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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129382/the-cryoelectron-microscopy-structure-of-the-type-1-chaperone-usher-pilus-rod
#1
Manuela K Hospenthal, Dawid Zyla, Tiago R D Costa, Adam Redzej, Christoph Giese, James Lillington, Rudi Glockshuber, Gabriel Waksman
Adhesive chaperone-usher pili are long, supramolecular protein fibers displayed on the surface of many bacterial pathogens. The type 1 and P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) play important roles during urinary tract colonization, mediating attachment to the bladder and kidney, respectively. The biomechanical properties of the helical pilus rods allow them to reversibly uncoil in response to flow-induced forces, allowing UPEC to retain a foothold in the unique and hostile environment of the urinary tract...
November 7, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069656/cyclosporine-a-induces-micrornas-controlling-innate-immunity-during-renal-bacterial-infection
#2
Malick Sadio, Emilie Tourneur, Marcelle Bens, Jean-Michel Goujon, Alain Vandewalle, Cécilia Chassin
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) mainly due to uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are one of the most frequent complications in kidney-transplanted patients, causing significant morbidity. However, the mechanisms underlying UTI in renal grafts remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed the effects of the potent immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA) on the activation of collecting duct cells that represent a preferential site of adhesion and translocation for UPEC. CsA induced the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide- induced activation of collecting duct cells due to the downregulation of the expression of TLR4 via the microRNA Let-7i...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066548/genome-wide-discovery-of-genes-required-for-capsule-production-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#3
Kelvin G K Goh, Minh-Duy Phan, Brian M Forde, Teik Min Chong, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan, Glen C Ulett, Matthew J Sweet, Scott A Beatson, Mark A Schembri
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections and possesses an array of virulence factors for colonization, survival, and persistence. One such factor is the polysaccharide K capsule. Among the different K capsule types, the K1 serotype is strongly associated with UPEC infection. In this study, we completely sequenced the K1 UPEC urosepsis strain PA45B and employed a novel combination of a lytic K1 capsule-specific phage, saturated Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to identify the complement of genes required for capsule production...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066378/the-influence-of-tissue-antioxidant-enzymes-and-inflammatory-cascade-in-pathology-of-cystitis-an-experimental-rat-model
#4
A Vysakh, D Suma, Kuriakose Jayesh, Mathew Jyothis, M S Latha
We evaluate the role of antioxidant enzyme status and inflammatory cascade in disease progression of cystitis in a rat model. The animals were injected with clinically isolated Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and study the effect of various antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory markers in disease pathology on the 0(th) day, 12 h and 7(th) day of infection. The antioxidant status of bladder tissue was decreased during the 7(th) day of infection. Lipid peroxidation marker MDA was increased on the 7(th) day of infection in rats...
October 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038256/thiol-starvation-induces-redox-mediated-dysregulation-of-escherichia-coli-biofilm-components
#5
David A Hufnagel, Janet E Price, Rachel E Stephenson, Jesse Kelley, Matthew F Benoit, Matthew R Chapman
A hallmark of bacterial biofilms is the production of an extracellular matrix (ECM) that encases and protects the community from environmental stressors. Biofilm formation is an integral portion of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) lifecycle. Approximately 2% of UPEC are cysteine auxotrophs. Here, we investigated how cysteine homeostasis impacted UPEC UTI89 strain biofilm formation and, specifically, the production of the ECM components curli and cellulose. Cysteine auxotrophs produced less cellulose and slightly more curli compared to wildtype (WT) strains, and cysteine auxotrophs formed smooth, non-rugose colonies...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035446/the-effects-of-insulin-and-glucose-on-different-characteristics-of-a-upec-alterations-in-growth-rate-and-expression-levels-of-some-virulence-genes
#6
Defne Gumus, Emre Yoruk, Fatma Kalayci-Yuksek, Gulsen Uz, Aysegul Topal-Sarikaya, Mine Ang-Kucuker
BACKGROUND: Host factors are known to modulate virulence, antibiotic susceptibility, and growth rate of bacteria. The effect of human insulin and glucose on growth rate and expression of virulence genes (usp, sfa/foc, cnf1) of a uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain were investigated in this study. METHODS: E. coli C7 was grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB-control) and TSB containing 20 µU/mL insulin, 200 µU/mL insulin, 0.1% glucose, and 200 µU/mL insulin + 0.1% glucose...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980415/carvacrol-rich-oregano-oil-and-thymol-rich-thyme-red-oil-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-the-virulence-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#7
Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Jintae Lee
AIMS: Urinary tract infections are caused primarily by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), and indwelling catheters are usually colonized by UPEC biofilms tolerant to common antibiotics. Hence, UPEC biofilms pose a substantial challenge, and there is an urgent need for effective control strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 79 essential oils were screened for antibiofilm ability against UPEC. Components of active oils were identified, and their antibiofilm activities were also investigated using 96-well plates with crystal violet assay, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973965/biofilm-formation-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-is-favored-under-oxygen-conditions-that-mimic-the-bladder-environment
#8
Allison R Eberly, Kyle A Floyd, Connor J Beebout, Spencer J Colling, Madison J Fitzgerald, Charles W Stratton, Jonathan E Schmitz, Maria Hadjifrangiskou
One of the most common urologic problems afflicting millions of people worldwide is urinary tract infection (UTI). The severity of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria to acute cystitis, and in severe cases, pyelonephritis and urosepsis. The primary cause of UTIs is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), for which current antibiotic therapies often fail. UPEC forms multicellular communities known as biofilms on urinary catheters, as well as on and within bladder epithelial cells. Biofilm formation protects UPEC from environmental conditions, antimicrobial therapy, and the host immune system...
