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Facial expressions and affect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353533/recognition-of-emotional-facial-expressions-in-benzodiazepine-dependence-and-detoxification
#1
Natasza Żurowska, Agnieszka Kałwa, Krystyna Rymarczyk, Bogusław Habrat
INTRODUCTION: The study investigates how benzodiazepine (BZD) use and detoxification affects empathy and the recognition and intensity rating of emotional facial expressions. The sample comprised 43 participants in three groups: (1) during detoxification (N = 13), (2) after detoxification (N = 15), (3) a matched control group (N = 15). Clinical subjects were recruited from in-patients of an addiction treatment unit. METHODS: Empathy levels were tested with the Empathy Quotient (EQ-Short)...
January 21, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343932/effects-of-multimodal-mandala-yoga-on-social-and-emotional-skills-for-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-exploratory-study
#2
Lyn Gorbett Litchke, Ting Liu, Stephanie Castro
Context: Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrates impairment in the ability to socially and emotionally relate to others that can limit participation in groups, interaction with peers, and building successful life relationships. Aims: The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a novel multimodal Mandala yoga program on social and emotional skills for youth with ASD. Subjects and Methods: Five males with ASD attended 1 h yoga sessions, twice a week for 4 weeks...
January 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343162/psychopathy-and-victim-selection-does-nonverbal-decoding-or-empathy-impact-vulnerability-ratings
#3
Julia L Denardo Roney, Diana M Falkenbach, Olivia Aveson
This research examined the role of psychopathic traits in perceptions of victimization and vulnerability. Community-member participants viewed video clips of victims, nonvictims, and victims who studied self-defense, then rated them on vulnerability and perceived history of victimization. Participants were most proficient at identifying nonvictims as nonvictims. Victims who studied self-defense were harder to correctly identify than both victims and nonvictims and were rated by participants as less vulnerable and less likely to be victims than other victims and nonvictims...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340941/internal-medicine-residents-attitudes-toward-simulated-depressed-cardiac-patients-during-an-objective-structured-clinical-examination-a-randomized-study
#4
Kathleen Crapanzano, Dixie Fisher, Rebecca Hammarlund, Eric P Hsieh, Win May
BACKGROUND: Physician biases toward mental conditions such as depression have been shown to adversely affect medical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between residents' explicit bias toward depressed patients and their clinical skills on a cardiac case during an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE). DESIGN: Prospective parallel randomized controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-five internal medicine residents from three residency programs in two states...
January 16, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337143/the-role-of-hedgehog-responsive-fibroblasts-in-facial-nerve-regeneration
#5
Gabriela L Bobarnac Dogaru, Subhash C Juneja, Alireza Shokrani, Roseanne Y Hui, Yang Chai, Jon-Paul Pepper
BACKGROUND: Facial nerve paralysis is a significant cause of morbidity, affecting facial appearance, emotional expression, speech, oral competence, and vision. A more complete understanding of the complex cellular events required for successful nerve regeneration may reveal new therapeutic targets. The role of fibroblasts in regeneration, and the process by which the nerve reforms its three-dimensional structure after a transection injury, are not fully understood. The Hedgehog signaling pathway has been shown to mediate nerve sheath formation during development...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334821/development-and-validation-of-a-facial-expression-database-based-on-the-dimensional-and-categorical-model-of-emotions
#6
Tomomi Fujimura, Hiroyuki Umemura
The present study describes the development and validation of a facial expression database comprising five different horizontal face angles in dynamic and static presentations. The database includes twelve expression types portrayed by eight Japanese models. This database was inspired by the dimensional and categorical model of emotions: surprise, fear, sadness, anger with open mouth, anger with closed mouth, disgust with open mouth, disgust with closed mouth, excitement, happiness, relaxation, sleepiness, and neutral (static only)...
January 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331850/attentional-biases-in-patients-suffering-from-unipolar-depression-results-of-a-dot-probe-task-investigation
#7
Wolfgang Trapp, Christoph Kalzendorf, Corinna Baum, Göran Hajak, Stefan Lautenbacher
Cognitive models of depression emphasize the relevance of cognitive biases for development, onset and maintenance of major depressive disorder (MDD). Attentional biases consisting of increased attention to negative, mood congruent stimuli and reduced attention to positive, mood-incongruent stimuli are postulated but have rarely been tested for early attentional processing. Furthermore, the role of concurrent depressive mood as a moderating factor has not been studied to date. Participants comprised 30 patients suffering from MDD and 30 healthy control subjects...
