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Mark Shepherd, Maud E S Achard, Adi Idris, Makrina Totsika, Minh-Duy Phan, Kate M Peters, Sohinee Sarkar, Cláudia A Ribeiro, Louise V Holyoake, Dimitrios Ladakis, Glen C Ulett, Matthew J Sweet, Robert K Poole, Alastair G McEwan, Mark A Schembri
Nitric oxide (NO) is a toxic free radical produced by neutrophils and macrophages in response to infection. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) induces a variety of defence mechanisms in response to NO, including direct NO detoxification (Hmp, NorVW, NrfA), iron-sulphur cluster repair (YtfE), and the expression of the NO-tolerant cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase (CydAB). The current study quantifies the relative contribution of these systems to UPEC growth and survival during infection. Loss of the flavohemoglobin Hmp and cytochrome bd-I elicit the greatest sensitivity to NO-mediated growth inhibition, whereas all but the periplasmic nitrite reductase NrfA provide protection against neutrophil killing and promote survival within activated macrophages...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shu-Cheng Liu, Xiao-Min Han, Ming Shi, Zi-Li Pang
This study aimed to provide evidence of persistent uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in female patients with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) after antibiotic therapy. We collected biopsies of the bladder, and clean-catch urine samples from 32 women who had episodes of recurrent UTI and were given antibiotic therapy. Urine samples and biopsies were analyzed by conventional bacteriological techniques. Phylogenetic group and 16 virulence factors (VFs) of UPEC were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Santosh Kumar Singh, Seema Kumari, Minakshi Gupta
Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infection has been reported to be most prevalent among patients of different class, gender and ages. Currently, multidrug resistant E. coli harboring several virulence factors are most perilous threats for patients especially for elders. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern, co-resistance and phenotypic virulence factors present in uropathogenic E. coli isolates from aged patients. Thirty-nine E. coli isolates were collected during May-June 2014 from patients aged 50-80 years...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Matthieu Rousseau, H M Sharon Goh, Sarah Holec, Matthew L Albert, Rohan B H Williams, Molly A Ingersoll, Kimberly A Kline
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common hospital-associated infections. Here, we report that bladder catheterization initiated a persistent sterile inflammatory reaction within minutes of catheter implantation. Catheterization resulted in increased expression of genes associated with defense responses and cellular migration, with ensuing rapid and sustained innate immune cell infiltration into the bladder. Catheterization also resulted in hypersensitivity to Enterococcus faecalis and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection, in which colonization was achieved using an inoculum 100-fold lower than the ID90 for infection of an undamaged urothelium with the same uropathogens...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
David A Hufnagel, Margery L Evans, Sarah E Greene, Jerry S Pinkner, Scott J Hultgren, Matthew R Chapman
The extracellular matrix protects Escherichia coli from immune cells, oxidative stress, predation, and other environmental stresses. Production of the E. coli extracellular matrix is regulated by transcription factors that are tuned to environmental conditions. The biofilm master-regulator protein CsgD upregulates curli and cellulose, the two major polymers in the extracellular matrix of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) biofilms. Here, we found that cAMP regulates curli, cellulose, and UPEC biofilms through csgD The alarmone cAMP is produced by adenylate cyclase (CyaA) and deletion of cyaA resulted in lower extracellular matrix production and biofilm formation...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Laurel Mydock-McGrane, Zachary Cusumano, Zhenfu Han, Jana Binkley, Maria Kostakioti, Thomas Hannan, Jerome S Pinkner, Roger Klein, Vasilios Kalas, Jan Crowley, Nigam P Rath, Scott J Hultgren, James W Janetka
Gram-negative uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) bacteria are a causative pathogen of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Previously developed antivirulence inhibitors of the type 1 pilus adhesin, FimH, demonstrated oral activity in animal models of UTI but were found to have limited compound exposure due to the metabolic instability of the O-glycosidic bond (O-mannosides). Herein, we disclose that compounds having the O-glycosidic bond replaced with carbon linkages had improved stability and inhibitory activity against FimH...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Matt S Conover, Ségolène Ruer, Joemar Taganna, Vasilios Kalas, Henri De Greve, Jerome S Pinkner, Karen W Dodson, Han Remaut, Scott J Hultgren
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is the dominant cause of urinary tract infections, clinically described as cystitis. UPEC express CUP pili, which are extracellular fibers tipped with adhesins that bind mucosal surfaces of the urinary tract. Here we identify the role of the F9/Yde/Fml pilus for UPEC persistence in the inflamed urothelium. The Fml adhesin FmlH binds galactose β1-3 N-acetylgalactosamine found in core-1 and -2 O-glycans. Deletion of fmlH had no effect on UPEC virulence in an acute mouse model of cystitis...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Mehdi Eskandari, Soghra Jani, Mahsa Kazemi, Habib Zeighami, Alireza Yazdinezhad, Sahar Mazloomi, Saeed Shokri
OBJECTIVE: Epididymo-orchitis (EO) potentially results in reduced fertility in up to 60% of affected patients. The anti-inflammatory effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) and its ability to act as an immunoenhancer in parallel with the beneficial effects of this ancient herbal medicine on the reproductive systems of animals and humans led us to evaluate its protective effects against acute EO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This animal experimental study was conducted in the Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS), Zanjan, Iran during 2013-2015...
