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Behavioral Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355901/depressive-symptoms-predict-head-and-neck-cancer-survival-examining-plausible-behavioral-and-biological-pathways
#1
Lauren A Zimmaro, Sandra E Sephton, Chelsea J Siwik, Kala M Phillips, Whitney N Rebholz, Helena C Kraemer, Janine Giese-Davis, Liz Wilson, Jeffrey M Bumpous, Elizabeth D Cash
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancers are associated with high rates of depression, which may increase the risk for poorer immediate and long-term outcomes. Here it was hypothesized that greater depressive symptoms would predict earlier mortality, and behavioral (treatment interruption) and biological (treatment response) mediators were examined. METHODS: Patients (n = 134) reported depressive symptomatology at treatment planning. Clinical data were reviewed at the 2-year follow-up...
January 22, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355733/a-new-approach-to-detect-the-coding-rule-of-the-cortical-spiking-model-in-the-information-transmission
#2
Soheila Nazari, Karim Faez, Mahyar Janahmadi
Investigation of the role of the local field potential (LFP) fluctuations in encoding the received sensory information by the nervous system remains largely unknown. On the other hand, transmission of these translation rules in information transmission between the structure of sensory stimuli and the cortical oscillations to the bio-inspired artificial neural networks operating at the efficiency of the nervous system is still a vague puzzle. In order to move towards this important goal, computational neuroscience tools can be useful so, we simulated a large-scale network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with synaptic connections consisting of AMPA and GABA currents as a model of cortical populations...
January 3, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355494/adamts-1-disrupts-hgf-c-met-signaling-and-hgf-stimulated-cellular-processes-in-fibrosarcoma
#3
Heydi Noriega Guerra, Mário Costa Cruz, Priscilla Ramos Lara Ribeiro, Jan Strnadel, Huawei Wang, Richard L Klemke, Ruy Gastaldoni Jaeger, Vanessa Morais Freitas
Extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as a reservoir for biologically active factors, such as growth factors and proteases that influence the tumor cell behavior. ADAMTS-1 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) is a secreted protease that has the ability to modify the ECM during physiological and pathological processes. Here, we analyzed the role played by ADAMTS-1 regulating HGF and TGF-β1 activities in the high-grade fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080). We generated HT1080 and HEK293T cells overexpressing ADAMTS-1...
January 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354496/the-current-status-and-clinical-value-of-circulating-tumor-cells-and-circulating-cell-free-tumor-dna-in-bladder-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Sabine Riethdorf, Armin Soave, Michael Rink
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is a complex disease, which is associated with highly aggressive tumor biologic behavior, especially in patients with muscle-invasive and advanced tumors. Despite multimodal therapy options including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, UCB patients frequently suffer from poor clinical outcome. Indeed, the potential of diverse opportunities for modern targeted therapies is not sufficiently elucidated in UCB yet. To improve the suboptimal treatment situation in UCB, biomarkers are urgently needed that help detecting minimal residual disease (MRD), predicting therapy response and subsequently prognosis as well as enabling patient stratification for further therapies and therapy monitoring, respectively...
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353950/a-hybrid-three-scale-model-of-tumor-growth
#5
H L Rocha, R C Almeida, E A B F Lima, A C M Resende, J T Oden, T E Yankeelov
Cancer results from a complex interplay of different biological, chemical, and physical phenomena that span a wide range of time and length scales. Computational modeling may help to unfold the role of multiple evolving factors that exist and interact in the tumor microenvironment. Understanding these complex multiscale interactions is a crucial step towards predicting cancer growth and in developing effective therapies. We integrate different modeling approaches in a multiscale, avascular, hybrid tumor growth model encompassing tissue, cell, and sub-cell scales...
January 2018: Mathematical Models & Methods in Applied Sciences: M3AS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353879/shifting-priorities-highly-conserved-behavioral-and-brain-network-adaptations-to-chronic-stress-across-species
#6
Yuliya S Nikolova, Keith A Misquitta, Brad R Rocco, Thomas D Prevot, Annchen R Knodt, Jacob Ellegood, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jason P Lerch, Ahmad R Hariri, Etienne Sibille, Mounira Banasr
Parallel clinical and preclinical research have begun to illuminate the biological basis of stress-related disorders, including major depression, but translational bridges informing discrete mechanistic targets for intervention are missing. To address this critical need, we used structural MRI in a mouse model and in a large human sample to examine stress effects on brain structure that may be conserved across species. Specifically, we focused on a previously unexplored approach, whole-brain structural covariance, as it reflects synchronized changes in neuroanatomy, potentially due to mutual trophic influences or shared plasticity across regions...
