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Facial expressions and affect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778050/the-association-between-ptsd-and-facial-affect-recognition
#1
Christian L Williams, Melissa E Milanak, Matt R Judah, Howard Berenbaum
The major aims of this study were to examine how, if at all, having higher levels of PTSD would be associated with performance on a facial affect recognition task in which facial expressions of emotion are superimposed on emotionally valenced, non-face images. College students with trauma histories (N = 90) completed a facial affect recognition task as well as measures of exposure to traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. When the face and context matched, participants with higher levels of PTSD were significantly more accurate...
May 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774479/running-in-fear-an-investigation-into-the-dimensional-account-of-emotion-in-discriminating-emotional-expressions
#2
L Y Lo, W O Li, L P Lee, P S Yeung
Emotion can be conceptualized by the dimensional account of emotion with the dimensions of valence and arousal. There is little discussion of the difference in discriminability across the dimensions. The present study hypothesized that any pair of emotional expressions differing in the polarity of both valence and arousal dimensions would be easier to distinguish than a pair differing in only one dimension. The results indicate that the difference in the dimensions did not affect participants' reaction time...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773984/midfrontal-theta-and-posterior-parietal-alpha-band-oscillations-support-conflict-resolution-in-a-masked-affective-priming-task
#3
Jun Jiang, Kira Bailey, Xiao Xiao
Past attempts to characterize the neural mechanisms of affective priming have conceptualized it in terms of classic cognitive conflict, but have not examined the neural oscillatory mechanisms of subliminal affective priming. Using behavioral and electroencephalogram (EEG) time frequency (TF) analysis, the current study examines the oscillatory dynamics of unconsciously triggered conflict in an emotional facial expressions version of the masked affective priming task. The results demonstrate that the power dynamics of conflict are characterized by increased midfrontal theta activity and suppressed parieto-occipital alpha activity...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763743/affect-recognition-from-facial-movements-and-body-gestures-by-hierarchical-deep-spatio-temporal-features-and-fusion-strategy
#4
Bo Sun, Siming Cao, Jun He, Lejun Yu
Affect presentation is periodic and multi-modal, such as through facial movements, body gestures, and so on. Studies have shown that temporal selection and multi-modal combinations may benefit affect recognition. In this article, we therefore propose a spatio-temporal fusion model that extracts spatio-temporal hierarchical features based on select expressive components. In addition, a multi-modal hierarchical fusion strategy is presented. Our model learns the spatio-temporal hierarchical features from videos by a proposed deep network, which combines a convolutional neural networks (CNN), bilateral long short-term memory recurrent neural networks (BLSTM-RNN) with principal component analysis (PCA)...
December 7, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760671/emotion-in-stories-facial-emg-evidence-for-both-mental-simulation-and-moral-evaluation
#5
Björn 't Hart, Marijn E Struiksma, Anton van Boxtel, Jos J A van Berkum
Facial electromyography research shows that corrugator supercilii ("frowning muscle") activity tracks the emotional valence of linguistic stimuli. Grounded or embodied accounts of language processing take such activity to reflect the simulation or "reenactment" of emotion, as part of the retrieval of word meaning (e.g., of "furious") and/or of building a situation model (e.g., for "Mark is furious"). However, the same muscle also expresses our primary emotional evaluation of things we encounter...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758397/discrimination-between-smiling-faces-human-observers-vs-automated-face-analysis
#6
Mario Del Líbano, Manuel G Calvo, Andrés Fernández-Martín, Guillermo Recio
This study investigated (a) how prototypical happy faces (with happy eyes and a smile) can be discriminated from blended expressions with a smile but non-happy eyes, depending on type and intensity of the eye expression; and (b) how smile discrimination differs for human perceivers versus automated face analysis, depending on affective valence and morphological facial features. Human observers categorized faces as happy or non-happy, or rated their valence. Automated analysis (FACET software) computed seven expressions (including joy/happiness) and 20 facial action units (AUs)...
May 11, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751931/effects-of-affective-and-emotional-congruency-on-facial-expression-processing-under-different-task-demands
#7
Luis Aguado, Natalia Martínez-García, Andrea Solís-Olce, Teresa Dieguez-Risco, José Antonio Hinojosa
Contextual influences on responses to facial expressions of emotion were studied using a context-target paradigm that allowed distinguishing the effects of affective congruency (context and target of same/different valence: positive or negative) and emotional congruency (context and target representing the same/different emotion: anger, fear, happiness). Sentences describing anger, fear or happiness-inducing events and faces expressing each of these emotions were used as contexts and targets, respectively. While between-valence comparisons (context and target of similar/different valence) revealed affective congruency effects, within-valence comparisons (context and target of similar valence and same/different emotion) revealed emotional congruency effects...
