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Facial expressions and affect

Youn Hee Jee, Nadine Sowada, Thomas C Markello, Iraj Rezvani, Guntram Borck, Jeffrey Baron
Linear growth failure can be caused by many different genetic abnormalities. In many cases, the genetic defect affects not only the growth plate, causing short stature, but also other organs/tissues causing additional clinical abnormalities. The proband was evaluated at 10 years of age for impaired postnatal linear growth (height 113.3 cm, -4.6 SDS), a bone age that was delayed by 5 years, dysmorphic facies, cognitive impairment, and central nervous system anomalies. His younger brother, presented only with growth failure at 10 months of age...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Jürgen Keller, Johanna Heimrath, Ingo Uttner, Jan Kassubek, Niels Birbaumer, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily impairs motor abilities but also affects cognition and emotional processing. We hypothesise that subjective ratings of emotional stimuli depicting social interactions and facial expressions is changed in ALS. It was found that recognition of negative emotions and ability to mentalize other's intentions is reduced. METHODS: Processing of emotions in faces was investigated. A behavioural test of Ekman faces expressing six basic emotions was presented to 30 ALS patients and 29 age-, gender and education matched healthy controls...
2016: PloS One
Alon Peled, Ofer Sarig, Liat Samuelov, Marta Bertolini, Limor Ziv, Daphna Weissglas-Volkov, Marina Eskin-Schwartz, Christopher A Adase, Natalia Malchin, Ron Bochner, Gilad Fainberg, Ilan Goldberg, Koji Sugawara, Avital Baniel, Daisuke Tsuruta, Chen Luxenburg, Noam Adir, Olivier Duverger, Maria Morasso, Stavit Shalev, Richard L Gallo, Noam Shomron, Ralf Paus, Eli Sprecher
Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias (EDs), the molecular basis of many of these disorders remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of a new form of ED featuring facial dysmorphism, scalp hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified 2 frameshift and 2 missense mutations in TSPEAR segregating with the disease phenotype in 3 families. TSPEAR encodes the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and EAR repeats (TSPEAR) protein, whose function is poorly understood...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
César F Lima, Olivia Brancatisano, Amy Fancourt, Daniel Müllensiefen, Sophie K Scott, Jason D Warren, Lauren Stewart
Some individuals show a congenital deficit for music processing despite normal peripheral auditory processing, cognitive functioning, and music exposure. This condition, termed congenital amusia, is typically approached regarding its profile of musical and pitch difficulties. Here, we examine whether amusia also affects socio-emotional processing, probing auditory and visual domains. Thirteen adults with amusia and 11 controls completed two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants judged emotions in emotional speech prosody, nonverbal vocalizations (e...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Noga S Ensenberg, Anat Perry, Hillel Aviezer
Although we encounter numerous expressive faces on a daily basis, those that are not aimed at us will often be disregarded. Facial expressions aimed at our direction appear far more relevant and evoke an engaging affective experience, while the exact same expressions aimed away from us may not. While the importance of expression directionality is intuitive and commonplace, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. In the current study we measured EEG mu rhythm suppression, an established measure of mirror neuron activity, while participants viewed short video clips of dynamic facial expressions...
October 8, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Maryam Ziaei, Hana Burianová, William von Hippel, Natalie C Ebner, Louise H Phillips, Julie D Henry
Normal adult aging is associated with difficulties in processing social cues to emotions such as anger and also altered motivation to focus more on positive than negative information. Gaze direction is an important modifier of the social signals conveyed by an emotion, for example, an angry face looking directly at you is considerably more threatening than an angry face looking away. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that older adults would show less neural differentiation to angry faces with direct and avert gaze compared to younger people, with the opposite prediction for happy faces...
