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Facial expressions and affect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150757/invisible-side-of-emotions-somato-motor-responses-to-affective-facial-displays-in-alexithymia
#1
Cristina Scarpazza, Elisabetta Làdavas, Luigi Cattaneo
According to recent theories, the detection of emotions involves somatic experiences. In this study, we investigated the relation between somatic responses to affective stimuli, emotion perception, and alexithymia. Variations in automatic rapid facial reactions (RFRs) were measured in a selected population of participants with high and low levels of alexithymia (HA and LA, respectively). Electromyographic activity was recorded from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomaticus major, while participants performed a gender classification task on faces expressing various emotional states...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146147/age-induced-and-photoinduced-changes-in-gene-expression-profiles-in-facial-skin-of-caucasian-females-across-6%C3%A2-decades-of-age
#2
Alexa B Kimball, Maria B Alora-Palli, Makio Tamura, Lisa A Mullins, Chieko Soh, Robert L Binder, Neil A Houston, Emily D Conley, Joyce Y Tung, Nikki E Annunziata, Charles C Bascom, Robert J Isfort, Bradley B Jarrold, Raghu Kainkaryam, Heather L Rocchetta, Dionne D Swift, Jay P Tiesman, Kazumi Toyama, Jun Xu, Xianghong Yan, Rosemarie Osborne
BACKGROUND: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including ultraviolet irradiation, lead to visible signs of skin aging. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated molecular changes occurring in photoexposed and photoprotected skin of white women 20 to 74 years of age, some of whom appeared substantially younger than their chronologic age. METHODS: Histologic and transcriptomics profiling were conducted on skin biopsy samples of photoexposed (face and dorsal forearm) or photoprotected (buttocks) body sites from 158 women...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137990/affective-blindsight-in-the-absence-of-input-from-face-processing-regions-in-occipital-temporal-cortex
#3
Christopher L Striemer, Robert L Whitwell, Melvyn A Goodale
Previous research suggests that the implicit recognition of emotional expressions may be carried out by pathways that bypass primary visual cortex (V1) and project to the amygdala. Some of the strongest evidence supporting this claim comes from case studies of "affective blindsight" in which patients with V1 damage can correctly guess whether an unseen face was depicting a fearful or happy expression. In the current study, we report a new case of affective blindsight in patient MC who is cortically blind following extensive bilateral lesions to V1, as well as face and object processing regions in her ventral visual stream...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136515/associations-between-feelings-of-social-anxiety-and-emotion-perception
#4
Spencer K Lynn, Eric Bui, Susanne S Hoeppner, Emily B O'Day, Sophie A Palitz, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Naomi M Simon
BACKGROUND: Abnormally biased perceptual judgment is a feature of many psychiatric disorders. Thus, individuals with social anxiety disorder are biased to recall or interpret social events negatively. Cognitive behavioral therapy addresses such bias by teaching patients, via verbal instruction, to become aware of and change pathological misjudgment. The present study examined whether targeting verbal instruction to specific decision parameters that influence perceptual judgment may affect changes in anger perception...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131372/reading-emotion-from-mouse-cursor-motions-affective-computing-approach
#5
Takashi Yamauchi, Kunchen Xiao
Affective computing research has advanced emotion recognition systems using facial expressions, voices, gaits, and physiological signals, yet these methods are often impractical. This study integrates mouse cursor motion analysis into affective computing and investigates the idea that movements of the computer cursor can provide information about emotion of the computer user. We extracted 16-26 trajectory features during a choice-reaching task and examined the link between emotion and cursor motions. Participants were induced for positive or negative emotions by music, film clips, or emotional pictures, and they indicated their emotions with questionnaires...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129727/mouth-licking-by-dogs-as-a-response-to-emotional-stimuli
#6
Natalia Albuquerque, Kun Guo, Anna Wilkinson, Briseida Resende, Daniel S Mills
Dogs are able to perceptually discriminate emotional displays of conspecifics and heterospecifics and possess the cognitive prototypes for emotional categorisation, however, it remains unclear whether dogs can respond appropriately to this information. One way to assess associations between specific behaviours and the perception of emotionally competent stimuli is to look at other reliable measures that are related to cognitive and physiological processing. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm (Albuquerque et al...
November 10, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126962/your-attention-makes-me-smile-direct-gaze-elicits-affiliative-facial-expressions
#7
Jari K Hietanen, Terhi M Helminen, Helena Kiilavuori, Anneli Kylliäinen, Heidi Lehtonen, Mikko J Peltola
Facial electromyographic responses and skin conductance responses were measured to investigate whether, in a neutral laboratory environment, another individual's direct gaze elicits a positive or negative affective reaction in the observer. The results showed that greater zygomatic responses associated with positive affect were elicited by seeing another person with direct as compared to averted gaze. The zygomatic responses were greater in response to another person's direct gaze both when the participant's own gaze was directed towards the other and when the participant was not looking directly towards the other...
