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essential medicines for children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078810/improving-oxygen-therapy-for-children-and-neonates-in-secondary-hospitals-in-nigeria-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial
#1
Hamish R Graham, Adejumoke I Ayede, Ayobami A Bakare, Oladapo B Oyewole, David Peel, Amy Gray, Barbara McPake, Eleanor Neal, Shamim Qazi, Rasa Izadnegahdar, Adegoke G Falade, Trevor Duke
BACKGROUND: Oxygen is a life-saving, essential medicine that is important for the treatment of many common childhood conditions. Improved oxygen systems can reduce childhood pneumonia mortality substantially. However, providing oxygen to children is challenging, especially in small hospitals with weak infrastructure and low human resource capacity. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial will evaluate the implementation of improved oxygen systems at secondary-level hospitals in southwest Nigeria...
October 27, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034788/treatment-of-acute-migraine-attacks-in-children-with-analgesics-on-the-world-health-organization-essential-medicines-list-a-systematic-review-and-grade-evidence-synthesis
#2
Milka Jeric, Nives Surjan, Antonia Jelicic Kadic, Nicoletta Riva, Livia Puljak
Background The World Health Organization Essential Medicines List (WHO EML) contains two analgesics for treatment of acute migraine attacks in children, ibuprofen and paracetamol. Methods The Embase, CDSR, CENTRAL, DARE and MEDLINE databases were searched up to 18 April 2017. We analyzed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews (SRs) that investigate the efficacy and safety of ibuprofen or paracetamol for treatment of acute migraine attacks in children. We conducted meta-analysis and assessments of evidence with GRADE, Cochrane risk of bias tool, and AMSTAR...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030727/-parenteral-nutrition-in-premature-babies-with-a-birth-weight-1500g-a%C3%A2-systematic-single-center-analysis-and-comparison-with-current-guidelines
#3
Melanie Sirch, Martin Poryo, Mona Butte, Ulrike Lindner, Ludwig Gortner, Michael Zemlin, Holger Nunold, Sascha Meyer
BACKGROUND: Parenteral and enteral nutrition are essential for both growth and development of preterm infants. Based on the results of many studies, the rate of nutritional growth and the amount of substrate delivered parenterally are under debate. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess parenteral nutrition in very and extremely immature preterm infants, i.e. very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight <1500g) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW, birth weight <1000g) neonates, and to compare the amount of parenterally delivered substrate in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to current German guidelines...
October 13, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975470/infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-returning-travelers-and-immigrants
#4
REVIEW
Haley Thompson, Kiran Thakur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights current knowledge in travel-related neuroinfectious diseases, providing insight on approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in travelers and immigrants. RECENT FINDINGS: Updates on travel vaccine recommendations including vaccine-specific interactions with immunosuppressive agents, advances in Zika virus and dengue virus vaccine development, new diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, updates on treatment approaches for tuberculosis meningitis...
October 3, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893323/out-of-pocket-expenditure-for-seeking-health-care-for-sick-children-younger-than-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-bangladesh-findings-from-cross-sectional-surveys-2009-and-2012
#5
Tazeen Tahsina, Nazia Binte Ali, D M Emdadul Hoque, Tanvir M Huda, Shumona Sharmin Salam, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Md Altaf Hossain, Ziaul Matin, Lianne Kuppen, Sarah P Garnett, Shams El Arifeen
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has committed to universal health coverage, and options to decrease household out-of-pocket expenditure (OPE) are being explored. Understanding the determinants of OPE is an essential step. This study aimed to estimate and identify determinants of OPE in seeking health care for sick under-five children. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was collected by structured questionnaire in 2009 (n = 7362) and 2012 (n = 6896) from mothers of the under-five children...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893243/impact-of-pharmacy-worker-training-and-deployment-on-access-to-essential-medicines-for-children-under-five-in-malawi-a-cluster-quasi-experimental-evaluation
#6
Joseph B Babigumira, Solomon J Lubinga, Alisa M Jenny, Erin Larsen-Cooper, Jessica Crawford, Charles Matemba, Andy Stergachis
BACKGROUND: Poor access to essential medicines is common in many low- and middle-income countries, partly due to an insufficient and inadequately trained workforce to manage the medicines supply chain. We conducted a prospective impact evaluation of the training and deployment of pharmacy assistants (PAs) to rural health centers in Malawi. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare access to medicines in two districts where newly trained PAs were deployed to health centers (intervention) and two districts with no trained PAs at health centers (comparison)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889143/a-nonrandom-sample-of-55-sexual-abuse-cases-in-sivas
#7
Celal Butun, Ali Yildirim, Erdal Ozer, Eda Yilmaz, Seda Aybuke Sari
BACKGROUND Sexual abuse in childhood is a significant public health problem because of the destructive results both to the individual and to the community. The aim of this study was to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of children who were victims of sexual abuse, the relationship of the victim and abuser, and the findings of sexual abuse. MATERIAL AND METHODS An examination was made of the results of forensic medicine and psychiatric evaluations of child victims of sexual abuse. The sociodemographic characteristics of the cases and the characteristics of the incidents of sexual abuse were evaluated at the Forensic Medicine Department of Cumhuriyet University between 2013 and 2016...
