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Facial expressions and affect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107797/emotional-capture-by-fearful-expressions-varies-with-psychopathic-traits
#1
Saz P Ahmed, Sara Hodsoll, Polly Dalton, Catherine L Sebastian
Task-irrelevant emotional expressions are known to capture attention, with the extent of "emotional capture" varying with psychopathic traits in antisocial samples. We investigated whether this variation extends throughout the continuum of psychopathic traits (and co-occurring trait anxiety) in a community sample. Participants (N = 85) searched for a target face among facial distractors. As predicted, angry and fearful faces interfered with search, indicated by slower reaction times relative to neutral faces...
January 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099136/alexithymia-and-automatic-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-a-systematic-review
#2
Uta-Susan Donges, Thomas Suslow
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095998/the-feasibility-and-clinical-benefits-of-improving-facial-affect-recognition-impairments-in-schizophrenia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Natalie Bordon, Suzanne O'Rourke, Paul Hutton
BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with schizophrenia have significant difficulty accurately recognising emotions expressed by others. This may generate anomalous experiences which, if misinterpreted, could contribute to experiences of social defeat, psychotic symptoms and reduced social functioning. It remains unclear whether this impairment is responsive to non-pharmacological intervention, or what the effect of modifying it is. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether and to what extent facial affect recognition impairments can be improved by psychological intervention and, if so, whether this leads to improvements in psychotic symptoms and social functioning...
January 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091349/intranasal-oxytocin-increases-facial-expressivity-but-not-ratings-of-trustworthiness-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#4
J D Woolley, B Chuang, C Fussell, S Scherer, B Biagianti, D Fulford, D H Mathalon, S Vinogradov
BACKGROUND: Blunted facial affect is a common negative symptom of schizophrenia. Additionally, assessing the trustworthiness of faces is a social cognitive ability that is impaired in schizophrenia. Currently available pharmacological agents are ineffective at improving either of these symptoms, despite their clinical significance. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally to healthy individuals and shows promise in decreasing negative symptoms and enhancing social cognition in schizophrenia...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089714/effects-of-touch-on-emotional-face-processing-a-study-of-event-related-potentials-facial-emg-and-cardiac-activity
#5
M M Spapé, Ville Harjunen, N Ravaja
Being touched is known to affect emotion, and even a casual touch can elicit positive feelings and affinity. Psychophysiological studies have recently shown that tactile primes affect visual evoked potentials to emotional stimuli, suggesting altered affective stimulus processing. As, however, these studies approached emotion from a purely unidimensional perspective, it remains unclear whether touch biases emotional evaluation or a more general feature such as salience. Here, we investigated how simple tactile primes modulate event related potentials (ERPs), facial EMG and cardiac response to pictures of facial expressions of emotion...
January 12, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089707/understanding-infant-eating-behaviour-lessons-learned-from-observation
#6
REVIEW
Marion M Hetherington
Observations of human infants during feeding presents a rich source of data to identify the ways in which hunger, appetite and satiety are communicated in early life. Infants signal appetite through their interest or disinterest in food using a series of communication cues from rapid and transient facial expressions to subtle or potent gestures and bodily movements through to vocalisations and eventually speech. Even in the first days of life facial expressions in response to basic tastes are clearly demonstrated and shared between human infants, other primates and the rat...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079852/ichthyosiform-sarcoidosis-report-of-three-cases-from-japan-and-literature-review
#7
Takako Miura, Yasunobu Kato, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
Cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis present with various manifestations including specific and non-specific cutaneous lesions. Ichthyosiform sarcoidosis is a rare form of cutaneous sarcoidosis, presenting with asymptomatic, adherent, polygonal scales, mainly appearing on the lower limbs.  Ichthyosiform sarcoidosis has a predilection for dark-skinned races, and cases affecting Japanese patients have rarely been reported in English literature.  We herein describe three Japanese cases of ichthyosiform sarcoidosis on the lower limbs...