2016: Cell Journal
Maria P Conte, Marta Aleandri, Massimiliano Marazzato, Antonietta L Conte, Cecilia Ambrosi, Mauro Nicoletti, Carlo Zagaglia, Guido Gambara, Fioretta Palombi, Paola De Cesaris, Elio Ziparo, Anna T Palamara, Anna Riccioli, Catia Longhi
Adherent/invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains are recently receiving increased attention because they are more prevalent and persistent in the intestine of Crohn (CD) patients than in healthy subjects. Since AIEC strains show a high percentage of similarity with ExPEC NMEC and UPEC, here we compared AIEC strain LF82 with a UPEC isolate (strain EC73) to assess whether LF82 could be able to infect prostate cells, as an extra-intestinal target. The virulence phenotypes of both strains were determined by using the RWPE-1 prostate cell line...
September 6, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Kumiko Kurabayashi, Tomohiro Agata, Hirofumi Asano, Haruyoshi Tomita, Hidetada Hirakawa
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major pathogen that causes urinary tracts infections (UTIs). This bacterium adheres and invades into the host cells in the bladder, where it forms biofilm-like polymicrobial structures termed intracellular bacterial community (IBC) that protect UPEC from antimicrobial agents and the host immune systems. Using genetic screening, we found that deletion of the fur gene which encodes an iron-binding transcriptional repressor for iron uptake systems elevated the expression of type I fimbriae and motility when UPEC is grown in iron-rich conditions, and led to an increased number of adhered and internalized UPEC cells to the bladder epithelial cells...
August 29, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Rosa Guzman-Hernandez, Araceli Contreras-Rodriguez, Rosa Hernandez-Velez, Iza Perez-Martinez, Ahide Lopez-Merino, Mussaret B Zaidi, Teresa Estrada-Garcia
Fresh cheeses are a main garnish of Mexican food. Consumption of artisanal fresh cheeses is very common and most of them are made from unpasteurised cow milk. A total of 52 fresh unpasteurised cheeses of five different types were purchased from a variety of suppliers from Tabasco, Mexico. Using the most probable number method, 67% and 63% of samples were positive for faecal coliforms and E. coli, respectively; revealing their low microbiological quality. General hygienic conditions and practices of traditional cheese manufacturers were poor; most establishments had unclean cement floors, all lacked windows and doors screens, and none of the food-handlers wore aprons, surgical masks or bouffant caps...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Laura Fernandes Gonçalves, Paulo de Oliveira Martins-Júnior, Ana Beatriz Fabrício de Melo, Rafaella Christina Rocha Moreira da Silva, Vicente de Paulo Martins, André Pitondo-Silva, Tatiana Amabile de Campos
The aim of this work was to analyse extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from outpatients with signs of cystitis in Hospital Universitário de Brasília (Brasília, Brazil) during the period July 2013 to April 2014. E. coli isolated from urine culture were identified and their antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined by VITEK 2. ESBL-producing strains identified were submitted to PCR for Clermont phylotyping, CTX-M group typing and virulence determinant detection, and clonal relationships were determined by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR...
September 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Lizath M Aguiniga, Ryan E Yaggie, Anthony J Schaeffer, David J Klumpp
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) account for 80-90% of urinary tract infections (UTI), and the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance among UPEC isolates reinforces the need for vaccines to prevent UTIs and recurrent infections. Previous studies have shown that UPEC isolate NU14 suppresses pro-inflammatory NFκB-dependent cytokines. However, modification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure by deleting the O-antigen ligase gene (waaL) enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Vaccination with ΔwaaL diminished NU14 reservoirs, and protected against subsequent infections...