September 10, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807704/temporary-removal-palliative-care-albania
#8
Rudina Rama, Valbona Mane-Carcani, Fatmir Prifti, Kristo Huta, Ali Xhixha, Stephen R Connor
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.
August 12, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797849/temporary-removal-the-international-association-for-hospice-and-palliative-care-iahpc-advancing-hospice-and-palliative-care-worldwide
#9
Liliana De Lima, Lukas Radbruch
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.
August 8, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796716/an-intensive-simulation-based-communication-course-for-pediatric-critical-care-medicine-fellows
#10
Erin M Johnson, Melinda F Hamilton, R Scott Watson, Rene Claxton, Michael Barnett, Ann E Thompson, Robert Arnold
OBJECTIVE: Effective communication among providers, families, and patients is essential in critical care but is often inadequate in the PICU. To address the lack of communication education pediatric critical care medicine fellows receive, the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh PICU developed a simulation-based communication course, Pediatric Critical Care Communication course. Pediatric critical care medicine trainees have limited prior training in communication and will have increased confidence in their communication skills after participating in the Pediatric Critical Care Communication course...
August 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728264/-exploratory-research-on-diagnostic-essentials-of-pediatric-tuberculous-pleurisy
#11
H Xu, J R Liu, S Y Zhao
Objective: To summarize the clinical diagnostic essentials of pediatric tuberculous pleurisy so as to reduce the misdiagnosis rate. Method: A retrospective study was conducted on 113 cases of tuberculous pleurisy who were seen from August 2006 to September 2014 in the second Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University. Meanwhile, another 113 cases of children over 5 years of age with mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia complicated with pleural effusion were randomly selected as control group...
July 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706333/availability-of-pediatric-evaluated-formulations-in-serbia
#12
Bojana Božić, Sanja Stupar, Duško Stupar, Uroš Babić, Milica Bajčetić
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze the availability and coverage by health insurance reimbursement of pediatric formulations labeled for children up to the age of 12 in Serbia. To provide good insight in general availability of pediatric medicines, results were compared with the World Health Organization's (WHO) "Model List of Essential Medicines for Children" and with published evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sources of information about medicines are the Summary of Product Characteristics, National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) Drug Lists, WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines for Children, and Serbia's official drug registry (2013)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665490/impact-of-china-s-essential-medicines-scheme-and-zero-mark-up-policy-on-antibiotic-prescriptions-in-county-hospitals-a-mixed-methods-study
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Xiaolin Wei, Jia Yin, John D Walley, Zhitong Zhang, Joseph P Hicks, Yu Zhou, Qiang Sun, Jun Zeng, Mei Lin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the national essential medicines scheme and zero-mark-up policy on antibiotic prescribing behaviour. METHODS: In rural Guangxi, a natural experiment compared one county hospital which implemented the policy with a comparison hospital which did not. All outpatient and inpatient records in 2011 and 2014 were extracted from the two hospitals. Primary outcome indicator was antibiotic prescribing rate (APR) among children aged 2-14 presenting in outpatients with a primary diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)...
September 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653488/drugs-for-rare-disorders
#14
EDITORIAL
Serge Cremers, Jeffrey K Aronson
Estimates of the frequencies of rare disorders vary from country to country; the global average defined prevalence is 40 per 100 000 (0.04%). Some occur in only one or a few patients. However, collectively rare disorders are fairly common, affecting 6-8% of the US population, or about 30 million people, and a similar number in the European Union. Most of them affect children and most are genetically determined. Diagnosis can be difficult, partly because of variable presentations and partly because few clinicians have experience of individual rare disorders, although they may be assisted by searching databases...
