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Behavioral Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786865/infection-with-phytopathogenic-bacterium-inhibits-melatonin-biosynthesis-decreases-longevity-of-its-vector-and-suppresses-the-free-radical-defense
#1
Yasser Nehela, Nabil Killiny
Vector-borne phytopathogenic bacteria may alter the reproductive fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism of their vectors. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is associated with the Huanglongbing (HLB; also known as citrus greening disease), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide, and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Insecta, Hemiptera, Liviidae). The genome sequencing of CLas revealed that it does not have the ability to synthesize tryptophan, the precursor of melatonin, and it must acquire it from its host plant or insect vector to achieve its biological processes, such as growth and multiplication...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786712/cocrystals-of-a-1-2-4-thiadiazole-based-potent-neuroprotector-with-gallic-acid-solubility-thermodynamic-stability-relationships-and-formation-pathways
#2
Artem O Surov, Andrei V Churakov, Alexey N Proshin, Xia-Lin Dai, Tongbu Lu, German L Perlovich
Three distinct solid forms, namely anhydrous cocrystals with 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 drug/acid ratios ([TDZ : GA] (2 : 1), [TDZ : GA] (1 : 1)), and a hydrated one having 1 : 1 : 1 drug/acid/water stoichiometry ([TDZ : GA : H2O] (1 : 1 : 1)), have been formed by cocrystallization of the biologically active 1,2,4-thiadiazole derivative (TDZ) with gallic acid (GA). The thermodynamic stability relationships between the cocrystals were rationalized in terms of Gibbs energies of the formation reactions and further verified by performing a set of competitive and exchange mechanochemical reactions...
May 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785930/shearing-in-flow-environment-promotes-evolution-of-social-behavior-in-microbial-populations
#3
Gurdip Uppal, Dervis Vural
How producers of public goods persist in microbial communities is a major question in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is evolutionarily unstable, since cheating strains can reproduce quicker and take over. Spatial structure has been shown to be a robust mechanism for the evolution of cooperation. Here we study how spatial assortment might emerge from native dynamics and show that fluid flow shear promotes cooperative behavior. Social structures arise naturally from our advection-diffusion-reaction model as self-reproducing Turing patterns...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785748/the-relation-of-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-to-later-shyness-moderation-by-neighborhood-quality
#4
Hui Zhang, Tracy L Spinrad, Nancy Eisenberg, Linlin Zhang
The purpose of the study was to predict young children's shyness from both internal/biological (i.e., resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) and external (i.e., neighborhood quality) factors. Participants were 180 children at 42 (Time 1; T1), 72 (T2), and 84 (T3) months of age. RSA data were obtained at T1 during a neutral film in the laboratory. Mothers reported perceived neighborhood quality at T2 and children's dispositional shyness at T1 and T3. Path analyses indicated that resting RSA interacted with neighborhood quality to predict T3 shyness, even after controlling for earlier family income and T1 shyness...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785270/distant-lung-metastases-caused-by-a-histologically-benign-phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumor
#5
Maria P Yavropoulou, Christos Poulios, Christoforos Foroulis, Symeon Tournis, Prodromos Hytiroglou, Kalliopi Kotsa, Isaak Kessisoglou, Pantelis Zebekakis
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare form of hypophosphatemia usually caused by phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs); the biologic behavior of PMTs is under investigation. Herein we present a case of TIO with a protracted course over 12 years leading to a fatal outcome. A 39-year-old man presented with weakness in 2004 and was found to have decreased serum phosphorus, phosphaturia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Four years later he developed a painful left calf mass. The lesion was resected, but recurred causing extreme pain and dysfunction...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784788/mistimed-food-intake-and-sleep-alters-24-hour-time-of-day-patterns-of-the-human-plasma-proteome
#6
Christopher M Depner, Edward L Melanson, Andrew W McHill, Kenneth P Wright
Proteomics holds great promise for understanding human physiology, developing health biomarkers, and precision medicine. However, how much the plasma proteome varies with time of day and is regulated by the master circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus brain clock, assessed here by the melatonin rhythm, is largely unknown. Here, we assessed 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins in six healthy men during daytime food intake and nighttime sleep in phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian alignment) versus daytime sleep and nighttime food intake out of phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784657/autism-spectrum-disorder-advances-in-diagnosis-and-evaluation
#7
REVIEW
Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Melanie Penner
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a variety of causes, and its clinical expression is generally associated with substantial disability throughout the lifespan. Recent advances have led to earlier diagnosis, and deep phenotyping efforts focused on high risk infants have helped advance the characterization of early behavioral trajectories. Moreover, biomarkers that measure early structural and functional connectivity, visual orienting, and other biological processes have shown promise in detecting the risk of autism spectrum disorder even before the emergence of overt behavioral symptoms...