September 6, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Mauro S Porcel de Peralta, Valeria S Mouguelar, María Antonella Sdrigotti, Felipe A A Ishiy, Roberto D Fanganiello, Maria R Passos-Bueno, Gabriela Coux, Nora B Calcaterra
Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS) is a rare congenital disease (1:50 000 live births) characterized by craniofacial defects, including hypoplasia of facial bones, cleft palate and palpebral fissures. Over 90% of the cases are due to mutations in the TCOF1 gene, which codifies the nucleolar protein Treacle. Here we report a novel TCS-like zebrafish model displaying features that fully recapitulate the spectrum of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients. As it was reported for a Tcof1(+/-) mouse model, Treacle depletion in zebrafish caused reduced rRNA transcription, stabilization of Tp53 and increased cell death in the cephalic region...
October 6, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Kyungsoo Ha, Yiping Shen, Tyler Graves, Cheol-Hee Kim, Hyung-Goo Kim
BACKGROUND: 1q21 microdeletion syndrome is a rare contiguous gene deletion disorder with de novo or autosomal dominant inheritance patterns and its phenotypic features include intellectual disability, distinctive facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, cardiac abnormalities, and cataracts. MECP2 duplication syndrome is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, global developmental delay, and other neurological complications including late-onset seizures...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Matthias J Wieser, Vladimir Miskovic, Andreas Keil
Like many other primates, humans place a high premium on social information transmission and processing. One important aspect of this information concerns the emotional state of other individuals, conveyed by distinct visual cues such as facial expressions, overt actions, or by cues extracted from the situational context. A rich body of theoretical and empirical work has demonstrated that these socioemotional cues are processed by the human visual system in a prioritized fashion, in the service of optimizing social behavior...
October 4, 2016: Psychophysiology
Fabien D'Hondt, Maryse Lassonde, Fanny Thebault-Dagher, Annie Bernier, Jocelyn Gravel, Phetsamone Vannasing, Miriam H Beauchamp
Evidence suggests that social skills are affected by childhood mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but the neural and affective substrates of these difficulties are still underexplored. In particular, nothing is known about consequences on the perception of emotional facial expressions, despite its critical role in social interactions and the importance of the preschool period in the development of this ability. This study thus aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of emotional facial expressions processing after early mTBI...
October 4, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Nancy Lee, Carolyn E Rydyznski, Matthew S Rasch, Dennis S Trinh, A John MacLennan
Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration promotes the survival of motor neurons in a wide range of models. It also increases the expression of the critical neurotransmitter enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), by in vitro motor neurons, likely independent of its effects on their survival. We have used the adult mouse facial nerve crush model and adult onset conditional disruption of the CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα) gene to directly examine the in vivo roles played by endogenous CNTF receptors in adult motor neuron survival and ChAT maintenance, independent of developmental functions...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
M J Guesgen, N J Beausoleil, M Leach, E O Minot, M Stewart, K J Stafford
Facial expressions are routinely used to assess pain in humans, particularly those who are non-verbal. Recently, there has been an interest in developing coding systems for facial grimacing in non-human animals, such as rodents, rabbits, horses and sheep. The aims of this preliminary study were to: 1. Qualitatively identify facial feature changes in lambs experiencing pain as a result of tail-docking and compile these changes to create a Lamb Grimace Scale (LGS); 2. Determine whether human observers can use the LGS to differentiate tail-docked lambs from control lambs and differentiate lambs before and after docking; 3...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Martin J Herrmann, Dorothea Neueder, Anna K Troeller, Stefan M Schulz
Emotional processing is probably the most crucial tool for orienting oneself in our everyday social life and has been considered to be highly automatic for a long time. Dual task (DT) research shows that information competing for working memory resources impairs the identification of emotional facial expressions. Effects of cognitive load in DT paradigms have been confirmed in numerous neuroimaging studies. However, interference occurring during a DT comprised of decoding emotional facial expressions and a visuo-spatial working memory task has yet to be visualized...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Per O Folgerø, Lasse Hodne, Christer Johansson, Alf E Andresen, Lill C Sætren, Karsten Specht, Øystein O Skaar, Rolf Reber
