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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640705/genomic-analysis-of-childhood-brain-tumors-methods-for-genome-wide-discovery-and-precision-medicine-become-mainstream
#1
Stephen C Mack, Paul A Northcott
Recent breakthroughs in next-generation sequencing technology and complementary genomic platforms have transformed our capacity to interrogate the molecular landscapes of human cancers, including childhood brain tumors. Numerous high-throughput genomic studies have been reported for the major histologic brain tumor entities diagnosed in children, including interrogations at the level of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, many of which have yielded essential new insights into disease biology. The nature of these discoveries has been largely platform dependent, exemplifying the usefulness of applying different genomic and computational strategies, or integrative approaches, to address specific biologic and/or clinical questions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629443/parents-and-guardians-perceptions-on-availability-and-pricing-of-medicines-and-healthcare-for-children-in-ethekwini-south-africa-a-qualitative-study
#2
Velisha Ann Perumal-Pillay, Fatima Suleman
BACKGROUND: Inadequate access to affordable essential medicines poses a challenge to achieving Universal Health Coverage. Access to essential medicines for children has been in the spotlight in recent research. However, information from the end users of medicines, i.e. patients is scarce. Obtaining information at a household level is integral to understanding how people access, obtain and use medicines. This study aimed to gather opinions and perceptions from parents/guardians on availability, affordability and quality of medicines and healthcare for children in SA...
June 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600490/treating-tobacco-dependence-guidance-for-primary-care-on-life-saving-interventions-position-statement-of-the-ipcrg
#3
O C P Van Schayck, S Williams, V Barchilon, N Baxter, M Jawad, P A Katsaounou, B J Kirenga, C Panaitescu, K W I G Tsiligianni, N Zwar, A Ostrem
Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of premature death and disability. Global targets to reduce premature deaths by 25% by 2025 will require a substantial increase in the number of smokers making a quit attempt, and a significant improvement in the success rates of those attempts in low, middle and high income countries. In many countries the only place where the majority of smokers can access support to quit is primary care. There is strong evidence of cost-effective interventions in primary care yet many opportunities to put these into practice are missed...
June 9, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588968/who-and-national-lists-of-essential-medicines-in-mexico-central-and-south-america-and-the-caribbean-are-they-adequate-to-promote-paediatric-endocrinology-and-diabetes-care
#4
Amanda Rowlands, Alejandra Acosta-Gualandri, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Jean-Pierre Chanoine
Paediatric endocrinology and diabetes is a paediatric specialty with less common conditions and higher cost medicines. Access to medicines for our specialty in low and middle income countries remains limited. We analysed the content of the WHO (children and adults) and of all available national Model Lists of Essential Medicines (EMLs) for Mexico, the Caribbean, Central and South America from a paediatric endocrinology and diabetes standpoint. A master list of medicines deemed necessary in paediatric endocrinology and diabetes was established and compared with the WHO and national EMLs, taking into account the gross national income...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556570/what-families-have-in-the-emergency-tracheostomy-kits-identifying-gaps-to-improve-patient-safety
#5
Reshma Amin, Weeda Zabih, Faiza Syed, Joanna Polyviou, Tuyen Tran, Evan J Propst, Theresa Holler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contents of parent-created emergency tracheostomy kits and identify deficiencies. METHODS: This was an observational study. Data on emergency tracheostomy kits were abstracted for 30 consecutive children who had a tracheostomy tube in situ during an outpatient clinic visit with the Division of Respiratory Medicine and/or the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the Hospital for Sick Children between February 1 and October 30, 2016...