May 21, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784381/synthesis-of-a-selective-ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-based-on-naphthalimide-and-its-application-in-human-cytochrome-p450-1a
#8
Xiuxuan Zhang, Yan Zhou, Xiaofei Gu, Yu Cheng, Manxin Hong, Liqiang Yan, Fulong Ma, Zhengjian Qi
Cytochrome P450s have brought considerable attention to researchers for their significant correlations with metabolic behaviors of procarcinogenic chemicals. To better understand the roles of CYP1A in biological and physiological systems, we developed a novel ratiometric fluorescence probe N-((2-hydroxyl ethoxy) ethyl)- 4-methoxy-1, 8-naphthalimide (NEMN) allowing for selectively and sensitively monitoring the target enzymes under physiological conditions and living cells. The probe was designed based on substrate predilection of CYP1A and its outstanding O-dealkylation capacity, and 1, 8-naphthalimide was chosen as fluorophore on account of its desirable photophysical properties...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784354/a-comparative-study-of-sterically-and-electro-statically-stabilized-silver-nanoparticles-for-the-determination-of-muscle-relaxant-tizanidine-insights-of-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-and-electrocatalytic-activity
#9
Marwa R El-Zahry
A comparative study of two types of silver nanoparticles was investigated. The effect of the surface chemistry of the studied silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on their localized surface plasmon resonance was utilized for the quantitative determination of muscle relaxant tizanidine drug. The studied AgNPs are classified according to the type of stabilizing agent used in their synthesis into electrostatically and sterically stabilized AgNPs. The electrostatically-stabilized AgNPs (AA AgNPs) were prepared using ascorbic acid as both reducing and protective agents in alkaline medium...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783145/electrochemical-biosensor-system-using-a-cmos-microelectrode-array-provides-high-spatially-and-temporally-resolved-images
#10
William Tedjo, Jasmine E Nejad, Rachel Feeny, Lang Yang, Charles S Henry, Stuart Tobet, Tom Chen
The ability to view biological events in real time has contributed significantly to research in the life sciences. While video capture of real time changes in anatomical relationships is important, it is equally important to visualize real time changes in the chemical communications that drive cell behaviors. This paper describes an electrochemical imaging system capable of capturing changes in chemical gradients in live tissue slices. The system consists of a CMOS microchip with 8192 configurable Pt surface electrodes, on-chip potentiostat, on-chip control logic, and a microfluidic device designed to interface with the CMOS chip to support ex vivo tissue experimentation...
April 10, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782969/electroencephalographic-and-cardiovascular-markers-of-vulnerability-within-families-of-suicidal-adolescents-a-pilot-study
#11
Erin A Kaufman, Sheila E Crowell, James Coleman, Megan E Puzia, Douglas D Gray, David L Strayer
Suicide, self-injury, and predisposing vulnerabilities aggregate in families. Those at greatest risk often show deficits in two biologically-mediated domains: behavioral control and emotion regulation. This pilot study explored electroencephalographic and cardiovascular indices of self-regulation among typical and suicidal adolescents (n = 30/group) and biological family members (mothers, fathers, and siblings). We measured event-related potentials during a flanker task designed to evoke impulsive responding and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at rest and during social rejection...
May 18, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782390/suspecting-hyperferritinemic-sepsis-in-iron-deficient-population-do-we-need-a-lower-plasma-ferritin-threshold
#12
Swarup Ghosh, Arun K Baranwal, Prateek Bhatia, Karthi Nallasamy
OBJECTIVES: Hyperferritinemia is being suggested to identify patients with sepsis-induced macrophage activation syndrome for early intervention. However, data among iron-deficient children are scarce. This study was planned to explore the biological behavior of plasma ferritin in children from communities with a high frequency of iron deficiency with septic shock and its association with the outcome. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary care teaching hospital in a low-middle income economy of South Asia...
May 18, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781966/health-outcomes-of-youth-in-the-united-states-exposed-to-parental-incarceration-an-integrative-review
#13
Samantha J Boch, Jodi L Ford
In the United States, parental incarceration (PI) has been increasingly recognized as an understudied adverse childhood experience. In response, a rapidly expanding body of research has begun to investigate the effects of PI on youth mental and physical health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this integrative review was to synthesize recent quantitative evidence investigating the effects of PI on youths' mental and physical health outcomes. DESIGN AND MEASURES: Electronic strategies were used to find relevant quantitative articles published between September 2006 and 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Equity guidelines...