November 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123215/observer-s-anxiety-facilitates-magnocellular-processing-of-clear-facial-threat-cues-but-impairs-parvocellular-processing-of-ambiguous-facial-threat-cues
#8
Hee Yeon Im, Reginald B Adams, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Cody A Cushing, Kestutis Kveraga
Facial expression and eye gaze provide a shared signal about threats. While a fear expression with averted gaze clearly points to the source of threat, direct-gaze fear renders the source of threat ambiguous. Separable routes have been proposed to mediate these processes, with preferential attunement of the magnocellular (M) pathway to clear threat, and of the parvocellular (P) pathway to threat ambiguity. Here we investigated how observers' trait anxiety modulates M- and P-pathway processing of clear and ambiguous threat cues...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122609/structural-connections-support-emotional-connections-uncinate-fasciculus-microstructure-is-related-to-the-ability-to-decode-facial-emotion-expressions
#9
Bethany M Coad, Mark Postans, Carl J Hodgetts, Nils Muhlert, Kim S Graham, Andrew D Lawrence
The Uncinate Fasciculus (UF) is an association fibre tract connecting regions in the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. UF disruption is seen in several disorders associated with impaired social behaviour, but its functional role is unclear. Here we set out to test the hypothesis that the UF is important for facial expression processing, an ability fundamental to adaptive social behaviour. In two separate experiments in healthy adults, we used high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) and constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography to virtually dissect the UF, plus a control tract (the corticospinal tract (CST)), and quantify, via tissue fractional anisotropy (FAT), individual differences in tract microstructure...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119279/mechanical-stress-promotes-matrix-synthesis-of-mandibular-condylar-cartilage-via-the-rkip-erk-pathway
#10
Lian Sun, Jing Zhao, Hua Wang, Yongchu Pan, Lin Wang, Wei-Bing Zhang
Mandibular hypoplasia is a common jaw deformity that affects breathing, occlusal function and facial aesthetics. Stimulating mandibular condylar growing with functional appliances is an ordinary but controversial treatment method in orthodontics. Therefore, it is vital to clarify how functional appliances affect condylar growing. Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), as an endogenous inhibitory molecule of the ERK signaling, is postulated to involve in stress-induced response to articular cartilage. This study was to reveal the role of RKIP in regulating cartilage matrix synthesis with functional appliance treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118319/cortisol-responses-enhance-negative-valence-perception-for-ambiguous-facial-expressions
#11
Catherine C Brown, Candace M Raio, Maital Neta
Stress exposure elicits a prolonged neuroendocrine response, marked by cortisol release, which can influence important forms of affective decision-making. Identifying how stress reactivity shapes subjective biases in decisions about emotional ambiguity (i.e., valence bias) provides insight into the role stress plays in basic affective processing for healthy and clinical populations alike. Here, we sought to examine how stress reactivity affects valence decisions about emotional ambiguity. Given that stress prioritizes automatic emotional processing which, in the context of valence bias, is associated with increased negativity, we tested how individual differences in acute stress responses influence valence bias and how this decision process evolves over time...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112243/richieri-costa-pereira-syndrome-expanding-its-phenotypic-and-genotypic-spectrum
#12
D R Bertola, G Hsia, L Alvizi, A Gardham, E Wakeling, G L Yamamoto, R S Honjo, L A N Oliveira, R C Di Francesco, B A Perez, C A Kim, M R Passos-Bueno
Richieri-Costa-Pereira syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive acrofacial dysostosis that has been mainly described in Brazilian individuals. The cardinal features include Robin sequence, cleft mandible, laryngeal anomalies and limb defects. A biallelic expansion of a complex repeated motif in the 5' untranslated region of EIF4A3 has been shown to cause this syndrome, commonly with 15 or 16 repeats. The only patient with mild clinical findings harbored a 14-repeat expansion in one allele and a point mutation in the other allele...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100094/de-novo-mutations-in-slc25a24-cause-a-disorder-characterized-by-early-aging-bone-dysplasia-characteristic-face-and-early-demise
#13
Karin Writzl, Ales Maver, Lidija Kovačič, Paula Martinez-Valero, Laura Contreras, Jorgina Satrustegui, Marco Castori, Laurence Faivre, Pablo Lapunzina, André B P van Kuilenburg, Slobodanka Radović, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Borut Peterlin, Araceli Del Arco, Raoul C Hennekam
A series of simplex cases have been reported under various diagnoses sharing early aging, especially evident in congenitally decreased subcutaneous fat tissue and sparse hair, bone dysplasia of the skull and fingers, a distinctive facial gestalt, and prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. For historical reasons, we suggest naming the entity Fontaine syndrome. Exome sequencing of four unrelated affected individuals showed that all carried the de novo missense variant c.649C>T (p.Arg217Cys) or c.650G>A (p...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089919/nasal-oxytocin-treatment-biases-dogs-visual-attention-and-emotional-response-toward-positive-human-facial-expressions