May 8, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750658/when-your-face-describes-your-memories-facial-expressions-during-retrieval-of-autobiographical-memories
#8
Mohamad El Haj, Mohamed Daoudi, Karim Gallouj, Ahmed A Moustafa, Jean-Louis Nandrino
Thanks to the current advances in the software analysis of facial expressions, there is a burgeoning interest in understanding emotional facial expressions observed during the retrieval of autobiographical memories. This review describes the research on facial expressions during autobiographical retrieval showing distinct emotional facial expressions according to the characteristics of retrieved memoires. More specifically, this research demonstrates that the retrieval of emotional memories can trigger corresponding emotional facial expressions (e...
May 11, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740753/facial-expression-enhances-emotion-perception-compared-to-vocal-prosody-behavioral-and-fmri-studies
#9
Heming Zhang, Xuhai Chen, Shengdong Chen, Yansong Li, Changming Chen, Quanshan Long, Jiajin Yuan
Facial and vocal expressions are essential modalities mediating the perception of emotion and social communication. Nonetheless, currently little is known about how emotion perception and its neural substrates differ across facial expression and vocal prosody. To clarify this issue, functional MRI scans were acquired in Study 1, in which participants were asked to discriminate the valence of emotional expression (angry, happy or neutral) from facial, vocal, or bimodal stimuli. In Study 2, we used an affective priming task (unimodal materials as primers and bimodal materials as target) and participants were asked to rate the intensity, valence, and arousal of the targets...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735053/correlation-between-hedonic-liking-and-facial-expression-measurement-using-dynamic-affective-response-representation
#10
Ruicong Zhi, Jingwei Wan, Dezheng Zhang, Weiping Li
Emotional reactions towards products play an essential role in consumers' decision making, and are more important than rational evaluation of sensory attributes. It is crucial to understand consumers' emotion, and the relationship between sensory properties, human liking and choice. There are many inconsistencies between Asian and Western consumers in the usage of hedonic scale, as well as the intensity of facial reactions, due to different culture and consuming habits. However, very few studies discussed the facial responses characteristics of Asian consumers during food consumption...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735015/the-causal-role-of-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-prosocial-behaviour
#11
Selene Gallo, Riccardo Paracampo, Laura Müller-Pinzler, Mario Carlo Severo, Laila Blömer, Carolina Fernandes-Henriques, Anna Henschel, Balint Kalista Lammes, Tatjana Maskaljunas, Judith Suttrup, Alessio Avenanti, Christian Keysers, Valeria Gazzola
Witnessing another person's suffering elicits vicarious brain activity in areas active when we ourselves are in pain. Whether this activity influences prosocial behavior remains debated. Here participants witnessed a confederate express pain via a reaction of the swatted hand or via a facial expression and could decide to reduce that pain by donating money. Participants donate more money on trials in which the confederate expressed more pain. EEG shows that activity of the SI hand region explains variance in donation; TMS shows that altering this activity interferes with the pain-donation coupling only when pain is expressed by the hand and HD-tDCS that altering SI activity also interferes with pain perception...
May 8, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729683/effects-of-repeated-concussions-and-sex-on-early-processing-of-emotional-facial-expressions-as-revealed-by-electrophysiology
#12
Frédérike Carrier-Toutant, Samuel Guay, Christelle Beaulieu, Édith Léveillé, Alexandre Turcotte-Giroux, Samaël D Papineau, Benoit Brisson, Fabien D'Hondt, Louis De Beaumont
OBJECTIVES: Concussions affect the processing of emotional stimuli. This study aimed to investigate how sex interacts with concussion effects on early event-related brain potentials (ERP) measures (P1, N1) of emotional facial expressions (EFE) processing in asymptomatic, multi-concussion athletes during an EFE identification task. METHODS: Forty control athletes (20 females and 20 males) and 43 multi-concussed athletes (22 females and 21 males), recruited more than 3 months after their last concussion, were tested...
May 6, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723598/the-contribution-of-facial-dynamics-to-subtle-expression-recognition-in-typical-viewers-and-developmental-visual-agnosia
#13
Neta Yitzhak, Sharon Gilaie-Dotan, Hillel Aviezer
Facial expressions are inherently dynamic cues that develop and change over time, unfolding their affective signal. Although facial dynamics are assumed important for emotion recognition, testing often involves intense and stereotypical expressions and little is known about the role of temporal information in the recognition of subtle, non-stereotypical expressions. In Experiment 1 we demonstrate that facial dynamics are critical for recognizing subtle and non-stereotypical facial expressions, but not for recognizing intense and stereotypical displays of emotion...
