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Behavioral Biology

Yunhu Pan, Hongmei Wang, Debin Ma, Zhiyu Ji, Limin Luo, Fangyu Cao, Fangfang Huang, Yangyang Liu, Yushu Dong, Yitan Chen
The incidence of lung cancer in China increases annually, and effective targets for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer are urgently needed. miRNAs are currently considered to be involved in the regulation of tumor development and growth. miR‑24 has been found to contribute to the development of several tumors. Menin is a key tumor suppressor gene, and its expression is generally low in lung cancer. The effects of miR‑24 on the biological behavior of lung cancer cells were detected by MTT and Transwell assays...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Qingfen Yu, Sameh Othman, Sabyasachi Dasgupta, Thorsten Auth, Gerhard Gompper
Nanoparticles in biological systems encounter lipid-bilayer membranes as barriers. They interact with plasma membranes, membranous organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, the nucleus, and intracellular and extracellular vesicles, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and exosomes. Extracellular vesicles have recently attracted particular attention, as they are involved in the transmission of biological signals and as regulators for biological processes. For example, exosomes, small vesicles containing proteins, mRNA, and miRNA, that are released by cells into the extracellular environment, have been suggested to participate in tumor metastasis...
March 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Ashley H Noriea, Feenalie N Patel, Debra A Werner, Monica E Peek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diet-related chronic diseases result from individual and non-individual (social, environmental, and macro-level) factors. Recent health policy trends, such as population health management, encourage assessment of the individual and non-individual factors that cause these diseases. In this review, we evaluate the physician's perspective on the individual and non-individual causes and management of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Physicians generally rated individual-level causes (i...
March 21, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, Alireza Zandi, Hassan Razmjoo, Sara Ghaffari, Seyed-Mojtaba Abtahi, Hamidreza Jahanbani-Ardakani, Zahra Kasaei, Samira Kasaei-Koupaei, Sepideh Sajjadi, Seyed-Ali Sonbolestan, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi
Purpose: Ameloblastoma is a non-encapsulated and slow-growing tumor with high recurrence rate. Orbital involvement by this neoplasm is an extremely rare entity. In this study, we present a systematic review on this situation along with clinical and paraclinical features of a case. Methods: An electronic search was conducted on major medical sources. Data of the cases in the literature in addition to our own case were extracted, summarized, and statistically analyzed...
March 2018: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
Debra S Karhson, Karolina M Krasinska, Jamie Ahloy Dallaire, Robin A Libove, Jennifer M Phillips, Allis S Chien, Joseph P Garner, Antonio Y Hardan, Karen J Parker
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by restricted, stereotyped behaviors and impairments in social communication. Although the underlying biological mechanisms of ASD remain poorly understood, recent preclinical research has implicated the endogenous cannabinoid (or endocannabinoid), anandamide, as a significant neuromodulator in rodent models of ASD. Despite this promising preclinical evidence, no clinical studies to date have tested whether endocannabinoids are dysregulated in individuals with ASD...
2018: Molecular Autism
Zahra Rostami, Sajad Jafari
Complex anatomical and physiological structure of an excitable tissue (e.g., cardiac tissue) in the body can represent different electrical activities through normal or abnormal behavior. Abnormalities of the excitable tissue coming from different biological reasons can lead to formation of some defects. Such defects can cause some successive waves that may end up to some additional reorganizing beating behaviors like spiral waves or target waves. In this study, formation of defects and the resulting emitted waves in an excitable tissue are investigated...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Bing Zhao, Qiao-Juan Shi, Zhen-Zhong Zhang, Shu-Yan Wang, Xi Wang, Hao Wang
Ischemic stroke is a highly complex pathological process that is divided into acute, subacute and chronic phases. Paeonol is a biologically active natural product with a variety of pharmacological effects, including those on neuronal activity. However, the effects of paeonol on subacute/chronic ischemic stroke have remained to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of paeonol against subacute and chronic cerebral ischemic injury and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hyunhee Ahn, Ravi R Patel, Anthony J Hoyt, Angela S P Lin, F Brennan Torstrick, Robert E Guldberg, Carl P Frick, R Dana Carpenter, Christopher M Yakacki, Nick J Willett
Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) is a novel aromatic polymer with higher strength and stiffness than polyetheretherketone (PEEK), the gold standard material for polymeric load-bearing orthopaedic implants. The amorphous structure of PPP makes it relatively straightforward to manufacture different architectures, while maintaining mechanical properties. PPP is promising as a potential orthopaedic material; however, the biocompatibility and osseointegration have not been well investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate biological and mechanical behavior of PPP, with or without porosity, in comparison to PEEK...