#14
Sanni Somppi, Heini Törnqvist, József Topál, Aija Koskela, Laura Hänninen, Christina M Krause, Outi Vainio
The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline) nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089879/comparison-of-ecological-micro-expression-recognition-in-patients-with-depression-and-healthy-individuals
#15
Chuanlin Zhu, Xinyun Chen, Jianxin Zhang, Zhiying Liu, Zhen Tang, Yuting Xu, Didi Zhang, Dianzhi Liu
Previous studies have focused on the characteristics of ordinary facial expressions in patients with depression, and have not investigated the processing characteristics of ecological micro-expressions (MEs, i.e., MEs that presented in different background expressions) in these patients. Based on this, adopting the ecological MEs recognition paradigm, this study aimed to comparatively evaluate facial ME recognition in depressed and healthy individuals. The findings of the study are as follows: (1) background expression: the accuracy (ACC) in the neutral background condition tended to be higher than that in the fear background condition, and the reaction time (RT) in the neutral background condition was significantly longer than that in other backgrounds...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080325/rapid-facial-reactions-in-response-to-happy-and-angry-expressions-in-7-month-old-infants
#16
Amy Datyner, Julie D Henry, Jenny L Richmond
Humans rapidly and spontaneously activate muscles in the face when viewing emotional facial expressions in others. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are thought to reflect low-level, bottom-up processes, and are theorized to assist an observer to experience and share the affect of another individual. It has been assumed that RFRs are present from birth; however to date, no study has investigated this response in children younger than 3 years of age. In the present study, we used facial electromyography (EMG) to measure corrugator supercilii (brow) and zygomaticus major (cheek) muscle activity in 7-month-old infants while they viewed happy and angry facial expressions...
October 28, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080233/adolescent-externalizing-problems-contributions-of-community-crime-exposure-and-neural-function-during-emotion-introspection-in-mexican-origin-youth
#17
David G Weissman, Kristina L Gelardi, Rand D Conger, Richard W Robins, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
Models of the etiology of adolescent antisocial behavior suggest that externalizing problems may reflect a susceptibility to crime exposure and a diminished capacity for emotion introspection. In this study, adolescents of Mexican origin completed a neuroimaging task that involved rating their subjective feelings of sadness in response to emotional facial expressions or a nonemotional aspect of each face. At lower levels of neural activity during sadness introspection in posterior cingulate and left temporoparietal junction, and in left amygdala, brain regions involved in mentalizing and emotion, respectively, a stronger positive association between community crime exposure and externalizing problems was found...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079433/other-race-effect-on-amygdala-response-during-affective-facial-processing-in-major-depression
#18
Anjali Sankar, Sergi G Costafreda, Lauren B Marangell, Cynthia H Y Fu
OBJECTIVE: The other race effect, also known as own race bias, refers to the enhanced ability to recognize faces belonging to one's own race relative to faces from another race. The other race effect is associated with increased amygdala response in healthy individuals. The amygdala is a key node in emotion processing which shows impaired functioning in depression and has been proposed to be a marker of depressive state. We investigated the impact of the other race effect on amygdala responses in depression...
October 25, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060749/predicting-rapid-progression-of-parkinson-s-disease-at-baseline-patients-evaluation
#19
Kostas M Tsiouris, Georgios Rigas, Dimitrios Gatsios, Angelo Antonini, Spiros Konitsiotis, Dimitrios D Koutsouris, Dimitrios I Fotiadis
The rate of Parkinson's Disease (PD) progression in the initial post-diagnosis years can vary significantly. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of the most informative features for predicting rapid progression of the disease is proposed, using public data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) and machine learning techniques. The aim is to determine if a patient is at risk of expressing rapid progression of PD symptoms from the baseline evaluation and as close to diagnosis as possible...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055240/automatic-processing-of-emotional-facial-expressions-as-a-function-of-social-anhedonia
#20
Vivien Günther, Juliane Zimmer, Anette Kersting, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Donald Lobsien, Thomas Suslow
Anhedonia is an important feature of major depression and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Few neuroimaging studies have investigated neural alterations in high anhedonia, isolated from other psychopathological variables, by including only participants without clinical diagnoses. The present study examined healthy individuals scoring high (N = 18) vs. low (N = 19) in social anhedonia, who were carefully selected from a sample of N = 282 participants. To examine differences in automatic brain responses to social-affective stimuli between high vs...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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