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10 most useful medications in pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917068/group-a-streptococcal-bacteraemia-experience-at-king-fahad-medical-city-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#1
Fawzyh J Al-Khadidi, Mohammed A AlSheheri, Tariq S AlFawaz, Mushira A Enani, Abdulaziz A AlAqeel, Dayel A AlShahrani
To identify clinical presentation, predisposing factors, and the outcome in patients with Group A Streptococcal bacteremia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 33 pediatric and adult patients with Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia, admitted at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2007 to 2015. Results: Thirty-three patient records, documenting bacteremia with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, were reviewed. Approximately 51.5% were pediatric and 48.5% were adult patients, with a male to female ratio of 2:1...
October 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891099/opioid-and-benzodiazepine-weaning-in-pediatric-patients-review-of-current-literature
#2
Norman E Fenn, Kimberly S Plake
Pediatric opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal are avoidable complications of pain and sedation management that is well described in the literature. To prevent withdrawal from occurring, practitioners regularly employ a steady decrease of pain and sedation medications, also known as a weaning or tapering schedule. The weaning schedule is highly variable based on clinician preference and is usually dependent on the clinician. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature on the process of opioid and benzodiazepine weaning in pediatric patients and to assess the various standardized protocols used to decrease withdrawal occurrences...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888560/unintentional-cannabis-ingestion-in-children-a-systematic-review
#3
John R Richards, Nishelle E Smith, Aimee K Moulin
OBJECTIVE: To analyze published reports of unintentional cannabis ingestions in children to determine presenting signs and symptoms, route of exposure, treatment, and outcome. STUDY DESIGN: PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Articles were selected, reviewed, and graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. RESULTS: Of 3316 articles, 44 were included (3582 children age ≤12 years). We found no high quality (Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine level I or II) studies and 10 level III studies documenting lethargy as the most common presenting sign and confirming increasing incidence of unintentional ingestion in states having decriminalized medical and recreational cannabis...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886594/elemental-sulfur-use-and-associations-with-pediatric-lung-function-and-respiratory-symptoms-in-an-agricultural-community-california-usa
#4
Rachel Raanan, Robert B Gunier, John R Balmes, Alyssa J Beltran, Kim G Harley, Asa Bradman, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Elemental sulfur, "the oldest of all pesticides," is the most heavily used agricultural pesticide in California and Europe. Sulfur is considered relatively safe and is used in both conventional and organic farming systems. Adverse respiratory effects have been reported in applicators and animals, but the effect on residential populations, and especially on children living in proximity to fields treated with elemental sulfur, is not known. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated associations between residential proximity to elemental sulfur applications and respiratory symptoms and spirometry of children living in an agricultural community...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867667/long-term-effects-of-orthoses-use-on-the-changes-of-foot-and-ankle-joint-motions-of-spastic-cp-children
#5
Xue-Cheng Liu, David Embrey, Channing Tassone, Kim Zvara, Brenna Brandsma, Roger Lyon, Karin Goodfriend, Sergey Tarima, John Thometz
BACKGROUND: Orthoses are commonly prescribed to children with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to provide foot correction and to improve ambulatory function. Immediate effects of ankle foot orthosis (AFOs) have been investigated, but long term kinematic effects are lacking clinical evidence. OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in pediatric patients with Cerebral Palsy's 3D ankle and foot segment motion between initial, and follow up visits (18 month average time differences) in both barefoot gait and gait with their ankle foot orthotic (AFO)...