January 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353719/depressive-symptoms-and-self-harm-among-youngsters-referred-to-child-welfare-the-role-of-trust-in-caregiver-support-and-communication
#7
Tara Santens, Laurence Claes, Guy S Diamond, Guy Bosmans
Depressive symptoms and self-harm, i.e. non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors, are highly prevalent in youngsters involved in Child Welfare System (CWS) services. Little research investigates, however, why these CWS youngsters are at risk. We explored whether trust in caregiver support and communication about experiences with primary caregivers, are associated with CWS youngsters' depressive symptoms and/or self-harm. An anonymous online survey of 271 CWS youngsters (10-21 years of age, 57.2% female) was used to assess trust and communication, and depressive symptoms/self-harm...
January 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353493/exploring-the-great-schism-in-the-social-sciences-confirmation-bias-and-the-interpretation-of-results-relating-to-biological-influences-on-human-behavior-and-psychology
#8
Jeffrey Winking
The nature-nurture debate is one that biologists often dismiss as a false dichotomy, as all phenotypic traits are the results of complex processes of gene and environment interactions. However, such dismissiveness belies the ongoing debate that is unmistakable throughout the biological and social sciences concerning the role of biological influences in the development of psychological and behavioral traits in humans. Many have proposed that this debate is due to ideologically driven biases in the interpretation of results...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352677/surface-structure-and-tribology-of-legless-squamate-reptiles
#9
REVIEW
Hisham A Abdel-Aal
Squamate reptiles (around 10,000 species of snakes and lizards) comprise a myriad of distinct terrestrial vertebrates. The diversity within this biological group offers a great opportunity for customized bio-inspired solutions that address a variety of current technological problems especially within the realm of surface engineering and tribology. One subgroup within squamata is of interest in that context, namely the legless reptiles (mainly snakes and few lizards). The promise of that group lies within their functional adaptation as manifested in optimized surface designs and locomotion that is distinguished by economy of effort even when functioning within hostile tribological environments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352615/gene-circuits-for-dynamically-regulating-metabolism
#10
Xiulai Chen, Liming Liu
Gene circuits are a functional innovation in synthetic biology for engineering cellular behavior. Recent advances have demonstrated that gene circuits can be exploited for dynamically controlling pathway redirection and pathway balance to produce valuable chemicals. The next frontier is to engineer robust, sensitive, and efficient circuits that adapt to changing conditions.
January 15, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352607/integrated-lung-tissue-mechanics-one-piece-at-a-time-computational-modeling-across-the-scales-of-biology
#11
REVIEW
Kelly S Burrowes, Amin Iravani, Wendy Kang
The lung is a delicately balanced and highly integrated mechanical system. Lung tissue is continuously exposed to the environment via the air we breathe, making it susceptible to damage. As a consequence, respiratory diseases present a huge burden on society and their prevalence continues to rise. Emergent function is produced not only by the sum of the function of its individual components but also by the complex feedback and interactions occurring across the biological scales - from genes to proteins, cells, tissue and whole organ - and back again...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352540/insight-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-relationship-with-behavior-mood-and-perceived-quality-of-life-underlying-causes-and-emerging-treatments
#12
Paul H Lysaker, Michelle L Pattison, Bethany L Leonhardt, Scott Phelps, Jenifer L Vohs
Poor insight in schizophrenia is prevalent across cultures and phases of illness. In this review, we examine the recent research on the relationship of insight with behavior, mood and perceived quality of life, on its complex roots, and on the effects of existing and emerging treatments. This research indicates that poor insight predicts poorer treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, higher symptom severity and more impaired community function, while good insight predicts a higher frequency of depression and demoralization, especially when coupled with stigma and social disadvantage...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352238/molting-site-fidelity-accounts-for-colony-elimination-of-the-formosan-subterranean-termites-isoptera-rhinotermitidae-by-chitin-synthesis-inhibitor-baits
#13
G Kakkar, W Osbrink, N-Y Su
Site fidelity by molting termites in Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki colonies is a new addition to our understanding of lower termites' behavior and biology. Our previous studies indicated that workers moved to the central nest to molt in the presence of eggs and reproductives. The current study showed that noviflumuron-affected workers also return to the central nest and died in the vicinity of reproductives and eggs. The aversion to the dead and decaying workers caused reproductives and brood to leave the original central nest site in a colony and refuge at newer sites every few days in response to newly dead workers near them...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351882/surface-characterization-of-arsenopyrite-during-chemical-and-biological-oxidation
#14
Sha Deng, Guohua Gu, Baoke Xu, Lijuan Li, Bichao Wu
The surface properties of arsenopyrite during chemical and biological oxidation were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (S-XRD), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), accompanying with leaching behaviors elucidation. The moderate thermophile S. thermosulfidooxdians was used as the bioleaching microorganism. Leaching experiments showed that only 16.26% and 44.37% of total arsenic extractions were obtained for sterile acid and culture medium controls, whereas 79...
