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Facial expressions and affect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806742/dissociating-maternal-responses-to-sad-and-happy-facial-expressions-of-their-own-child-an-fmri-study
#1
Dorothea Kluczniok, Catherine Hindi Attar, Jenny Stein, Sina Poppinga, Thomas Fydrich, Charlotte Jaite, Viola Kappel, Romuald Brunner, Sabine C Herpertz, Katja Boedeker, Felix Bermpohl
BACKGROUND: Maternal sensitive behavior depends on recognizing one's own child's affective states. The present study investigated distinct and overlapping neural responses of mothers to sad and happy facial expressions of their own child (in comparison to facial expressions of an unfamiliar child). METHODS: We used functional MRI to measure dissociable and overlapping activation patterns in 27 healthy mothers in response to happy, neutral and sad facial expressions of their own school-aged child and a gender- and age-matched unfamiliar child...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798812/clinical-epidemiological-and-therapeutic-profile-of-patients-with-a-retinoblastoma-diagnosis-experience-in-the-costa-rica-national-children-s-hospital-oncology-unit-from-january-2009-to-december-2015
#2
Jennie Chen Lo, Carlos Rodríguez, Rigoberto Monestel, Arnoldo Zúñiga
INTRODUCTION: Retinoblastoma represents only 3% of paediatric cancers, but it is the most prevalent intraocular tumour in this population. It develops in the retina as a primitive neuroectodermal tumour that affects development during gestation. The tumour presents in two different forms depending on whether or not it expresses a genetic modification. For patients diagnosed at preschool age, 75% are unilateral non-hereditary cases. While enucleation is the preferred treatment for advanced stages of the tumour, other modalities, such as systemic and intraocular chemotherapy, radiotherapy and local treatments with thermotherapy, cryotherapy, and brachytherapy can be used to try to preserve the eye...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798378/perception-of-facial-expressions-reveals-selective-affect-biased-attention-in-humans-and-orangutans
#3
Carla Pritsch, Silke Telkemeyer, Cordelia Mühlenbeck, Katja Liebal
Rapid detection and recognition of another individual's emotional state plays a pivotal role for humans and, most likely, other social species. Proper reactions contribute to an individual's survival in potentially dangerous situations; this is ensured by a preferential attention towards salient cues. The predisposition to attend to certain categories of affectively salient stimuli- also referred to as affect-biased attention - is likely shared with other species, since fast detection of and appropriate reaction to threats is crucial to survival...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796560/facial-emotion-decoding-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Marco De Risi, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Angelo Picardi, Sara Casciato, Liliana G Grammaldo, Alfredo D'Aniello, Deborah Lanni, Stefano Meletti, Nicola Modugno
PURPOSE: In line with the growing attention on non-motor symptoms and disturbance of affective and emotional processing in Parkinson's disease, we aimed to study different aspects of facial emotion expression evaluation in a group of PD without cognitive decline in treatment with common antiparkinsonian drugs, matched for sex, age, and education with healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 30 patients (13 male; mean age: 63.3±6.7; mean age of disease onset: 56...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795617/through-the-eyes-of-a-child-preschoolers-identification-of-emotional-expressions-from-the-child-affective-facial-expression-cafe-set
#5
Vanessa LoBue, Lewis Baker, Cat Thrasher
Researchers have been interested in the perception of human emotional expressions for decades. Importantly, most empirical work in this domain has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing for various emotional expressions. Recently, the Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set was introduced to the scientific community, featuring a large validated set of photographs of preschool aged children posing for seven different emotional expressions. Although the CAFE set was extensively validated using adult participants, the set was designed for use with children...
