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Anna Lena Zogg, Katrin Zurfluh, Sarah Schmitt, Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Roger Stephan
Among 64 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolated from 13 cats and 51 dogs, 35 were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, and 29 were non-ESBL producers. Forty-six (71.9%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Among the ESBL producers, blaCTX-M-15 (n = 17/48.6% of the blaESBLs ), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 10/28.6%), blaCTX-M-55 (n = 4/11.4%), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 3/8.6%), and blaCTX-M-27 (n = 1/2.9%) were identified. The plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB and the azithromycin resistance gene mph(A) were detected in 17 (26...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Valerie S Forsyth, Chelsie E Armbruster, Sara N Smith, Ali Pirani, A Cody Springman, Matthew S Walters, Greta R Nielubowicz, Stephanie D Himpsl, Evan S Snitkin, Harry L T Mobley
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains cause most uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). These strains are a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains that infect extraintestinal sites, including urinary tract, meninges, bloodstream, lungs, and surgical sites. Here, we hypothesize that UPEC isolates adapt to and grow more rapidly within the urinary tract than other E. coli isolates and survive in that niche. To date, there has not been a reliable method available to measure their growth rate in vivo Here we used two methods: segregation of nonreplicating plasmid pGTR902, and peak-to-trough ratio (PTR), a sequencing-based method that enumerates bacterial chromosomal replication forks present during cell division...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Caitlin N Spaulding, Roger D Klein, Henry L Schreiber, James W Janetka, Scott J Hultgren
The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has led to a decline in the efficacy of traditional antimicrobial therapy. The rise in resistance has been driven by widespread use, and in some cases misuse, of antibacterial agents in treating a variety of infections. A growing body of research has begun to elucidate the harmful effects of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy on the beneficial host microbiota. To combat these threats, increasing effort is being directed toward the development of precision antimicrobial therapeutics that target key virulence determinants of specific pathogens while leaving the remainder of the host microbiota undisturbed...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Vasilios Kalas, Michael E Hibbing, Amarendar Reddy Maddirala, Ryan Chugani, Jerome S Pinkner, Laurel K Mydock-McGrane, Matt S Conover, James W Janetka, Scott J Hultgren
Treatment of bacterial infections is becoming a serious clinical challenge due to the global dissemination of multidrug antibiotic resistance, necessitating the search for alternative treatments to disarm the virulence mechanisms underlying these infections. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) employs multiple chaperone-usher pathway pili tipped with adhesins with diverse receptor specificities to colonize various host tissues and habitats. For example, UPEC F9 pili specifically bind galactose or N -acetylgalactosamine epitopes on the kidney and inflamed bladder...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
S Sarshar, J Sendker, X Qin, F M Goycoolea, M R Asadi Karam, M Habibi, S Bouzari, U Dobrindt, A Hensel
Fruits from Apium graveolens (Celery) are used traditionally in Persian and European medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. No data are available on A. graveolens extract on the interplay between uropathogenic E. coli and the eukaryotic host cells and on quorum sensing of the bacteria. The present study aimed to characterize an antiadhesive and anti quorum sensing effect of a characterized A. graveolens extract by specific in vitro assays and to correlate these effects with in vivo data obtained by an animal infection model...
February 26, 2018: Fitoterapia
Christoph Stork, Beáta Kovács, Barnabás Rózsai, Johannes Putze, Matthias Kiel, Ágnes Dorn, Judit Kovács, Szilvia Melegh, Andreas Leimbach, Tamás Kovács, György Schneider, Monika Kerényi, Levente Emödy, Ulrich Dobrindt
Asymptomatic bacterial colonization of the urinary bladder (asymptomatic bacteriuria, ABU) can prevent bladder colonization by uropathogens and thus symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI). Deliberate bladder colonization with Escherichia coli ABU isolate 83972 has been shown to outcompete uropathogens and prevent symptomatic UTI by bacterial interference. Many ABU isolates evolved from uropathogenic ancestors and, although attenuated, may still be able to express virulence-associated factors. Our aim was to screen for efficient and safe candidate strains that could be used as alternatives to E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yongning Lu, Amir Rafiq, Zhengguo Zhang, Ferial Aslani, Monika Fijak, Tao Lei, Ming Wang, Sanjeev Kumar, Jörg Klug, Martin Bergmann, Trinad Chakraborty, Andreas Meinhardt, Sudhanshu Bhushan
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common cause of urinary tract infections. In this study, UPEC strains harboring hemolysin A (HlyA) did not induce programmed cell death pathways by the activation of caspases. Instead, the UPEC pore-forming toxin HlyA triggered an increase in mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and manipulated mitochondrial dynamics by causing fragmentation of the mitochondrial network. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics resulted in severe impairment of mitochondrial functions by loss of membrane potential, increase in ROS production, and ATP depletion...