December 23, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079157/feeling-touched-emotional-modulation-of-somatosensory-potentials-to-interpersonal-touch
#8
N Ravaja, V Harjunen, I Ahmed, G Jacucci, M M Spapé
Although the previous studies have shown that an emotional context may alter touch processing, it is not clear how visual contextual information modulates the sensory signals, and at what levels does this modulation take place. Therefore, we investigated how a toucher's emotional expressions (anger, happiness, fear, and sadness) modulate touchee's somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in different temporal ranges. Participants were presented with tactile stimulation appearing to originate from expressive characters in virtual reality...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074573/structural-functional-and-clinical-characterization-of-a-novel-ptpn11-mutation-cluster-underlying-noonan-syndrome
#9
Luca Pannone, Gianfranco Bocchinfuso, Elisabetta Flex, Cesare Rossi, Giuseppina Baldassarre, Christina Lissewski, Francesca Pantaleoni, Federica Consoli, Francesca Lepri, Monia Magliozzi, Massimiliano Anselmi, Giovanni Sorge, Kadri Karaer, Goran Cuturilo, Alessandro Sartorio, Sigrid Tinschert, Maria Accadia, Maria C Digilio, Giuseppe Zampino, Alessandro De Luca, Hélène Cavé, Martin Zenker, Bruce D Gelb, Bruno Dallapiccola, Lorenzo Stella, Giovanni B Ferrero, Simone Martinelli, Marco Tartaglia
Germline mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2), cause Noonan syndrome (NS), a relatively common, clinically variable, multisystem disorder. Here, we report on the identification of five different PTPN11 missense changes affecting residues Leu(261) , Leu(262) and Arg(265) in 16 unrelated individuals with clinical diagnosis of NS or with features suggestive for this disorder, specifying a novel disease-causing mutation cluster. Expression of the mutant proteins in HEK293T cells documented their activating role on MAPK signaling...
January 10, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073433/misperceptions-and-parkinson-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Joseph H Friedman
Most of the neurobehavioral aspects of Parkinson's disease have been well established and studied, but many are not well known, and hardly studied. This article focuses on several behavioral abnormalities that are common, and frequently cause difficulty for the patient and family due to lack of recognition as part of the disease. While it is well known that L-Dopa dyskinesias are frequently not recognized or under appreciated by patients, a similar lack of recognition may affect the patient's own speech volume, where their center of gravity is located, whether they are tilted to one side, and their under-recognition of others' emotional displays...
January 4, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070119/ocd-like-behavior-is-caused-by-dysfunction-of-thalamo-amygdala-circuits-and-upregulated-trkb-erk-mapk-signaling-as-a-result-of-spred2-deficiency
#11
M Ullrich, M Weber, A M Post, S Popp, J Grein, M Zechner, H Guerrero González, A Kreis, A G Schmitt, N Üçeyler, K-P Lesch, K Schuh
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disease affecting about 2% of the general population. It is characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors. While gene variations, malfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits, and dysregulated synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that OCD-like behavior in mice is caused by deficiency of SPRED2, a protein expressed in various brain regions and a potent inhibitor of Ras/ERK-MAPK signaling...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069095/deficits-in-social-cognition-an-unveiled-signature-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Moussa A Chalah, Samar S Ayache
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, representing the primary cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults. Cognitive dysfunction can affect patients at any time during the disease process and might alter the six core functional domains. Social cognition is a multi-component construct that includes the theory of mind, empathy and social perception of emotions from facial, bodily and vocal cues...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056872/a-limb-girdle-myopathy-phenotype-of-runx2-mutation-in-a-patient-with-cleidocranial-dysplasia-a-case-study-and-literature-review
#13
Sung-Ju Hsueh, Ni-Chung Lee, Shu-Hua Yang, Han-I Lin, Chin-Hsien Lin
BACKGROUND: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare hereditary disorder that arises from heterozygous loss of function mutations in the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene. As RUNX2 is mainly expressed in osteoblasts, CCD typically affects the skeletal and dental systems. Few studies have investigated RUNX2 mutation effects on non-skeletal systems. Here, we describe limb-girdle myopathy, an uncommon phenotype of CCD, in a patient with a heterozygous missense mutation (p.R225Q) in the RUNX2 gene...
January 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056378/maternal-gaze-to-the-infant-face-effects-of-infant-age-and-facial-configuration-during-mother-infant-engagement-in-the-first-nine-weeks
#14
Leonardo De Pascalis, Natalie Kkeli, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Louise Dalton, Kyla Vaillancourt, Holly Rayson, Sarah Bicknell, Tim Goodacre, Peter Cooper, Alan Stein, Lynne Murray
BACKGROUND: Adult gaze plays an important role in early infant development, and infants are highly sensitive to its presence and direction. Little is known, however, about how adults look at infants while interacting with them. Using eye-tracking technology, this study investigated maternal gaze during naturalistic interactions, and how it was influenced by infant age, focusing on the transition from the first to the second month when social expressiveness emerges, and by infant facial configuration, focusing on the effect of cleft lip...