January 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351732/nutrient-depletion-and-tor-inhibition-induce-18s-and-25s-ribosomal-rnas-resistant-to-a-5-phosphate-dependent-exonuclease-in-candida-albicans-and-other-yeasts
#15
Jacob Fleischmann, Miguel A Rocha
BACKGROUND: Messenger RNA (mRNA) represents a small percentage of RNAs in a cell, with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) making up the bulk of it. To isolate mRNA from eukaryotes, typically poly-A selection is carried out. Recently, a 5´-phosphate-dependent, 5´→3´ processive exonuclease called Terminator has become available. It will digest only RNA that has a 5´-monophosphate end and therefore it is very useful to eliminate most of rRNAs in cell. RESULTS: We have found that in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, while 18S and 25S components isolated from yeast in robust growth phase are easily eliminated by Terminator, those isolated from cells in the nutritionally diminished stationary phase, become resistant to digestion by this enzyme...
January 19, 2018: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351322/influence-of-multiplicative-stochastic-variation-on-translational-elongation-rates
#16
Sandip Datta, Brian Seed
Experimental data indicate that stochastic effects exerted at the level of translation contribute substantially to the variation in abundance of proteins expressed at moderate to high levels. This study analyzes the theoretical consequences of fluctuations in residue-specific elongation rates during translation. A simple analytical framework shows that rate variation during elongation gives rise to protein production rates that consist of sums of products of random variables. Simulations show that because the contribution to total variation of products of random variables greatly exceeds that of sums of random variables, the overall distribution exhibits approximately log-normal behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350786/multiple-biological-defects-caused-by-calycosin-7-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-are-associated-with-the-activation-of-oxidative-damage
#17
Jianqin Zhang, Xiaoli Xue, Yang Yang, Wen Ma, Yan Han, Xuemei Qin
Calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) is an important active isoflavone compound in Radix Astragali that has many bioactivities. However, the toxicological effects and related toxicological mechanism of CG have been rarely documented. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity effects of CG on the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Some characteristics of the nematode, including lifespan, movement behavior and reproductive capacity, were used to detect the toxic effects of CG on C. elegans...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349663/ibandronate-metal-complexes-solution-behavior-and-antiparasitic-activity
#18
Bruno Demoro, Santiago Rostán, Mauricio Moncada, Zhu-Hong Li, Roberto Docampo, Claudio Olea Azar, Juan Diego Maya, Julia Torres, Dinorah Gambino, Lucía Otero
To face the high costs of developing new drugs, researchers in both industry and academy are looking for ways to repurpose old drugs for new uses. In this sense, bisphosphonates that are clinically used for bone diseases have been studied as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi, causative parasite of Chagas disease. In this work, the development of first row transition metal complexes (M = Co2+, Mn2+, Ni2+) with the bisphosphonate ibandronate (iba, H4iba representing the neutral form) is presented. The in-solution behavior of the systems containing iba and the selected 3d metal ions was studied by potentiometry...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349269/fertility-behaviors-in-south-korea-and-their-association-with-ultrasound-prenatal-sex-screening
#19
Jinkook Lee, James P Smith
Imbalances in the sex ratio at birth in Southeast and East Asia increased especially after the mid-1980s. We study how ultrasonic technology affected sex ratios at birth in South Korea, a country with a strong son preference. Between 1985 and 1995 fetal screenings and abortion services were widely available, though not available in the years before, and prohibited in the years after. Using the 1985, 1995, and 2005 Census microdata, we examine changes in sex ratios of newborns by birth year. We then study periodic effects on the fertility stopping rule, using the 2006 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, which provides birth years for all children...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348842/ddefl1-correlated-with-rho-gtpases-activity-in-breast-cancer
#20
Xiaoyun Mao, Chuifeng Fan, Xinmiao Yu, Bo Chen, Feng Jin
DDEFL1 is related to maintaining a limiting amount of ARF6 in GTP-loaded form by accelerating its GTP hydrolysis activity, which has been implicated in hepatocellular cancer pathogenesis and lung cancer development. We investigated DDEFL1 expression in breast cancer and paired normal breast tissues by immunohistochemistry and found that DDEFL1 expression was significantly associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, high content of elastosis and TNM stage but not with menopausal status or age. We detected the mRNA and protein expression of DDEFL1 in breast cancer cell lines by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
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