May 29, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531789/do-picu-patients-meet-technical-criteria-for-performing-indirect-calorimetry
#6
Megan R Beggs, Gonzalo Garcia Guerra, Bodil M K Larsen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Indirect calorimetry (IC) is considered gold standard for assessing energy needs of critically ill children as predictive equations and clinical status indicators are often unreliable. Accurate assessment of energy requirements in this vulnerable population is essential given the high risk of over or underfeeding and the consequences thereof. The proportion of patients and patient days in pediatric intensive care (PICU) for which energy expenditure (EE) can be measured using IC is currently unknown...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495584/food-effects-in-paediatric-medicines-development-for-products-co-administered-with-food
#7
Hannah Batchelor, Ann Marie Kaukonen, Sandra Klein, Barbara Davit, Rob Ju, Robert Ternik, Tycho Heimbach, Wen Lin, Jian Wang, David Storey
A small amount of food is commonly used to aid administration of medicines to children to improve palatability and/or swallowability. However the impact of this co-administered food on the absorption and subsequent pharmacokinetic profile of the drug is unknown. Existing information on food effects is limited to standard protocols used to evaluate the impact of a high fat meal in an adult population using the adult medication. In the absence of a substantial body of data, there are no specific guidelines available during development of paediatric products relating to low volumes of potentially low calorie food...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458429/pricing-and-components-analysis-of-some-key-essential-pediatric-medicine-in-odisha-state
#8
Satyajit Samal, Trupti Rekha Swain
OBJECTIVE: Study highlighting prices, i.e., the patients actually pay at ground level is important for interventions such as alternate procurement schemes or to expedite regulatory assessment of essential medicines for children. The present study was undertaken to study pricing and component analysis of few key essential medicines in Odisha state. METHODOLOGY: Six child-specific medicines of different formulations were selected based on use in different disease condition and having widest pricing variation...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444008/from-guidelines-to-local-realities-evaluation-of-oral-rehydration-therapy-and-zinc-supplementation-in-guatemala
#9
Rachel Hall-Clifford, Roxanne Amerson
Objective: Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in low- and middle-income countries throughout the Americas. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines on incorporating zinc supplementation (ZS) with traditional oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in order to shorten the duration of diarrheal episodes and to reduce poor health outcomes. Guatemala adopted these guidelines in 2011, but they have not yet been fully implemented at the community level...
April 20, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439753/abating-mercury-exposure-in-young-children-should-include-thimerosal-free-vaccines
#10
REVIEW
José G Dórea
Pediatric immunization is essential to prevent, control and eradicate children`s infectious diseases. Newborns and infants in less developed countries have a concentrated schedule of Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs); pregnant mothers are also immunized with TCVs. Metabolic changes during early development are demonstrably an important risk factor for ethylmercury (EtHg) effects on neurodevelopment, while exposure to Thimerosal sensitizes susceptible individuals to life-long contact dermatitis. Concerns regarding toxicity of Hg have moved rich nations to withdraw it from medicines and, in particular, Thimerosal from pediatric vaccines; it has been more than 20 years since rich countries started using Thimerosal-free vaccines...
April 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417851/nuclear-medicine-techniques-in-pediatric-bone-imaging
#11
REVIEW
Laura A Drubach
An important mandate when imaging pediatric patients is the reduction of radiation exposure to the lowest possible level consistent with good quality diagnostic imaging, so individual selection of radiopharmaceutical dosage and imaging technique is essential. Although the logistics of image acquisition and the approach to interpretation mirror the more common use in adults, the challenges of imaging young children typically require greater attention to patient preparation, positioning, and supervision during imaging, with the use of parental or family engagement in the procedure, gentle restraint, and occasionally the need for sedation...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412573/patient-characteristics-associated-with-differences-in-radiation-exposure-from-pediatric-abdomen-pelvis-ct-scans-a-quantile-regression-analysis
#12
Jennifer N Cooper, Daniel L Lodwick, Brent Adler, Choonsik Lee, Peter C Minneci, Katherine J Deans
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is a widely used diagnostic tool in pediatric medicine. However, due to concerns regarding radiation exposure, it is essential to identify patient characteristics associated with higher radiation burden from CT imaging, in order to more effectively target efforts towards dose reduction. Our objective was to identify the effects of various demographic and clinical patient characteristics on radiation exposure from single abdomen/pelvis CT scans in children...
April 12, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398090/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-pediatrics
#13
Tim Takken, Bart C Bongers, Marco van Brussel, Eero A Haapala, Erik Hj Hulzebos
Aerobic fitness is an important determinant of overall health. Higher aerobic fitness has been associated with many health benefits. Because myocardial ischemia is rare in children, indications for exercise testing differ in children compared to adults. Pediatric exercise testing is imperative to unravel the physiological mechanisms of a reduced aerobic fitness and to evaluate intervention effects in children and adolescents with a chronic disease or disability. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing includes the measurement of respiratory gas exchange and is the gold standard for determining aerobic fitness, as well as for examining the integrated physiological responses to exercise in pediatric medicine...
