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10 most useful medications in pediatrics

Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Mehran Peyvasteh, Shahnam Askarpour, Nasrollah Ostadian, Mohammad-Reza Moghimi, Hazhir Javaherizadeh
Background: Hirschsprung's disease is the most common cause of pediatric intestinal obstruction. Contrast enema is used for evaluation of the patients with its diagnosis. Aim: To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiologic findings for diagnosis of Hirschsprung in patients underwent barium enema. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in Imam Khomeini Hospital for one year starting from 2012, April...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Michele G Mills, Priya M Mehta, Craig M Smith, Mark S Wainwright
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to characterize changes in cerebral blood flow measured using transcranial Doppler in children with central nervous system infections. We hypothesized that children with central nervous system infections have abnormal cerebral blood flow, associated with a greater frequency of complications and poor neurological outcome. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of children admitted to the neonatal or pediatric intensive care unit with central nervous system infection and undergoing transcranial Doppler as part of routine care between March 2011 and July 2015...
September 4, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Marc A Auerbach, Marjorie Lee White, Sweta Bhargava, Pavan Zaveri, Elizabeth B Seelbach, Rebekah A Burns, Renuka Mehta, Brett McAninch, Daniel Fein, Todd P Chang, David O Kessler
OBJECTIVES: Few published studies describe graduating pediatric residents' procedural skills or success rates. This information would help guide supervisors' decisions about graduating residents' preparedness, training, and supervision needs. This study aimed to measure success rates for graduating pediatric residents performing infant lumbar puncture (LP) during the final months of their training and to describe their experiences performing and supervising infant LPs during the course of their training...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Erin N Schoenfelder, Tyler Sasser
Although side effects and family concerns are common and long-term medication adherence is low, stimulant medications are a front-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychosocial treatments include classroom, family, and child-focused interventions that teach caregivers and teachers how to implement contingencies to shape behavior and provide children with skills to compensate for ADHD deficits. Such programs have a growing evidence-base and can be implemented alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatments...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Yasuharu Ohno, Tamotsu Fujimoto, Yukari Shibata
Introduction Superb microvascular imaging is a new ultrasound image processing technique that uses advanced clutter suppression to extract flow signals from vessels and which helps us visualize very small vascular structures that were not previously visible without the use of a contrast agent. We herein analyzed the usefulness of superb microvascular imaging in the diagnosis of hepato-gastrointestinal disorders in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Fifty-six pediatric patients who underwent a total of 81 superb microvascular imaging examinations with an Aplio 300 ultrasound system (Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) were enrolled in this study...
October 3, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Todd Chassee, Diann Reischmann, Michael Mancera, John D Hoyle
BACKGROUND: Prehospital pediatric drug dosing errors affect 56,000 U.S. children annually. An accurate weight is the first step in accurate dosing. To date, the accuracy of Emergency Medical Dispatcher (EMD) obtained weights has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that EMD could obtain accurate pediatric weights. METHODS: We used a convenience sample of patients 12 years and younger that were transported by EMS to one children's hospital. EMD obtained patient weight (DW) from the 9-1-1 caller...
September 30, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Sandi K Lam, Rory R Mayer, Thomas G Luerssen, I Wen Pan
OBJECTIVES: To develop a cost model for hospitalization costs of surgery among children with Chiari malformation type 1 (CM-1) and to examine risk factors for increased costs. STUDY DESIGN: Data were extracted from the US National Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database. The study cohort was comprised of patients aged 0-20 years who underwent CM-1 surgery. Patient charges were converted to costs by cost-to-charge ratios. Simple and multivariable generalized linear models were used to construct cost models and to determine factors associated with increased hospital costs of CM-1 surgery...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Stephanie Feldstein, Maryam Afshar, Andrew C Krakowski, Lawrence F Eichenfield
PURPOSE: Studies have documented practice gaps in acne management between pediatricians and dermatologists. Evidence-based recommendations for acne management were published by the American Acne and Rosacea Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2013. We assess the impact of a case-based learning intervention on pediatrician knowledge and treatment of acne in accordance with published recommendations. METHODS: Participants were recruited at four conferences for pediatric providers...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Mary R Janevic, Shelley Stoll, Margaret Wilkin, Peter X K Song, Alan Baptist, Marielena Lara, Gilberto Ramos-Valencia, Tyra Bryant-Stephens, Victoria Persky, Kimberly Uyeda, Julie Kennedy Lesch, Wen Wang, Floyd J Malveaux
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of care coordination on asthma outcomes among children in underserved urban communities. METHODS: We enrolled children, most of whom had very poorly or not well-controlled asthma, in medical-social care coordination programs in Los Angeles, California; Chicago, Illinois; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and San Juan, Puerto Rico in 2011 to 2014. Participants (n = 805; mean age = 7 years) were 60% male, 50% African American, and 42% Latino...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Ahmed Ahmed El-Nawawy, Amina Sedky Al-Halawany, Manal Abdelmalik Antonios, Reem Gamal Newegy
OBJECTIVE: Pneumothorax should be considered a medical emergency and requires a high index of suspicion and prompt recognition and intervention. AIMS: The objective of the study was to evaluate cases developing pneumothorax following admission to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) over a 5-year period. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Case notes of all PICU patients (n = 1298) were reviewed, revealing that 135 cases (10.4%) developed pneumothorax, and these were compared with those patients who did not...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Roy J Kim
Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus (CFRD) is the most common endocrine complication of cystic fibrosis (CF), affecting more than 50% of patients by the 4th decade of life. CFRD is often preceded by worsening pulmonary status and nutritional decline. Treatment of CFRD is associated with improvements in body weight and pulmonary function and a reduction in pulmonary exacerbations. Because of the clinical significance of CFRD, diabetes screening with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended annually for all patients with CF starting at age 10 years...
