan Li, Fengqiong Yu, Rong Ye, Xingui Chen, Xinhui Xie, Chunyan Zhu, Kai Wang
Previous behavioral studies have demonstrated an effect of eye gaze direction on the processing of emotional expressions in adults with social anxiety. However, specific brain responses to the interaction between gaze direction and facial expressions in social anxiety remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the time course of such interaction using event-related potentials (ERPs) in participants with social anxiety. High socially anxious individuals and low socially anxious individuals were asked to identify the gender of angry or neutral faces with direct or averted gaze while their behavioral performance and electrophysiological data were monitored...
May 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191653/generalized-hostile-interpretation-bias-regarding-facial-expressions-characteristic-of-pathological-aggressive-behavior
#18
Danique Smeijers, Mike Rinck, Erik Bulten, Thom van den Heuvel, Robbert-Jan Verkes
Individuals with aggression regulation disorders tend to attribute hostility to others in socially ambiguous situations. Previous research suggests that this "hostile attribution bias" is a powerful cause of aggression. Facial expressions form important cues in the appreciation of others' intentions. Furthermore, accurate processing of facial expressions is fundamental to normal socialization. However, research on interpretation biases in facial affect is limited. It is asserted that a hostile interpretation bias (HIB) is likely to be displayed by individuals with an antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and probably also with an intermittent explosive disorder (IED)...
February 12, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182445/state-dependent-alterations-in-inhibitory-control-and-emotional-face-identification-in-seasonal-affective-disorder
#19
Liv V Hjordt, Dea S Stenbæk, Kathrine Skak Madsen, Brenda Mc Mahon, Christian G Jensen, Martin Vestergaard, Ida Hageman, David Meder, Steen G Hasselbalch, Gitte M Knudsen
BACKGROUND: Depressed individuals often exhibit impaired inhibition to negative input and identification of positive stimuli, but it is unclear whether this is a state or trait feature. We here exploited a naturalistic model, namely individuals with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), to study this feature longitudinally. AIM: The goal of this study was to examine seasonal changes in inhibitory control and identification of emotional faces in individuals with SAD...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173998/emotion-perception-from-face-voice-and-touch-comparisons-and-convergence
#20
REVIEW
Annett Schirmer, Ralph Adolphs
Historically, research on emotion perception has focused on facial expressions, and findings from this modality have come to dominate our thinking about other modalities. Here we examine emotion perception through a wider lens by comparing facial with vocal and tactile processing. We review stimulus characteristics and ensuing behavioral and brain responses and show that audition and touch do not simply duplicate visual mechanisms. Each modality provides a distinct input channel and engages partly nonoverlapping neuroanatomical systems with different processing specializations (e...
March 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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