February 28, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Hojjatolah Zamani, Ali Salehzadeh
Background/aim: Biofilm formation is a major determinant factor in the development of urinary tract infections (UTIs) by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Several adhesion factors are involved in attachment of bacterial cells to the urinary tract and biofilm development. Materials and methods: The possible relationship between different adhesion factor genes (AFGs) and biofilm formation among UPEC isolates was investigated. Prevalence of different AFGs including fimA, fimH, papAH, papC, papEF, sfa-S, foc/G, and bmaE and their association to biofilm formation were investigated...
February 23, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Rosana Ribić, Tomislav Meštrović, Marijana Neuberg, Goran Kozina
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. Due to their frequent occurrence in the community and nosocomial settings, as well as the development of resistance to the commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, an enormous financial burden is placed on healthcare systems around the world. Therefore, novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of UTIs are needed. Although UPEC may harbour a plethora of virulence factors, type I fimbriae and P pili are two of the most studied adhesive organelles, since the attachment to host cells in the urinary tract is a crucial step towards infection...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
Reina Yamaji, Julia Rubin, Erika Thys, Cindy R Friedman, Lee W Riley
BACKGROUND: Incidence of drug-resistant community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) continues to increase worldwide. In 1999-2000, a single lineage of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) ST69 caused 51% of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant UTI in a Northern California university community. We compared the clonal distribution of UPEC and its impact on antimicrobial resistance prevalence in the same community during two periods separated by 17 years. METHODS: We analyzed E...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
María Eloísa Poey, Magela Laviña
Class 1 integrons are genetic elements that carry a variable set of antibiotic resistance genes, being frequently found in clinical Gram-negative isolates. It is generally assumed that they easily spread horizontally among bacteria, thus contributing to the appearance of multidrug resistant clones. However, there are few experimental studies on the lateral transfer of these elements performed with bacterial collections that had been gathered following an epidemiological design. In this work, a collection with these characteristics, comprising uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates bearing class 1 integrons, was employed to study the horizontal transfer of the integron to an E...
February 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Juan Gomez-Cruz, Srijit Nair, Angel Manjarrez-Hernandez, Sandra Gavilanes-Parra, Gabriel Ascanio, Carlos Escobedo
Rapid, inexpensive and sensitive detection of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a common cause of ascending urinary tract infections (UTIs) including cystitis and pyelonephritis, is critical given the increasing number of cases and its recurrence worldwide. In this paper, we present a label-free nanoplasmonic sensing platform, built with off-the-shelf optical and electronic components, which can detect intact UPEC at concentrations lower than the physiological limit for UTI diagnosis, in real time. The sensing platform consists of a red LED light source, lens assembly, CMOS detector, Raspberry Pi interface in conjugation with a metallic flow-through nanohole array-based sensor...
January 31, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Shiowshuh Sheen, Chi-Yun Huang, Rommel Ramos, Shih-Yung Chien, O Joseph Scullen, Christopher Sommers
Pathogenic Escherichia coli, intestinal (O157:H7) as well as extraintestinal types (for example, Uropathogenic E. coli [UPEC]) are commonly found in many foods including raw chicken meat. The resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to UPEC in chicken meat under the stresses of high hydrostatic Pressure (HHP, also known as HPP-high pressure processing) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (an essential oil) was investigated and compared. UPEC was found slightly less resistant than O157:H7 in our test parameter ranges. With the addition of trans-cinnamaldehyde as an antimicrobial to meat, HPP lethality enhanced both O157:H7 and UPEC inactivation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Biyun Sun, Hannah M Southam, Jonathan A Butler, Robert K Poole, Alexandre Burgun, Andrew Tarzia, F Richard Keene, J Grant Collins
A series of mononuclear ruthenium(ii) complexes containing the tetradentate ligand bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,7-heptane have been synthesised and their biological properties examined. In the synthesis of the [Ru(phen')(bb7)]2+ complexes (where phen' = 1,10-phenanthroline and its 5-nitro-, 4,7-dimethyl- and 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl- derivatives), both the symmetric cis-α and non-symmetric cis-β isomers were formed. However, upon standing for a number of days (or more quickly under harsh conditions) the cis-β isomer converted to the more thermodynamically stable cis-α isomer...