January 2, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040801/the-influence-of-music-on-facial-emotion-recognition-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurotypical-children
#15
Laura S Brown
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often struggle with social skills, including the ability to perceive emotions based on facial expressions. Research evidence suggests that many individuals with ASD can perceive emotion in music. Examining whether music can be used to enhance recognition of facial emotion by children with ASD would inform development of music therapy interventions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of music with a strong emotional valance (happy; sad) on children with ASD's ability to label emotions depicted in facial photographs, and their response time...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Music Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032454/who-s-my-little-monkey-effects-of-infant-directed-speech-on-visual-retention-in-infant-rhesus-macaques
#16
Emily M Slonecker, Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Annika Paukner
Both human and nonhuman primate adults use infant-directed facial and vocal expressions across many contexts when interacting with infants (e.g., feeding, playing). This infant-oriented style of communication, known as infant-directed speech (IDS), seems to benefit human infants in numerous ways, including facilitating language acquisition. Given the variety of contexts in which adults use IDS, we hypothesized that IDS supports learning beyond the linguistic domain and that these benefits may extend to nonhuman primates...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017373/mutations-in-ebf3-disturb-transcriptional-profiles-and-cause-intellectual-disability-ataxia-and-facial-dysmorphism
#17
Frederike Leonie Harms, Katta M Girisha, Andrew A Hardigan, Fanny Kortüm, Anju Shukla, Malik Alawi, Ashwin Dalal, Lauren Brady, Mark Tarnopolsky, Lynne M Bird, Sophia Ceulemans, Martina Bebin, Kevin M Bowling, Susan M Hiatt, Edward J Lose, Michelle Primiano, Wendy K Chung, Jane Juusola, Zeynep C Akdemir, Matthew Bainbridge, Wu-Lin Charng, Margaret Drummond-Borg, Mohammad K Eldomery, Ayman W El-Hattab, Mohammed A M Saleh, Stéphane Bézieau, Benjamin Cogné, Bertrand Isidor, Sébastien Küry, James R Lupski, Richard M Myers, Gregory M Cooper, Kerstin Kutsche
From a GeneMatcher-enabled international collaboration, we identified ten individuals affected by intellectual disability, speech delay, ataxia, and facial dysmorphism and carrying a deleterious EBF3 variant detected by whole-exome sequencing. One 9-bp duplication and one splice-site, five missense, and two nonsense variants in EBF3 were found; the mutations occurred de novo in eight individuals, and the missense variant c.625C>T (p.Arg209Trp) was inherited by two affected siblings from their healthy mother, who is mosaic...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011182/dynamic-facial-asymmetry-in-patients-with-repaired-cleft-lip-using-4d-imaging-video-stereophotogrammetry
#18
Rami R Hallac, Jennifer Feng, Alex A Kane, James R Seaward
BACKGROUND: Unilateral cleft lip is a profoundly asymmetrical condition affecting all hard and soft tissue layers from the nose to the upper lip. Although the asymmetry is minimized through cleft lip repair, a degree of asymmetry inevitably persists. Studies investigating asymmetry in patients with cleft lip have used facial measurements, and static 2D and 3D photography. The nose/lip/mouth area, however, is rarely static in our day to day social interactions. METHODS: Non-syndromic patients with cleft lip and palate, and a control group without orofacial clefts underwent 50 frames per second 4D imaging while generating facial expressions including smiling and pouting...
January 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008076/is-neutral-really-neutral-converging-evidence-from-behavior-and-corticolimbic-connectivity-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
Hilary A Marusak, Clara Zundel, Suzanne Brown, Christine A Rabinak, Moriah E Thomason
Individuals differ in their tendency to perceive negativity in ambiguous situations or facial expressions. Prior research demonstrates that this so-called "negativity bias" is exaggerated in children; for instance, when they rate the emotional content of neutral facial expressions. However, neutral faces are frequently used as a baseline condition in pediatric emotion processing studies, as they are thought to be emotionally neutral. Here, we present data that challenge that notion. We demonstrate that children and adolescents rate neutral faces, particularly of adults, as negative, similar to ratings elicited by angry faces...
December 21, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007464/proneness-to-aggression-and-its-inhibition-in-schizophrenia-interconnections-between-personality-traits-cognitive-function-and-emotional-processing
#20
Menahem I Krakowski, Pal Czobor
OBJECTIVE: Research on aggression in schizophrenia has focused on narrowly defined deficits, while ignoring interconnections among these impairments which provide better explanatory power. Our goal was to investigate interrelations among impairments in important domains related to aggression: personality traits, including psychopathy and impulsivity, cognition and processing of emotions. METHOD: 34 healthy controls, 37 high aggression (HAG) and 31 low aggression (LAG) patients with schizophrenia participated...
December 19, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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