August 15, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Ronak Bakhtiari, Shahin Ahmadian, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi
BACKGROUND: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are major bacterial agent of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). This infection is more prevalent among women because approximately half of all women will experience a UTI in their life-time and near a quarter of them will have a recurrent infection within 6-12 months. IutA protein has a major role during UPEC pathogenesis and consequently infection. Therefore, the aim of current study was assessment of IutA protein roles as a potential candidate antigen based for vaccine designing...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Cherie Blenkiron, Denis Simonov, Anita Muthukaruppan, Peter Tsai, Priscila Dauros, Sasha Green, Jiwon Hong, Cristin G Print, Simon Swift, Anthony R Phillips
BACKGROUND: Bacterium-to-host signalling during infection is a complex process involving proteins, lipids and other diffusible signals that manipulate host cell biology for pathogen survival. Bacteria also release membrane vesicles (MV) that can carry a cargo of effector molecules directly into host cells. Supported by recent publications, we hypothesised that these MVs also associate with RNA, which may be directly involved in the modulation of the host response to infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain 536, we have isolated MVs and found they carry a range of RNA species...
2016: PloS One
Alexander Akleyev, Isabelle Deltour, Lyudmila Krestinina, Mikhail Sokolnikov, Yulia Tsareva, Evgenia Tolstykh, Joachim Schüz
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that acute external in utero exposure to ionizing radiation can increase cancer risk. It is not known whether chronic exposure at low dose rates, including due to radionuclide intake, influences the lifetime risk of solid cancers in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate solid cancer risk after in utero irradiation. METHODS: Cancer incidence and mortality over a 60-year period (from January 1950 to December 2009) were analyzed in the Urals Prenatally Exposed Cohort (UPEC)...
2016: PloS One
Surabhi Khandige, Cecilie Antoinette Asferg, Karina Juhl Rasmussen, Martin Jakob Larsen, Martin Overgaard, Thomas Emil Andersen, Jakob Møller-Jensen
UNLABELLED: The ability to change cell morphology is an advantageous characteristic adopted by multiple pathogenic bacteria in order to evade host immune detection and assault during infection. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) exhibits such cellular dynamics and has been shown to transition through a series of distinct morphological phenotypes during a urinary tract infection. Here, we report the first systematic spatio-temporal gene expression analysis of the UPEC transition through these phenotypes by using a flow chamber-based in vitro infection model that simulates conditions in the bladder...
2016: MBio
Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Mehri Habibi, Saeid Bouzari
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infections in human. Antibiotics are common therapy for UTIs, but increase in antibiotic resistance will complicate future treatment of the infections, making the development of an efficacious UTI vaccine more urgent. In this study, we have evaluated intranasally the efficacy of FliC and FimH antigens of UPEC in different vaccine formulations with and without cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant. Immunization of mice with FliC in fusion form or admixed with FimH elicited higher levels of serum, mucosal and cell-mediated responses than FimH alone...
September 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Xiao-Fei Shen, Yan Teng, Kai-Hui Sha, Xin-Yuan Wang, Xiao-Long Yang, Xiao-Juan Guo, Lai-Bin Ren, Xiao-Ying Wang, Jingyu Li, Ning Huang
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the primary uropathogen, adhere to and invade bladder epithelial cells (BECs) to establish a successful urinary tract infection (UTI). Emerging antibiotic resistance requires novel nonantibiotic strategies. Our previous study indicated that luteolin attenuated adhesive and invasive abilities as well as cytotoxicity of UPEC on T24 BECs through down-regulating UPEC virulence factors. The aims of this study were to investigate the possible function of the flavonoid luteolin and the mechanisms by which luteolin functions in UPEC-induced bladder infection...
July 25, 2016: BioFactors
Stacy Ann-Marie Stephenson, Paul D Brown
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently encountered infections in clinical practice globally. Predominantly a burden among female adults and infants, UTIs primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) results in high morbidity and fiscal health strains. During pathogenesis, colonization of the urinary tract via fimbrial adhesion to mucosal cells is the most critical point in infection and has been linked to DNA methylation. Furthermore, with continuous exposure to antibiotics as the standard therapeutic strategy, UPEC has evolved to become highly adaptable in circumventing the effect of antimicrobial agents and host defenses...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
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