January 30, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Bradley D Steiner, Allison R Eberly, Melanie N Hurst, Ellisa W Zhang, Hamilton D Green, Stefan Behr, Kirsten Jung, Maria Hadjifrangiskou
Two-component systems (TCSs) dictate many bacterial responses to environmental change via the activation of a membrane-embedded sensor kinase, which has molecular specificity for a cognate response regulator protein. However, although the majority of TCSs operate through seemingly strict cognate protein-protein interactions, there have been several reports of TCSs that violate this classical model of signal transduction. Our group has recently demonstrated that some of these cross-interacting TCSs function in a manner that imparts a fitness advantage to bacterial pathogens...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Diego Martin-Sanchez, Miguel Fontecha-Barriuso, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Adrian M Ramos, Ramiro Cabello, Carmen Gonzalez-Enguita, Andreas Linkermann, Ana Belén Sanz, Alberto Ortiz
Urinary tract-associated diseases comprise a complex set of disorders with a variety of etiologic agents and therapeutic approaches and a huge global burden of disease, estimated at around 1 million deaths per year. These diseases include cancer (mainly prostate, renal, and bladder), urinary tract infections, and urolithiasis. Cell death plays a key role in the pathogenesis and therapy of these conditions. During urinary tract infections, invading bacteria may either promote or prevent host cell death by interfering with cell death pathways...
January 25, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Caitlin N Spaulding, Henry Louis Schreiber, Weili Zheng, Karen W Dodson, Jennie E Hazen, Matt S Conover, Fengbin Wang, Pontus Svenmarker, Areli Luna-Rico, Olivera Francetic, Magnus Andersson, Scott Hultgren, Edward H Egelman
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which cause urinary tract infections (UTI), utilize type 1 pili, a chaperone usher pathway (CUP) pilus, to cause UTI and colonize the gut. The pilus rod, comprised of repeating FimA subunits, provides a structural scaffold for displaying the tip adhesin, FimH. We solved the 4.2 Å resolution structure of the type 1 pilus rod using cryo-electron microscopy. Residues forming the interactive surfaces that determine the mechanical properties of the rod were maintained by selection based on a global alignment of fimA sequences...
January 18, 2018: ELife
B Owrangi, N Masters, A Kuballa, C O'Dea, T L Vollmerhausen, M Katouli
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are found in high numbers in the gut of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). We hypothesised that in hospitalised patients, UPEC strains might translocate from the gut to the blood stream and that this could be due to the presence of virulence genes (VGs) that are not commonly found in UPEC strains that cause UTI only. To test this, E. coli strains representing 75 dominant clonal groups of UPEC isolated from the blood of hospitalised patients with UTI (urosepsis) (n = 22), hospital-acquired (HA) UTI without blood infection (n = 24) and strains isolated from patients with community-acquired (CA)-UTIs (n = 29) were tested for their adhesion to, invasion and translocation through Caco-2 cells, in addition to the presence of 34 VGs associated with UPEC...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Defne Gümüş, Fatma Kalaycı-Yüksek, Emre Yörük, Gülşen Uz, Eşref Çelik, Cansu Arslan, Elif Merve Aydın, Cem Canlı, Mine Anğ-Küçüker
The host is the main environment for bacteria, and they also expose to many antibiotics during the treatment of infectious diseases in host body. In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible changes in growth rate and expression levels of three virulence genes (foc/foc, cnf1, and usp) in a uropathogenic E. coli standard strain within the presence of ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The UPEC C7 strain was grown on tryptic soy broth-TSB (control), TSB + ciprofloxacin, TSB + nitrofurantoin, and TSB + trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for determination of both growth rate and gene expression level...
January 11, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Alla K Golomidova, Eugene E Kulikov, Vladislav V Babenko, Elena S Kostryukova, Andrey V Letarov
Bacteriophage St11Ph5 was isolated from a sewage sample on a particularly phage-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) up11 host strain. It appeared to be closely related to bacteriophage G7C, isolated from horse feces; however, it carries a highly divergent host recognition module.
January 11, 2018: Genome Announcements
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