August 10, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769837/trait-anxiety-impacts-the-perceived-gaze-direction-of-fearful-but-not-angry-faces
#6
Zhonghua Hu, Maria Gendron, Qiang Liu, Guang Zhao, Hong Li
Facial expression and gaze direction play an important role in social communication. Previous research has demonstrated the perception of anger is enhanced by direct gaze, whereas, it is unclear whether perception of fear is enhanced by averted gaze. In addition, previous research has shown the anxiety affects the processing of facial expression and gaze direction, but hasn't measured or controlled for depression. As a result, firm conclusions cannot be made regarding the impact of individual differences in anxiety and depression on perceptions of face expressions and gaze direction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767323/candidate-genes-for-nonsyndromic-cleft-palate-detected-by-exome-sequencing
#7
A K Hoebel, D Drichel, M van de Vorst, A C Böhmer, S Sivalingam, N Ishorst, J Klamt, L Gölz, M Alblas, A Maaser, K Keppler, A M Zink, M J Dixon, J Dixon, A Hemprich, T Kruse, I Graf, A Dunsche, G Schmidt, N Daratsianos, S Nowak, K A Aldhorae, M M Nöthen, M Knapp, H Thiele, C Gilissen, H Reutter, A Hoischen, E Mangold, K U Ludwig
Nonsyndromic cleft palate only (nsCPO) is a facial malformation that has a livebirth prevalence of 1 in 2,500. Research suggests that the etiology of nsCPO is multifactorial, with a clear genetic component. To date, genome-wide association studies have identified only 1 conclusive common variant for nsCPO, that is, a missense variant in the gene grainyhead-like-3 ( GRHL3). Thus, the underlying genetic causes of nsCPO remain largely unknown. The present study aimed at identifying rare variants that might contribute to nsCPO risk, via whole-exome sequencing (WES), in multiply affected Central European nsCPO pedigrees...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761076/-embodied-body-language-an-electrical-neuroimaging-study-with-emotional-faces-and-bodies
#8
Marta Calbi, Monica Angelini, Vittorio Gallese, Maria Alessandra Umiltà
To date, most investigations in the field of affective neuroscience mainly focused on the processing of facial expressions, overlooking the exploration of emotional body language (EBL), its capability to express our emotions notwithstanding. Few electrophysiological studies investigated the time course and the neural correlates of EBL and the integration of face and body emotion-related information. The aim of the present study was to investigate both the time course and the neural correlates underlying the integration of affective information conveyed by faces and bodies...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748407/putamen-volume-is-negatively-correlated-with-the-ability-to-recognize-fearful-facial-expressions
#9
Shota Uono, Wataru Sato, Takanori Kochiyama, Yasutaka Kubota, Reiko Sawada, Sayaka Yoshimura, Motomi Toichi
Findings of previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological studies have suggested that specific aspects of the basal ganglia, particularly the putamen, are involved in the recognition of emotional facial expressions. However, it remains unknown whether variations in putamen structure reflect individual differences in the ability to recognize facial expressions. Thus, the present study assessed the putamen volumes and shapes of 50 healthy Japanese adults using structural MRI scans and evaluated the ability of participants to recognize facial expressions associated with six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise...
July 26, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740360/visual-processing-in-patients-with-age-related-macular-degeneration-performing-a-face-detection-test
#10
Pasi Vottonen, Kai Kaarniranta, Ari Pääkkönen, Ina M Tarkka
PURPOSE: People with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have difficulties in familiar face recognition and facial expression discrimination. Our aim was to evaluate the visual processing of faces in AMD patients and whether this would be improved by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. This was a prospective interventional cohort study. PATIENTS: Twelve patients with monocular wet AMD and 6 control subjects were recruited. Face detection processes were studied using cortical event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738311/perception-is-key-does-perceptual-sensitivity-and-parenting-behavior-predict-children-s-reactivity-to-others-emotions
#11
Joyce Weeland, Alithe Van den Akker, Meike Slagt, Samuel Putnam
When interacting with other people, both children's biological predispositions and past experiences play a role in how they will process and respond to social-emotional cues. Children may partly differ in their reactions to such cues because they differ in the threshold for perceiving such cues in general. Theoretically, perceptual sensitivity (i.e., the amount of detection of slight, low-intensity stimuli from the external environment independent of visual and auditory ability) might, therefore, provide us with specific information on individual differences in susceptibility to the environment...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738210/neural-activity-and-emotional-processing-following-military-deployment-effects-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Daniel V Zuj, Kim L Felmingham, Matthew A Palmer, Ellie Lawrence-Wood, Miranda Van Hooff, Andrew J Lawrence, Richard A Bryant, Alexander C McFarlane
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are common comorbidities during military deployment that affect emotional brain processing, yet few studies have examined the independent effects of mTBI and PTSD. The purpose of this study was to examine distinct differences in neural responses to emotional faces in mTBI and PTSD. Twenty-one soldiers reporting high PTSD symptoms were compared to 21 soldiers with low symptoms, and 16 soldiers who reported mTBI-consistent injury and symptoms were compared with 16 soldiers who did not sustain an mTBI...
July 21, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736585/late-onset-asymptomatic-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-a-case-report-on-the-phenotypic-expansion-for-men1
#13
Charu Kaiwar, Sarah K Macklin, Jennifer M Gass, Jessica Jackson, Eric W Klee, Stephanie L Hines, John A Stauffer, Paldeep S Atwal
BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a hereditary cancer syndrome associated with several endocrine as well as non-endocrine tumors and is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene. Primary hyperparathyroidism affects the majority of MEN1 individuals by age 50 years. Additionally, MEN1 mutations trigger familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. We describe a seemingly unaffected 76-year-old female who presented to our Genetics Clinic with a family history of primary hyperparathyroidism and the identification of a pathogenic MEN1 variant...