September 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Maria N Gamaletsou, Blandine Rammaert, Marimelle A Bueno, Nikolaos V Sipsas, Brad Moriyama, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Emmanuel Roilides, Valerie Zeller, Saad J Taj-Aldeen, Michael Henry, Vidmantas Petraitis, David W Denning, Olivier Lortholary, Thomas J Walsh
Aspergillus arthritis is a debilitating form of invasive aspergillosis. Little is known about its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory features, treatment, and prognosis. Cases of Aspergillus arthritis were reviewed in the English literature from 1967 through 2015 for variables of arthritis with Aspergillus spp. recovered from joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, symptoms, signs, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Among 31 evaluable cases, 87% were males and 13% pediatric...
September 8, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Ronnie Sebro, Thomas DeLaney, Francis Hornicek, Joseph Schwab, Edwin Choy, G Petur Nielsen, Daniel I Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Chordomas are rare malignancies that primarily affect adults, but also rarely affect pediatric patients. We compared the imaging appearance, demographic and anatomic distributions of adult and pediatric chordomas in a large cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 220 subjects with histologically confirmed chordomas of the axial skeleton and pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging studies. Age, sex, type of chordoma (conventional, chondroid or dedifferentiated), the anatomic location of the chordoma, as well as whether the lesion was primarily extra-osseous were recorded...
2016: BMC Medical Imaging
Rebecca E Rosenberg, Stacey Trzcinski, Mindy Cohen, Mark Erickson, Thomas Errico, Lisa McLeod
STUDY DESIGN: Comparative effectiveness database study. OBJECTIVE: To describe variation in use of adjuvant therapies for managing postoperative pain in in patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF) for adolescent idiopathic (AIS) and determine association between use of these therapies and patient outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Variation in postoperative pain management for children undergoing PSF for AIS likely impacts outcomes...
August 31, 2016: Spine
Camila Amthauer, Maria Luzia Chollopetz da Cunha
OBJETIVE: to characterize the care services performed through risk rating by the Manchester Triage System, identifying demographics (age, gender), main flowcharts, discriminators and outcomes in pediatric emergency. METHOD: cross-sectional quantitative study. Data on risk classification were obtained through a search of computerized registration data from medical records of patients treated in the pediatric emergency within one year. Descriptive statistics with absolute and relative frequencies was used for the analysis...
2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Raquel Farias-Moeller, Luca Bartolini, Archana Pasupuleti, R D Brittany Cines, Amy Kao, Jessica L Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) ensues when there is no improvement of seizure control in response to anesthetic therapy or seizure recurrence after reduction of anesthetic agents. There is no consensus on standard of care for SRSE. Ketogenic diet (KD) has reported success, but technical challenges exist including inability to feed patients, concomitant steroid use, acidotic states, and lack of dieticians with experience. The optimal protocol for KD is yet to be determined...
August 23, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Sameera Ezzat, Wafaa M Rashed, Sherin Salem, M Tevfik Dorak, Mai El-Daly, Mohamed Abdel-Hamid, Iman Sidhom, Alaa El-Hadad, Christopher Loffredo
BACKGROUND: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer. The exact cause is not known in most cases, but past epidemiological research has suggested a number of potential risk factors. This study evaluated associations between environmental and parental factors and the risk for ALL in Egyptian children to gain insight into risk factors in this developing country. METHODS: We conducted a case-control design from May 2009 to February 2012...
2016: BMC Cancer
Kavi Madhani, Eric McGrath, Lokesh Guglani
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric lung abscesses can be primary or secondary, and there is limited data regarding response to treatments and patient outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and microbiologic profile of pediatric patients with lung abscess and assess the differences in outcomes for patients treated with medical therapy or medical plus surgical therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of all pediatric patients ≤ 18 years of age that were treated as an inpatient for lung abscess between the dates of August 2004 and August 2014 was conducted...
July 2016: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
Micah A Skeens, Jennifer McArthur, Ira M Cheifetz, Christine Duncan, Adrienne G Randolph, Joseph Stanek, Leslie Lehman, Rajinder Bajwa
Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a potentially fatal complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients with VOD are often critically ill and require close collaboration between transplant physicians and intensivists. We surveyed members of a consortium of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and transplant physicians to assess variability in the self-reported approach to the diagnosis and management of VOD. An internet-based self-administered survey was sent to pediatric HSCT and PICU providers from September 2014 to February 2015...
October 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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