September 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971754/phylogroup-and-virulence-gene-association-with-clinical-characteristics-of-escherichia-coli-urinary-tract-infections-from-dogs-and-cats
#9
Tabitha A Hutton, Gabriel K Innes, Josée Harel, Philippe Garneau, Andrew Cucchiara, Dieter M Schifferli, Shelley C Rankin
Escherichia coli isolates from infections outside the gastrointestinal tract are termed extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and can be divided into different subpathotypes; one of these is uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). The frequency with which UPEC strains cause urinary tract infections in dogs and cats is not well documented. We used an oligonucleotide microarray to characterize 60 E. coli isolates associated with the urinary tract of dogs ( n = 45) and cats ( n = 15), collected from 2004 to 2007, into ExPEC and UPEC and to correlate results with patient clinical characteristics...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961708/enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-with-uropathogenic-characteristics-are-present-in-feces-of-diarrheic-and-healthy-children
#10
Kamila O Nunes, Adriana C P Santos, Silvia Y Bando, Rosa M Silva, Tânia A T Gomes, Waldir P Elias
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been recently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI). Since EAEC are found in feces of both diarrheic and asymptomatic individuals, their presence in the intestine may be a source of UTI. In this study we detected in feces of diarrheic and healthy children a subset of EAEC strains with genetic markers of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). MLST grouped these EAEC(ExPEC+) in three main clusters along with prototypes strains of EAEC, UPEC and UTI-causing EAEC...
September 11, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957626/removal-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-affected-by-varying-degrees-of-fouling-on-anaerobic-microfiltration-membranes
#11
Hong Cheng, Pei-Ying Hong
An anaerobic membrane bioreactor was retrofitted with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane units, each of which was fouled to a different extent. The membranes with different degrees of fouling were evaluated for their efficiencies in removing three antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), namely, blaNDM-1-positive Escherichia coli PI-7, blaCTX-M-15-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae L7, and blaOXA-48-positive E. coli UPEC-RIY-4, as well as their associated plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935873/whole-genome-sequencing-molecular-typing-and-in-vivo-virulence-of-oxa-48-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-including-st131-h30-rx-h22-and-h41-subclones
#12
María de Toro, Javier Fernández, Vanesa García, Azucena Mora, Jorge Blanco, Fernando de la Cruz, M Rosario Rodicio
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, including the increasingly reported OXA-48 Escherichia coli producers, are an emerging public health threat worldwide. Due to their alarming detection in our healthcare setting and their possible presence in the community, seven OXA-48-producing, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli were analysed by whole genome sequencing as well as conventional tools, and tested for in vivo virulence. As a result, five E. coli OXA-48-producing subclones were detected (O25:H4-ST131/PST43-fimH30-virotype E; O25:H4-ST131/PST9-fimH22-virotype D5, O16:H5-ST131/PST506-fimH41; O25:H5-ST83/PST207 and O9:H25-ST58/PST24)...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935107/glycoengineered-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-a-platform-for-vaccine-development
#13
Ezequiel Valguarnera, Mario F Feldman
As we enter into the postantibiotic era, vaccines to prevent bacterial infections previously treatable with antibiotics are urgently needed. Most successful antibacterial vaccines are glycoconjugates, composed of cell surface carbohydrates chemically attached to a carrier protein. Glycoconjugate vaccines provide a safe and consistent strategy against polysaccharide-encapsulated pathogens. The best examples are the conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis, all based on capsular polysaccharides...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924030/altered-regulation-of-the-diguanylate-cyclase-yaic-reduces-production-of-type-1-fimbriae-in-a-pst-mutant-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-cft073
#14
Sébastien Crépin, Gaëlle Porcheron, Sébastien Houle, Josée Harel, Charles M Dozois
The pst gene cluster encodes the phosphate-specific transport (Pst) system. Inactivation of the Pst system constitutively activates the two-component regulatory system PhoBR and attenuates the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073, attenuation by inactivation of pst is predominantly attributed to the decreased expression of type 1 fimbriae. However, the molecular mechanisms connecting the Pst system and type 1 fimbriae are unknown. To address this, a transposon library was constructed in the pst mutant, and clones were tested for a regain in type 1 fimbrial production...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910634/collaboration-between-distinct-rab-small-gtpase-trafficking-circuits-mediates-bacterial-clearance-from-the-bladder-epithelium
#15
Yuxuan Miao, Pradeep Bist, Jianxuan Wu, Qing Zhao, Qi-Jing Li, Ying Wan, Soman N Abraham
Rab small GTPases control membrane trafficking through effectors that recruit downstream mediators such as motor proteins. Subcellular trafficking typically involves multiple Rabs, with each specific step mediated by a distinct Rab protein. We describe a collaboration between two distinct Rab-protein-orchestrated trafficking circuits in bladder epithelial cells (BECs) that expels intracellular uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) from their intracellular niche. RAB11a and RAB27b and their trafficking circuitry are simultaneously involved in UPEC expulsion...