2017: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727040/genome-wide-association-studies-and-meta-analysis-reveal-novel-quantitative-trait-loci-and-pleiotropic-loci-for-swine-head-related-traits
#14
H Chen, T Huang, Z Zhang, B Yang, C Jiang, J Wu, Z Zhou, H Zheng, W Xin, M Huang, M Zhang, C Chen, J Ren, H Ai, L Huang
The pig is an important domestic animal that provides a larger amount of meat and serves as a biomedical animal model for human. Head and facial features are closely linked to identity recognition in mammal communication. To uncover the genetic architecture of swine head and facial features, we constructed 5 experimental pig populations and accurately measured 10 traits related to head and facial features, for which genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis were later carried out. As a result, we identified a total of 24 loci harboring 437 SNP on 8 swine chromosomes (SSC) that surpassed suggestively significant levels, of which 17 loci on 6 chromosomes exceeded the 5% genome-wide significance thresholds...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726231/-emotional-facial-recognition-difficulties-as-primary-deficit-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#15
D Rodrigo-Ruiz, J C Perez-Gonzalez, J Cejudo
INTRODUCTION: It has recently been warned that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show a deficit in emotional competence and emotional intelligence, specifically in their ability to emotional recognition. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the scientific literature in reference to the emotional recognition of facial expressions in children with ADHD is presented in order to establish or rule the existence of emotional deficits as primary dysfunction in this disorder and, where appropriate, the effect size of the differences against normal development or neurotypical children...
August 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715782/approach-and-avoidance-tendencies-in-depression-and-anxiety-disorders
#16
Sascha Y Struijs, Femke Lamers, Maartje S Vroling, Karin Roelofs, Philip Spinhoven, Brenda W J H Penninx
Anxiety is linked to increased avoidance and inhibition, whereas depression is linked to decreased approach and diminished behavioral activation. Although these notions are widely recognized, systematic investigation of approach-avoidance tendencies is lacking across these diagnostic groups. Participants (mean age = 45.6; 65.8% female) were subdivided in healthy controls (405), remitted patients (877) and currently anxious (217), depressed (154) or comorbid (154) patients. Automatic approach-avoidance tendencies in reaction to facial expression were assessed using the Approach-Avoidance-Task (AAT)...
July 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714699/putting-context-in-context-the-effects-of-body-posture-and-emotion-scene-on-adult-categorizations-of-disgust-facial-expressions
#17
Peter J Reschke, Jennifer M Knothe, Lukas D Lopez, Eric A Walle
Affective face perception is influenced by nonfacial contextual elements. However, investigations often conflate body posture and emotion scene, making it unclear whether posture or the combination of posture and scene produces perception-altering effects. This study examined adults' categorizations of disgust facial expressions superimposed onto isolated emotion postures or postures embedded in emotion scenes. Results indicated that emotional postures exerted a significant contextual effect on adults' emotion categorizations of disgust faces...
July 17, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708027/do-valenced-odors-and-trait-body-odor-disgust-affect-evaluation-of-emotion-in-dynamic-faces
#18
Elmeri Syrjänen, Marco Tullio Liuzza, Håkan Fischer, Jonas K Olofsson
Disgust is a core emotion evolved to detect and avoid the ingestion of poisonous food as well as the contact with pathogens and other harmful agents. Previous research has shown that multisensory presentation of olfactory and visual information may strengthen the processing of disgust-relevant information. However, it is not known whether these findings extend to dynamic facial stimuli that changes from neutral to emotionally expressive, or if individual differences in trait body odor disgust may influence the processing of disgust-related information...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705589/a-simple-technique-for-the-correction-of-maxillonasal-dysplasia-using-customized-expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-eptfe-implants
#19
Jiao Wei, Jiawen Luo, Tanja Herrler, Hua Xu, Ning Deng, Qingfeng Li, Chuanchang Dai
BACKGROUND: The treatment of maxillonasal dysplasia in Binder's syndrome using autologous costal bone and cartilage is well established, but postoperative results may be compromised by scarring, unpredictable absorption of transferred autologous tissue, and donor site morbidity. Here, we propose a simple surgical technique to improve maxillonasal dysplasia using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) implant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 1999 to May 2014, fifty-eight patients affected by maxillonasal dysplasia with different degrees of flattened nose and midfacial depression underwent surgical correction by augmentation of the nasal dorsum using an "L"-shaped ePTFE and subperiosteal implantation of an inverted "m"-shaped ePTFE at the base of the piriform aperture...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699151/-emotion-recognition-rehabilitation-combined-with-cognitive-stimulation-for-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-efficacy-for-cognition-and-functional-aspects
#20
J A Garcia-Casal, M Goni-Imizcoz, M V Perea-Bartolome, C Garcia-Moja, S Calvo-Simal, F Cardelle-Garcia, M Franco-Martin
INTRODUCTION: The ability to recognize facial emotional expression is essential for social interactions and adapting to the environment. Emotion recognition is impaired in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus rehabilitation of these skills has the potential to elicit significant benefits. AIM: To assess the efficacy of a combined treatment of rehabilitation of emotion recognition (RER) and cognitive stimulation (CS) for people with AD, due to its potential implications for more effective psychosocial interventions...
August 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
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