April 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718731/parental-expressed-emotion-criticism-and-neural-markers-of-sustained-attention-to-emotional-faces-in-children
#14
Kiera M James, Max Owens, Mary L Woody, Nathan T Hall, Brandon E Gibb
There is growing evidence for the role of environmental influences on children's information-processing biases for affectively salient stimuli. The goal of this study was to extend this research by examining the relation between parental criticism (expressed emotion-criticism, or EE-Crit) and children's processing of facial displays of emotion. Specifically, we examined the relation between EE-Crit and children's sensitivity in detecting facial displays of emotion. We also examined a neural marker of sustained attention, the late positive potential (LPP) event-related potential component (ERP)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709719/cerebral-processing-of-facial-emotions-in-bipolar-i-and-ii-disorders-an-event-related-potential-study
#15
Bingren Zhang, Chu Wang, Guorong Ma, Hongying Fan, Jiawei Wang, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Behavioral results have shown that bipolar disorder patients have impaired recognition of facial emotions, but the detailed information processing of facial emotions in patients with bipolar I (BD I) and II (BD II) disorders remain unknown. METHODS: We tested the cerebral event-related potentials to the static facial expressions of Neutral, Happiness, Anger and Sadness in 39 adult patients with BD I, 22 BD II, and 54 healthy volunteers. Participants' affective states were measured with the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Hypomania Checklist-32, and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695991/sex-hormones-and-processing-of-facial-expressions-of-emotion-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
Flávia L Osório, Juliana M de Paula Cassis, João P Machado de Sousa, Omero Poli-Neto, Rocio Martín-Santos
Background: We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the influence of sex hormones on facial emotion processing (FEP) in healthy women at different phases of life. Methods: Searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, LILACS , and SciELO . Twenty-seven articles were included in the review and allocated into five different categories according to their objectives and sample characteristics (menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, pregnancy/postpartum, testosterone, and progesterone)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694413/proline-oxidase-controls-proline-glutamate-and-glutamine-cellular-concentrations-in-a-u87-glioblastoma-cell-line
#17
Pamela Cappelletti, Elena Tallarita, Valentina Rabattoni, Paola Campomenosi, Silvia Sacchi, Loredano Pollegioni
L-Proline is a multifunctional amino acid that plays an essential role in primary metabolism and physiological functions. Proline is oxidized to glutamate in the mitochondria and the FAD-containing enzyme proline oxidase (PO) catalyzes the first step in L-proline degradation pathway. Alterations in proline metabolism have been described in various human diseases, such as hyperprolinemia type I, velo-cardio-facial syndrome/Di George syndrome, schizophrenia and cancer. In particular, the mutation giving rise to the substitution Leu441Pro was identified in patients suffering of schizophrenia and hyperprolinemia type I...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694322/adolescents-sensitivity-to-children-s-supernatural-thinking-a-preparation-for-parenthood
#18
Carlos Hernández Blasi, David F Bjorklund
BACKGROUND: Young children often use magical explanations to account for ordinary phenomena (e.g., "The sun's not out today because it is mad"). We labeled these explanations supernatural thinking. Previous research reports that supernatural thinking attributed to preschool-age children evokes both positive affect and perceptions of helplessness from both adults and older (14-17 years old) but not younger (10-13 years old) adolescents. In this study, we asked if cues of cognitive immaturity are more influential in affecting adolescents' judgments of children than physical cues (faces)...
May 2018: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690969/molecular-pathogenesis-of-chewable-tobacco
#19
Saeeda Baig, Zile Rubab, Wasfa Farooq
In Pakistan, extensive use of several precarious chewable tobacco formulations has made oral cancer the second leading malignancy. Selection of literature was done by a survey of studies published from 1990 to 2017 mainly, from PUBMED and few from other search engines, on naswar, gutka, areca nut and betel quid, which included published reviews, original articles and other data sources on chewable tobacco, its epidemiology, pathological implications, and psychological effects. These studies have revealed that the chemicals in these formulations bind and mutate DNA of oral mucosa through down regulating cellular repair pathways and upregulating genetic networks associated with pathogenesis...
May 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689597/the-predictive-value-of-approach-and-avoidance-tendencies-on-the-onset-and-course-of-depression-and-anxiety-disorders
#20
Sascha Y Struijs, Femke Lamers, Mike Rinck, Karin Roelofs, Philip Spinhoven, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Trait and automatic approach-avoidance (AA) tendencies are central concepts in research on affective disorders. We longitudinally examined the associations of trait and automatic AA tendencies with the risk of onset and chronicity of anxiety and depressive disorders. METHODS: Participants were subdivided into those with (n = 766) versus without (n = 1,636) a current anxiety or depression diagnosis at baseline. Clinical diagnoses were reassessed after 2-year follow-up...
April 24, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
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