April 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781632/ethnicity-moderates-the-benefits-of-perceived-support-and-emotional-expressivity-on-stress-reactivity-for-asian-americans-and-euro-americans
#14
Shu-Wen Wang, Anna S Lau
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether ethnicity moderated the benefits of perceived support and emotion expressivity on stress responses (cortisol, negative mood, task performance) during a lab stress task for Asian Americans and Euro Americans. We hypothesized that perceived support and emotion expressivity would be less beneficial for Asian Americans (relative to Euro Americans), for whom support seeking and emotional expressivity are less aligned with cultural values. METHOD: A majority female sample (72%) of 83 Asian American (first generation, n = 30; second generation, n = 53) and 50 Euro American college students completed the Trier Social Stress Test...
May 21, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781575/brn2-a-pouerful-driver-of-melanoma-phenotype-switching-and-metastasis
#15
REVIEW
Mitchell E Fane, Yash Chhabra, Aaron G Smith, Richard A Sturm
The POU domain family of transcription factors play a central role in embryogenesis and are highly expressed in neural crest cells and the developing brain. BRN2 is a class III POU domain protein that is a key mediator of neuroendocrine and melanocytic development and differentiation. While BRN2 is a central regulator in numerous developmental programs, it has also emerged as a major player in the biology of tumourigenesis. In melanoma, BRN2 has been implicated as one of the master regulators of the acquisition of invasive behavior within the phenotype-switching model of progression...
May 21, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781380/finally-a-regimen-to-extend-human-life-expectancy
#16
James Larrick, Andrew R Mendelsohn
The US has the most expensive healthcare system worldwide. Yet measures of healthspan and life expectancy are well below the major industrialized nations. With the US population aged 65 and older projected to double by mid-century a healthcare crisis is looming. Within this context huge interest and investment has emerged in technologies and drugs to address aging with an expected benefit to healthspan. The thesis being that such basic interventions will reduce morbidity caused by many chronic diseases where biological age itself is the major risk factor...
May 21, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781242/photo-controlled-reversible-microtubule-assembly-mediated-by-cyclodextrin-derivative
#17
Ying-Ming Zhang, Ni-Yuan Zhang, Kui Xiao, Yu Liu, Qilin Yu
The design and construction of multistimuli-responsive supramolecular nanoassemblies that can mimic and regulate the fundamental biological processes has become a focus of interest in supramolecular chemistry. In this work, a perfect combination has been achieved between naturally occurring microtubule and artificially macrocyclic receptor. The self-assembling morphology of microtubules can be photo-tuned by the host-guest interaction of paclitaxel-modified β-cyclodextrin (PTX-CD) and photochromic arylazopyrazole (PTX-AAP)...
May 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781218/fabrication-of-single-gel-with-different-mechanical-stiffness-using-three-dimensional-mold
#18
Gulsan Ara Sathi Kazi, Kazi Anisur Rahman, Mahmoud Farahat, Takuya Matsumoto
The hydrogel is considering as functional substrates for three-dimensional (3D) environment mimicking the native tissue in vitro. To get the cell or tissue culture result in different stiffness, researchers are used separate gel at the different time. Sometimes these results are manipulated by surrounding environment. To overcome this, we prepared a single hydrogel with different young modulus using a 3D printed mold and cell culture and tissue culture was performed to check the functional capacity. In this proposed device we successfully produced a multi properties agarose hydrogel on a single platform...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781180/identifying-predictive-behavioral-markers-a-demonstration-using-automatically-reinforced-self-injurious-behavior
#19
Louis P Hagopian, Griffin W Rooker, Gayane Yenokyan
Predictive biomarkers (PBioMs) are objective biological measures that predict response to medical treatments for diseases. The current study translates methods used in the field of precision medicine to identify PBioMs to identify parallel predictive behavioral markers (PBMs), defined as objective behavioral measures that predict response to treatment. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by examining the accuracy of two PBMs for automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (ASIB). Results of the analysis indicated both functioned as good to excellent PBMs...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780538/competition-between-li-and-na-in-sodium-transporters-and-receptors-which-na-binding-sites-are-therapeutic-li-targets
#20
Todor Dudev, Karine Mazmanian, Carmay Lim
Sodium (Na+ ) acts as an indispensable allosteric regulator of the activities of biologically important neurotransmitter transporters and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which comprise well-known drug targets for psychiatric disorders and addictive behavior. How selective these allosteric Na+ -binding sites are for the cognate cation over abiogenic Li+ , a first-line drug to treat bipolar disorder, is unclear. Here, we reveal how properties of the host protein and its binding cavity affect the outcome of the competition between Li+ and Na+ for allosteric binding sites in sodium transporters and receptors...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
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