This article explores the possibility of testing hypotheses about art production in the past by collecting data in the present. We call this enterprise "experimental art history". Why did medieval artists prefer to paint Christ with his face directed towards the beholder, while profane faces were noticeably more often painted in different degrees of profile? Is a preference for frontal faces motivated by deeper evolutionary and biological considerations? Head and gaze direction is a significant factor for detecting the intentions of others, and accurate detection of gaze direction depends on strong contrast between a dark iris and a bright sclera, a combination that is only found in humans among the primates...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Natalia Chechko, Thilo Kellermann, Marc Augustin, Michael Zvyagintsev, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are both associated with abnormalities in the regulation of emotion, with BPD being highly comorbid with MDD. Disorder-specific dysfunctions in BPD, however, have hardly been addressed, hence the lack of knowledge pertaining to the specificity of emotion processing deficits and their commonality with MDD. 24 healthy comparison subjects, 21 patients with MDD, and 13 patients with comorbid BPD and MDD (BPD + MDD group) were studied using functional MRI...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ajay B Satpute, Erik C Nook, Sandhya Narayanan, Jocelyn Shu, Jochen Weber, Kevin N Ochsner
The demands of social life often require categorically judging whether someone's continuously varying facial movements express "calm" or "fear," or whether one's fluctuating internal states mean one feels "good" or "bad." In two studies, we asked whether this kind of categorical, "black and white," thinking can shape the perception and neural representation of emotion. Using psychometric and neuroimaging methods, we found that (a) across participants, judging emotions using a categorical, "black and white" scale relative to judging emotions using a continuous, "shades of gray," scale shifted subjective emotion perception thresholds; (b) these shifts corresponded with activity in brain regions previously associated with affective responding (i...
September 26, 2016: Psychological Science
Mihriban Dalkıran, Akif Tasdemir, Tamer Salihoglu, Murat Emul, Alaattin Duran, Mufit Ugur, Ruhi Yavuz
People with schizophrenia have impairments in emotion recognition along with other social cognitive deficits. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the immediate benefits of ECT on facial emotion recognition ability. Thirty-two treatment resistant patients with schizophrenia who have been indicated for ECT enrolled in the study. Facial emotion stimuli were a set of 56 photographs that depicted seven basic emotions: sadness, anger, happiness, disgust, surprise, fear, and neutral faces. The average age of the participants was 33...
September 23, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
Riccardo Paracampo, Emmanuele Tidoni, Sara Borgomaneri, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Alessio Avenanti
Understanding whether another's smile reflects authentic amusement is a key challenge in social life, yet, the neural bases of this ability have been largely unexplored. Here, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a novel empathic accuracy (EA) task to test whether sensorimotor and mentalizing networks are critical for understanding another's amusement. Participants were presented with dynamic displays of smiles and explicitly requested to infer whether the smiling individual was feeling authentic amusement or not...
September 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Doerte Simon, Michael Becker, Martin Mothes-Lasch, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Thomas Straube
Angry expressions of both voices and faces represent disorder-relevant stimuli in SAD. While individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) show greater amygdala activation to angry faces, previous work has failed to find comparable effects for angry voices. Here, we investigated whether voice sound-intensity, a modulator of a voice's threat-relevance, affects brain responses to angry prosody in SAD. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore brain responses to voices varying in sound intensity and emotional prosody in SAD patients and healthy controls (HC)...
September 20, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Lucie Rigaill, Andrew J J MacIntosh, James P Higham, Sandra Winters, Keiko Shimizu, Keiko Mouri, Takafumi Suzumura, Takeshi Furuichi, Cécile Garcia
Studies of the role of secondary sexual ornaments in mate choice tend to focus on colorful traits in males, but females of many animal species express colorful ornamentation too. Among non-human primates, investigations into the role of female secondary sexual traits as indicators of life history characteristics, reproductive success, and health status have mostly focused on sexual swellings, whereas only few studies have been conducted on the role of facial color. Recent studies on rhesus macaques and mandrills suggested that female ornamentation might provide information about female life history characteristics, but not on disease resistance factors and parasite infection, which have been shown to affect male ornamentation in some non-primate species...
September 19, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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