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887442/targeting-deficiencies-in-the-tlr5-mediated-vaginal-response-to-treat-female-recurrent-urinary-tract-infection
#16
Ased S M Ali, Catherine Mowbray, Marcelo Lanz, Anna Stanton, Samantha Bowen, Claire L Varley, Paul Hilton, Karen Brown, Wendy Robson, Jennifer Southgate, Phillip D Aldridge, Alison Tyson-Capper, Soman Abraham, Robert S Pickard, Judith Hall
The identification of the host defence peptides as target effectors in the innate defence of the uro-genital tract creates new translational possibilities for immunomodulatory therapies, specifically vaginal therapies to treat women suffering from rUTI, particularly those carrying the TLR5_C1174T SNP. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a microbial disease reported worldwide. Women are particularly susceptible with many suffering debilitating recurrent (r) infections. Treatment is by antibiotics, but such therapy is linked to antibiotic resistance and re-infection...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882930/renal-scar-formation-and-kidney-function-following-antibiotic-treated-murine-pyelonephritis
#17
Patrick D Olson, Lisa K McLellan, Alice Liu, Kelleigh L Briden, Kristin M Tiemann, Allyssa L Daugherty, Keith A Hruska, David A Hunstad
We present a new preclinical model to study treatment, resolution and sequelae of severe ascending pyelonephritis. Urinary tract infection (UTI), primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), is a common disease in children. Severe pyelonephritis is the primary cause of acquired renal scarring in childhood, which may eventually lead to hypertension and chronic kidney disease in a small but important fraction of patients. Preclinical modeling of UTI utilizes almost exclusively females, which (in most mouse strains) exhibit inherent resistance to severe ascending kidney infection; consequently, no existing preclinical model has assessed the consequences of recovery from pyelonephritis following antibiotic treatment...
November 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861113/uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-st131-in-urinary-tract-infections-in-children
#18
Ki Wook Yun, Mi-Kyung Lee, Wonyong Kim, In Seok Lim
PURPOSE: Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131, a multidrug-resistant clone causing extraintestinal infections, has rapidly become prevalent worldwide. However, the epidemiological and clinical features of pediatric infections are poorly understood. We aimed to explore the characteristics of ST131 Escherichia coli isolated from Korean children with urinary tract infections. METHODS: We examined 114 uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates from children hospitalized at Chung-Ang University Hospital between 2011 and 2014...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861072/uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-upec-infections-virulence-factors-bladder-responses-antibiotic-and-non-antibiotic-antimicrobial-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Maria E Terlizzi, Giorgio Gribaudo, Massimo E Maffei
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common pathological conditions in both community and hospital settings. It has been estimated that about 150 million people worldwide develop UTI each year, with high social costs in terms of hospitalizations and medical expenses. Among the common uropathogens associated to UTIs development, UroPathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause. UPEC strains possess a plethora of both structural (as fimbriae, pili, curli, flagella) and secreted (toxins, iron-acquisition systems) virulence factors that contribute to their capacity to cause disease, although the ability to adhere to host epithelial cells in the urinary tract represents the most important determinant of pathogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829050/tamm-horsfall-glycoprotein-engages-human-siglec-9-to-modulate-neutrophil-activation-in-the-urinary-tract
#20
Kathryn A Patras, Alison Coady, Joshua Olson, Syed Raza Ali, Satish P RamachandraRao, Satish Kumar, Ajit Varki, Victor Nizet
Urinary tract infections are a major problem in human medicine for which better understanding of native immune defenses may reveal new pathways for therapeutic intervention. Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP), the most abundant urinary protein, interacts with bacteria including uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) as well host immune cells. In addition to its well-studied functions to antagonize bacterial colonization, we hypothesize that THP serves a critical host defense function through innate immune modulation...
November 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
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