April 11, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361359/medical-student-oncology-congress-designed-and-implemented-by-brazilian-medical-students
#14
Celeste Rodovalho Soares de Camargo, Jean Henri Maselli Schoueri, Felippe Lazar Neto, Paola Boaro Segalla, Auro Del Giglio, Daniel I G Cubero
Oncology is an essential field of medicine; however, its teaching is occasionally underemphasized and uncoordinated during medical school. An alternative method of providing additional oncological information to medical students is through extracurricular activities, such as congresses and medical student associations. The aim of this paper is to describe a Medical Student Oncology Congress entirely designed and organized by medical students. Three medical students from oncology study and research groups identified the gap in oncology training at universities and decided to organize a congress for students...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337081/a-comprehensive-list-of-items-to-be-included-on-a-pediatric-drug-monograph
#15
Lauren E Kelly, Shinya Ito, David Woods, Anthony J Nunn, Carol Taketomo, Matthijs de Hoog, Martin Offringa
OBJECTIVES: Children require special considerations for drug prescribing. Drug information summarized in a formulary containing drug monographs is essential for safe and effective prescribing. Currently, little is known about the information needs of those who prescribe and administer medicines to children. Our primary objective was to identify a list of important and relevant items to be included in a pediatric drug monograph. METHODS: Following the establishment of an expert steering committee and an environmental scan of adult and pediatric formulary monograph items, 46 participants from 25 countries were invited to complete a 2-round Delphi survey...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298279/the-potential-impact-of-animal-science-research-on-global-maternal-and-child-nutrition-and-health-a-landscape-review
#16
REVIEW
Jack Odle, Sheila K Jacobi, R Dean Boyd, Dale E Bauman, Russell V Anthony, Fuller W Bazer, Adam L Lock, Andrew C Serazin
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290130/the-choosing-wisely-initiative-in-infectious-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Clara Lehmann, Reinhard Berner, Johannes R Bogner, Oliver A Cornely, Katja de With, Susanne Herold, Winfried V Kern, Sebastian Lemmen, Mathias W Pletz, Bernhard Ruf, Bernd Salzberger, Hans Jürgen Stellbrink, Norbert Suttorp, Andrew J Ullmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Norma Jung
OBJECTIVE: "Choosing Wisely" is a growing international campaign aiming at practice changes to improve patient health and safety by both, conduct of essential and avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic procedures. The goal is to create an easily recognizable and distributable list ("Choosing Wisely items") that addresses common over- and underuse in the management of infectious diseases. METHODS: The German Society of Infectious Diseases (DGI) participates in the campaign "Klug Entscheiden" by the German Society of Internal Medicine...
June 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282104/retrospective-analysis-of-emerging-drugs-use-in-a-quebec-women-s-and-children-s-university-hospital-and-perspectives-for-safe-and-optimal-drug-use
#18
Jennifer Corny, Elaine Pelletier, Denis Lebel, Jean-François Bussières
BACKGROUND: Only few medicines are licensed for children. The use of emerging drugs (unmarketed drug, off-label drug with poorly documented use, and/or costly drugs) might represent an essential alternative for pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess emerging drug uses rate and profile in our women's and children's centre to support the implementation of an appropriate policy. METHODS: We identified retrospectively emerging drugs used between 2013-01-01 and 2014-02-28, using computerized pharmacist software extraction of drugs used...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279184/the-most-used-medicinal-plants-by-communities-in-mahaboboka-amboronabo-mikoboka-southwestern-madagascar
#19
Tabita N Randrianarivony, Aro Vonjy Ramarosandratana, Tefy H Andriamihajarivo, Fortunat Rakotoarivony, Vololoniaina H Jeannoda, Armand Randrianasolo, Rainer W Bussmann
BACKGROUND: This paper reports a study undertaken in three remote communities (Mahaboboka, Amboronabo, Mikoboka), located in Sakaraha, Southwestern Madagascar. Not only villages are far away from sanitary infrastructures and doctors but drugs and consulting fees are unaffordable to villagers. They rely essentially on natural resources for health care as for most of rural areas in Madagascar. This paper aims to document medicinal plants used by communities in Sakaraha and to present the most important plant species used in traditional medicine...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276634/essential-medicines-lists-for-children-of-who-india-south-africa-and-eml-of-china-a-comparative-study
#20
Dan Liu, Jing Cheng, Ling-Li Zhang, You-Ping Li, Li-Nan Zeng, Chuan Zhang, Ge Gui
OBJECTIVE: Comparing the essential medicine lists for children and China national essential medicine list 2012, to provide the evidence for establishing essential medicine list for children in China. METHODS: Search the official websites of WHO and some other countries' ministry of health to get essential medicine lists for children (EMLc) that have already established. Compare the situation of updating, the number and classification of medicines, and the dosage forms in essential medicine lists for children and China national essential medicine list 2012...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
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