August 31, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859711/primary-endoscopic-endonasal-dacryocystorhinostomy-for-pediatric-nasolacrimal-duct-obstruction-a-systematic-review
#6
Jeyasakthy Saniasiaya, Baharudin Abdullah, Salina Husain, De Yun Wang, Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad
BACKGROUND: Epiphora secondary to nasolacrimal duct obstruction is common in the pediatric age group. The mainstay treatment among these young patients has been conservative. Once epiphora becomes recalcitrant, however, an external or an endonasal approach is considered. OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EDCR) entails creating an opening from the lacrimal sac directly into the nasal cavity to counteract nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We reviewed the literature to determine the effectiveness and the safety of primary EDCR to treat pediatric nasolacrimal duct obstruction...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843663/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-brain-failure-a-novel-end-point
#7
Tarun D Singh, John C O'Horo, Ognjen Gajic, Amra Sakusic, Courtney N Day, Jay Mandrekar, Rahul Kashyap, Dereddi Raja Shekar Reddy, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of acute brain failure (ABF) in a mixed medical and surgical cohort of critically ill patients and its effect on ICU & hospital mortality. DESIGN: Observational electronic medical record (EMR) based retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to the ICU between 2006 and 2013. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Consecutive adult (>18years) critically ill patients admitted to medical and surgical ICUs...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828486/risk-factors-for-adverse-events-in-emergency-department-procedural-sedation-for-children
#8
Maala Bhatt, David W Johnson, Jason Chan, Monica Taljaard, Nick Barrowman, Ken J Farion, Samina Ali, Suzanne Beno, Andrew Dixon, C Michelle McTimoney, Alexander Sasha Dubrovsky, Nadia Sourial, Mark G Roback
Importance: Procedural sedation for children undergoing painful procedures is standard practice in emergency departments worldwide. Previous studies of emergency department sedation are limited by their single-center design and are underpowered to identify risk factors for serious adverse events (SAEs), thereby limiting their influence on sedation practice and patient outcomes. Objective: To examine the incidence and risk factors associated with sedation-related SAEs...
August 21, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821378/pathogens-and-outcomes-in-pediatric-septic-shock-patients-supported-by-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#9
Tu-Hsuan Chang, En-Ting Wu, Chun-Yi Lu, Shu-Chien Huang, Tzu-I Yang, Ching-Chia Wang, Jong-Min Chen, Ping-Ing Lee, Li-Min Huang, Luan-Yin Chang
BACKGROUND: Refractory septic shock is the leading cause of mortality in children. There is limited evidence to support extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in pediatric septic shock. We described the etiology and outcomes of septic patients in our institution and attempted to find predictive factors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 55 pediatric patients with septic shock who required ECMO support in a tertiary medical center from 2008 to 2015. Septic shock was defined as culture proved or clinical suspected sepsis with hypotension or end-organ hypoperfusion...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821366/safety-events-in-pediatric-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#10
Matt Hansen, Carl Eriksson, Barbara Skarica, Garth Meckler, Jeanne-Marie Guise
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the types of patient safety events that take place during pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review from a single large urban EMS system of EMS-treated pediatric (<18years of age) out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring between 2008 and 2011. A chart review tool was developed for this project and each chart was reviewed by a multidisciplinary review panel...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815799/characterization-of-opioid-use-in-sickle-cell-disease
#11
Jin Han, Jifang Zhou, Santosh L Saraf, Victor R Gordeuk, Gregory S Calip
PURPOSE: Opioid analgesics are commonly used to treat vaso-occlusive pain episodes in sickle cell disease (SCD), but comprehensive evidence characterizing opioid use in this patient population is limited. Our objective was to characterize opioid use patterns among SCD patients using a large nationwide database. METHODS: A large, US medical claims database was utilized to identify a cohort of 3882 SCD patients, and characteristics of opioid use were analyzed. Clinical variables including age, gender, medication use, health care utilization, and medical history were evaluated for correlations with opioid use...
August 16, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766394/moral-distress-in-iranian-pediatric-nurses
#12
Elham Ghasemi, Reza Negarandeh, Leila Janani
BACKGROUND: Moral distress is a very common experience in the nursing profession, and it is one of the main reasons for job dissatisfaction, burnout, and quitting among nurses. For instance, morally difficult situations in taking care of child patients who are severely ill may lead to moral distress for nurses. However, most of the studies about moral distress have been conducted on nurses of special wards and adult medical centers with much focus on developed countries. Subsequently, little has been researched on this topic among nurses in other nations such as Iran, and most certainly, there has been hardly any such research involving Iranian pediatric nurses...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765380/high-expenditure-pharmaceutical-use-among-children-in-medicaid
#13
Eyal Cohen, Matt Hall, Ruth Lopert, Brian Bruen, Lisa J Chamberlain, Naomi Bardach, Jennifer Gedney, Bonnie T Zima, Jay G Berry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medication use may be a target for quality improvement, cost containment, and research. We aimed to identify medication classes associated with the highest expenditures among pediatric Medicaid enrollees and to characterize the demographic, clinical, and health service use of children prescribed these medications. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of 3 271 081 Medicaid-enrolled children. Outpatient medication spending among high-expenditure medication classes, defined as the 10 most expensive among 261 mutually exclusive medication classes, was determined by using transaction prices paid to pharmacies by Medicaid agencies and managed care plans among prescriptions filled and dispensed in 2013...