January 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331693/disease-management-apps-and-technical-assistance-systems-for-bipolar-disorder-investigating-the-patients%C3%A2-point-of-view
#8
Henning Daus, Natalia Kislicyn, Stephan Heuer, Matthias Backenstrass
BACKGROUND: Smartphone-based disease management has become increasingly interesting for research in the field of bipolar disorders. This article investigates the attitudes of persons affected by this disorder towards the appropriation of mobile apps or assistance systems for the management of their disease. METHODS: We conducted two separate studies. Study 1 was an online survey with 88 participants. In study 2 we consulted 15 participants during a semi-structured interview...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330949/functional-morphology-of-mimetic-musculature-in-primates-how-social-variables-and-body-size-stack-up-to-phylogeny
#9
Anne M Burrows
Mammalian skeletal muscle is influenced by the functional demands placed upon it. Functional morphology of facial expression musculature, or mimetic musculature, is largely unknown. Recently, primate mimetic musculature has been shown to respond to demands associated with social factors. Body size has also been demonstrated to affect many aspects of primate functional morphology and evolutionary morphology. The present study was designed to further examine the role of social variables and body size in influencing the morphology of primate mimetic musculature using a broad phylogenetic range of primates, primates with varying body sizes, and those that exploit differing time of day activity cycles and social group sizes...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330632/inate-immunity-in-rosacea-langerhans-cells-plasmacytoid-dentritic-cells-toll-like-receptors-and-inducible-oxide-nitric-synthase-inos-expression-in-skin-specimens-case-control-study
#10
Ana Karina Alves Moura, Fernanda Guedes, Maria Cecília Rivitti-Machado, Mirian N Sotto
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition with predominant facial involvement. Because of that, many patients sense that rosacea affects quality of life. The etiology of rosacea remains unknown. Recent studies have suggested that aberrant innate immunity is central to this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of Langerhans cells, plasmacytoid dentritic cells (PDC), the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and inducible oxide nitric synthase (iNOS) in skin of patients with rosacea, to highlight the participation of innate immunity in its pathogenesis...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322580/a-study-of-environmental-factors-affecting-nurses-comfort-and-protection-in-wearing-n95-respirators-during-bedside-procedures
#11
P P L Or, J W Y Chung, T K S Wong
AIM: To investigate room temperature and relative humidity affecting nurses' comfort and protection in wearing N95 respirators during clinical bedside procedures. BACKGROUND: N95 respirators are most commonly used to protect healthcare workers against airborne diseases. The elastic head straps required for tight fit may cause headache, facial pain and/or ear lobe discomfort. Although some past fit test results showed that these respirators are likely to fit comfortably, in reality any discomfort from use may influence negatively their appeal and acceptability and thus lower their effectiveness to protect the wearers...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321533/increased-heart-rate-after-exercise-facilitates-the-processing-of-fearful-but-not-disgusted-faces
#12
G Pezzulo, P Iodice, L Barca, P Chausse, S Monceau, M Mermillod
Embodied theories of emotion assume that emotional processing is grounded in bodily and affective processes. Accordingly, the perception of an emotion re-enacts congruent sensory and affective states; and conversely, bodily states congruent with a specific emotion facilitate emotional processing. This study tests whether the ability to process facial expressions (faces having a neutral expression, expressing fear, or disgust) can be influenced by making the participants' body state congruent with the expressed emotion (e...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321532/neural-measures-of-the-role-of-affective-prosody-in-empathy-for-pain
#13
Federica Meconi, Mattia Doro, Arianna Schiano Lomoriello, Giulia Mastrella, Paola Sessa
Emotional communication often needs the integration of affective prosodic and semantic components from speech and the speaker's facial expression. Affective prosody may have a special role by virtue of its dual-nature; pre-verbal on one side and accompanying semantic content on the other. This consideration led us to hypothesize that it could act transversely, encompassing a wide temporal window involving the processing of facial expressions and semantic content expressed by the speaker. This would allow powerful communication in contexts of potential urgency such as witnessing the speaker's physical pain...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285879/autonomic-and-subjective-responsivity-to-emotional-images-in-people-with-dissociative-seizures
#14
Susannah Pick, John D C Mellers, Laura H Goldstein
People with dissociative seizures (DS) report a range of difficulties in emotional functioning and exhibit altered responding to emotional facial expressions in experimental tasks. We extended this research by investigating subjective and autonomic reactivity (ratings of emotional valence, arousal and skin conductance responses, and SCRs) to general emotional images in 39 people with DS relative to 42 healthy control participants, whilst controlling for anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning and, where relevant, medication use...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283103/a-view-of-the-therapy-for-bell-s-palsy-based-on-molecular-biological-analyses-of-facial-muscles
#15
Hiroshi Moriyama, Nobuyuki Mitsukawa, Masahiro Itoh, Naruhito Otsuka
OBJECTIVE: Details regarding the molecular biological features of Bell's palsy have not been widely reported in textbooks. We genetically analyzed facial muscles and clarified these points. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed genetic analysis of facial muscle specimens from Japanese patients with severe (House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system V) and moderate (House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system III) dysfunction due to Bell's palsy. Microarray analysis of gene expression was performed using specimens from the healthy and affected sides, and gene expression was compared...