August 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646964/global-advocacy-needed-for-sepsis-in-children
#15
Sagar Dugani, Niranjan Kissoon
Sepsis in children is a complex syndrome that develops from various infections and results in 15-30% mortality in high-income countries and up to 50% or higher in low-income countries. Worldwide, this represents an annual burden of 30 million cases resulting in 8 million deaths. Not surprisingly, there is a significantly higher burden in low-income countries with children there being 18 times more likely to die before the age of 5 years compared to high-income countries. Factors such as commercial air travel, climate change, and unchecked population growth have contributed to the growing burden of infectious diseases and ensuing sepsis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640705/genomic-analysis-of-childhood-brain-tumors-methods-for-genome-wide-discovery-and-precision-medicine-become-mainstream
#16
REVIEW
Stephen C Mack, Paul A Northcott
Recent breakthroughs in next-generation sequencing technology and complementary genomic platforms have transformed our capacity to interrogate the molecular landscapes of human cancers, including childhood brain tumors. Numerous high-throughput genomic studies have been reported for the major histologic brain tumor entities diagnosed in children, including interrogations at the level of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, many of which have yielded essential new insights into disease biology. The nature of these discoveries has been largely platform dependent, exemplifying the usefulness of applying different genomic and computational strategies, or integrative approaches, to address specific biologic and/or clinical questions...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629443/parents-and-guardians-perceptions-on-availability-and-pricing-of-medicines-and-healthcare-for-children-in-ethekwini-south-africa-a-qualitative-study
#17
Velisha Ann Perumal-Pillay, Fatima Suleman
BACKGROUND: Inadequate access to affordable essential medicines poses a challenge to achieving Universal Health Coverage. Access to essential medicines for children has been in the spotlight in recent research. However, information from the end users of medicines, i.e. patients is scarce. Obtaining information at a household level is integral to understanding how people access, obtain and use medicines. This study aimed to gather opinions and perceptions from parents/guardians on availability, affordability and quality of medicines and healthcare for children in SA...
June 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600490/treating-tobacco-dependence-guidance-for-primary-care-on-life-saving-interventions-position-statement-of-the-ipcrg
#18
O C P Van Schayck, S Williams, V Barchilon, N Baxter, M Jawad, P A Katsaounou, B J Kirenga, C Panaitescu, I G Tsiligianni, N Zwar, A Ostrem
Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of premature death and disability. Global targets to reduce premature deaths by 25% by 2025 will require a substantial increase in the number of smokers making a quit attempt, and a significant improvement in the success rates of those attempts in low, middle and high income countries. In many countries the only place where the majority of smokers can access support to quit is primary care. There is strong evidence of cost-effective interventions in primary care yet many opportunities to put these into practice are missed...
June 9, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588968/who-and-national-lists-of-essential-medicines-in-mexico-central-and-south-america-and-the-caribbean-are-they-adequate-to-promote-paediatric-endocrinology-and-diabetes-care
#19
Amanda Rowlands, Alejandra Acosta-Gualandri, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Jean-Pierre Chanoine
Paediatric endocrinology and diabetes is a paediatric specialty with less common conditions and higher cost medicines. Access to medicines for our specialty in low and middle income countries remains limited. We analysed the content of the WHO (children and adults) and of all available national Model Lists of Essential Medicines (EMLs) for Mexico, the Caribbean, Central and South America from a paediatric endocrinology and diabetes standpoint. A master list of medicines deemed necessary in paediatric endocrinology and diabetes was established and compared with the WHO and national EMLs, taking into account the gross national income...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556570/what-families-have-in-the-emergency-tracheostomy-kits-identifying-gaps-to-improve-patient-safety
#20
Reshma Amin, Weeda Zabih, Faiza Syed, Joanna Polyviou, Tuyen Tran, Evan J Propst, Theresa Holler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contents of parent-created emergency tracheostomy kits and identify deficiencies. METHODS: This was an observational study. Data on emergency tracheostomy kits were abstracted for 30 consecutive children who had a tracheostomy tube in situ during an outpatient clinic visit with the Division of Respiratory Medicine and/or the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the Hospital for Sick Children between February 1 and October 30, 2016...
May 29, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
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