August 1, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740420/a-cross-cultural-perspective-of-medical-clowning-comparison-of-its-effectiveness-in-reducing-pain-and-anxiety-among-hospitalized-bedouin-and-jewish-israeli-children
#14
Zehavit Gilboa-Negari, Sarah Abu-Kaf, Ephrat Huss, Gavriel Hain, Asher Moser
PURPOSE: Medical clowning has proven effective for reducing pain, anxiety, and stress, however, its differential effects on children from different cultures have not yet been researched. This study evaluated the effects of medical-clowning intervention on anxiety and pain among Jewish and Bedouin children, and anxiety among their parents, in southern Israel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in hospital pediatric departments and employed a pre-post design involving quantitative and qualitative methods...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736201/text-message-reminders-for-vaccination-of-adolescents-with-chronic-medical-conditions-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Annika M Hofstetter, Angela Barrett, Stewin Camargo, Susan L Rosenthal, Melissa S Stockwell
BACKGROUND: Many adolescents with chronic medical conditions (CMCs) are at risk of vaccine-preventable infection, yet are frequently under-vaccinated. Text message reminders, particularly those with embedded educational information, have been shown to increase general pediatric vaccination. Their use has not been studied specifically among adolescents with CMCs. METHODS: Eligible parents of adolescents with CMCs receiving care at one of 4 academically-affiliated pediatric clinics and requiring human papillomavirus (first dose), influenza, and/or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines were randomized in 4 consecutive cohorts to receive text message vaccine reminders with or without embedded educational information ("educational" vs...
July 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734813/incidence-and-types-of-pediatric-nystagmus
#16
David L Nash, Nancy N Diehl, Brian G Mohney
PURPOSE: To report the incidence, prevalent subtypes and clinical characteristics of pediatric nystagmus diagnosed over a 30-year period. DESIGN: Retrospective, population-based study METHODS: Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, the medical records of all children (<19 years) diagnosed as residents in Olmsted County, Minnesota with any form of nystagmus from January 1, 1976, through December 31, 2005, were reviewed. RESULTS: Seventy-one children were diagnosed during the 30-year period, yielding an annual incidence of 6...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729206/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-an-iranian-referral-pediatric-hospital-a-six-year-study
#17
Shima Mahmoudi, Masoumeh Mahzari, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Mohsen Mohammadi, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children all over the world. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) isolated from bloodstream infections (BSIs) in children admitted to the Children Medical Center Hospital (CMC), Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological data of the patients with positive blood cultures was collected from March 2011 to September 2016...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714753/pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-response-to-oral-corticosteroid-bursts-an-observational-study-of-patients-in-an-academic-community-based-pans-clinic
#18
Kayla Brown, Cristan Farmer, Bahare Farhadian, Joseph Hernandez, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer Frankovich
BACKGROUND: Sudden-onset severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or severely restrictive food intake with at least two coinciding, similarly debilitating neuropsychiatric symptoms define Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS). When associated with Group A Streptococcus, the syndrome is labeled Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). An abnormal immune response to infection and subsequent neuroinflammation is postulated to play an etiologic role...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678005/management-of-febrile-neutropenias-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-cost-minimization-analysis-between-adult-versus-pediatric-units
#19
Mathilde Penel-Page, Perrine Marec-Bérard, Magali Morelle, Amandine Bertrand, Christèle Riberon, Helen Boyle, Lionel Perrier
PURPOSE: Management of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) differs between adult and pediatric units, especially regarding febrile neutropenia (FN). In our previous study, we found that AYAs treated in adult units were significantly less hospitalized for FN than in pediatric units, without difference in morbimortality. The objective of this work was to assess the economic impact of these practices. METHODS: This study retrospectively collected data from the medical records of AYAs treated at the Comprehensive Cancer Center Léon Bérard, Lyon, France, in the Euro-E-W-I-N-G99 protocol between September 1, 2000 and May 31, 2013...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668360/reproductive-coercion-in-high-school-aged-girls-associations-with-reproductive-health-risk-and-intimate-partner-violence
#20
Jennifer L Northridge, Ellen J Silver, Hina J Talib, Susan M Coupey
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproductive coercion, a form of intimate partner violence (IPV) including contraceptive sabotage and pregnancy pressure, among urban high-school-aged girls and to examine its associations with reproductive health risks. DESIGN: and Setting: A self-administered survey completed by high-school-aged girls living in high-poverty neighborhoods while awaiting medical care in a pediatric emergency room, inpatient service, school-based and hospital-based clinics...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
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