December 14, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247161/association-between-neuroticism-and-emotional-face-processing
#16
Silke Klamer, Lena Schwarz, Oliver Krüger, Katharina Koch, Michael Erb, Klaus Scheffler, Thomas Ethofer
Neuroticism is one of the "Big Five" personality factors and is characterized by a tendency to experience negative affect. We aimed to investigate how neuroticism influences the neural correlates for processing of emotional facial expressions. 68 healthy participants were presented with emotional dynamic facial stimuli, i.e. happy, neutral or angry, during functional MRI. Brain activations for the contrasts emotional vs. neutral, happy vs. neutral and angry vs. neutral were correlated with individuals' neuroticism scores as obtained by the NEO Five Factor Inventory questionnaire and additionally investigated for gender differences...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246845/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-explicit-and-incidental-processing-of-facial-emotional-expressions-a-study-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#17
Chiara Ferrari, Viola Oldrati, Marcello Gallucci, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
Growing evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays a critical role in non-motor functions, contributing to cognitive and affective processing. In particular, the cerebellum might represent an important node of the "limbic" network, underlying not only emotion regulation but also emotion perception and recognition. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed further light on the role of the cerebellum in emotional perception by specifically testing cerebellar contribution to explicit and incidental emotional processing...
December 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245003/a-quantitative-assessment-of-lip-movements-in-different-facial-expressions-through-3-dimensional-on-3-dimensional-superimposition-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Daniele Gibelli, Marina Codari, Valentina Pucciarelli, Claudia Dolci, Chiarella Sforza
PURPOSE: The quantitative assessment of facial modifications from mimicry is of relevant interest for the rehabilitation of patients who can no longer produce facial expressions. This study investigated a novel application of 3-dimensional on 3-dimensional superimposition for facial mimicry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on 10 men 30 to 40 years old who underwent stereophotogrammetry for neutral, happy, sad, and angry expressions. Registration of facial expressions on the neutral expression was performed...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225467/altered-emotional-recognition-and-expression-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Yazhou Jin, Zhiqi Mao, Zhipei Ling, Xin Xu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Xinguang Yu
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibit deficits in emotional recognition and expression abilities, including emotional faces and voices. The aim of this study was to explore emotional processing in pre-deep brain stimulation (pre-DBS) PD patients using two sensory modalities (visual and auditory). Methods: Fifteen PD patients who needed DBS surgery and 15 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls were recruited as participants. All participants were assessed by the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces database 50 Faces Recognition test...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223635/three-dimensional-superimposition-for-patients-with-facial-palsy-an-innovative-method-for-assessing-the-success-of-facial-reanimation-procedures
#20
C Sforza, E Ulaj, D M Gibelli, F Allevi, V Pucciarelli, F Tarabbia, D Ciprandi, G Dell'Aversana Orabona, C Dolci, F Biglioli
Facial palsy is a severe condition that may be ameliorated by facial reanimation, but there is no consensus about how to judge its success. In this study we aimed to test a new method for assessing facial movements based on 3-dimensional analysis of the facial surfaces. Eleven patients aged between 42 and 77 years who had recently been affected by facial palsy (onset between 6 and 18 months) were treated by an operation based on triple innervation: the masseteric to temporofacial nerve branch, 30% of the hypoglossal fibres to the cervicofacial nerve branch, and the contralateral facial nerve through two cross-face sural nerve grafts...
January 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
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