March 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Claudia Cavallini, Chiara Zannini, Elena Olivi, Riccardo Tassinari, Valentina Taglioli, Martina Rossi, Paola Poggi, Alexandros Chatgilialoglu, Giuliana Simonazzi, Francesco Alviano, Laura Bonsi, Carlo Ventura
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are an effective tool in regenerative medicine notably for their intrinsic plentiful paracrine activity rather than differentiating properties. The hMSC secretome includes a wide spectrum of regulatory and trophic factors, encompassing several naked molecules as well as different kinds of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Among EVs, exosomes represent an intriguing population, able to shuttle proteins, transcription factors, and genetic materials, with a relevant role in cell-to-cell communication, modulating biological responses in recipient cells...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
Anna-Laura Kretz, Silvia von Karstedt, Andreas Hillenbrand, Doris Henne-Bruns, Uwe Knippschild, Anna Trauzold, Johannes Lemke
Despite recent advances in oncology, diagnosis, and therapy, treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still exceedingly challenging. PDAC remains the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Poor prognosis is due to the aggressive growth behavior with early invasion and distant metastasis, chemoresistance, and a current lack of adequate screening methods for early detection. Consequently, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Many hopes for cancer treatment have been placed in the death ligand tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) since it was reported to induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo...
March 18, 2018: Cancers
Marit K Zinöcker, Inge A Lindseth
The dietary pattern that characterizes the Western diet is strongly associated with obesity and related metabolic diseases, but biological mechanisms supporting these associations remain largely unknown. We argue that the Western diet promotes inflammation that arises from both structural and behavioral changes in the resident microbiome. The environment created in the gut by ultra-processed foods, a hallmark of the Western diet, is an evolutionarily unique selection ground for microbes that can promote diverse forms of inflammatory disease...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
Hannah Brooks, Grant E Haines, M Carly Lin, S Laurie Sanderson
Vortical cross-step filtration in suspension-feeding fish has been reported recently as a novel mechanism, distinct from other biological and industrial filtration processes. Although crossflow passing over backward-facing steps generates vortices that can suspend, concentrate, and transport particles, the morphological factors affecting this vortical flow have not been identified previously. In our 3D-printed models of the oral cavity for ram suspension-feeding fish, the angle of the backward-facing step with respect to the model's dorsal midline affected vortex parameters significantly, including rotational, tangential, and axial speed...
2018: PloS One
Luisana Di Cristo, Ciaran Manus Maguire, Karen Mc Quillan, Mattia Aleardi, Yuri Volkov, Dania Movia, Adriele Prina-Mello
Nanoparticles (NP)-based inhalation systems for drug delivery can be administered in liquid form, by nebulization or using pressurized metered dose inhalers, and in solid form by means of dry powder inhalers. However, NP delivery to the lungs has many challenges including the formulation instability due to particle-particle interactions and subsequent aggregation, causing poor deposition in the small distal airways and subsequent alveolar macrophages activity, which could lead to inflammation. This work aims at providing an in vitro experimental design for investigating the correlation between the physico-chemical properties of NP, and their biological behavior, when they are used as NP-based inhalation treatments, comparing two different exposure systems...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kylie Wheelock, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Rob McConnell, Deliang Tang, Heather E Volk, Ya Wang, Julie B Herbstman, Shuang Wang, David H Phillips, David Camann, Jicheng Gong, Frederica Perera
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous air pollutants associated with negative impacts on growth, development and behavior in children. Source-specific biological markers of PAH exposure are needed for targeting interventions to protect children. Nitro-derivatives of PAH can act as markers of exposure to diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, or general combustion sources. Using a novel HPLC-APCI-MS/MS detection method, we examined four hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of nitro-PAH metabolites and the Hb adduct of a benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolite in 22 umbilical cord blood samples...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Mohsin Jamal, Kanika Taneja, Sohrab Arora, Ravi Barod, Craig G Rogers, Jessica Sanchez, Nilesh S Gupta, Sean R Williamson
Occasionally, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with renal vein extension spreads against the flow of blood within vein branches into the kidney, forming multifocal nodules throughout the renal parenchyma. These foci are not regarded as multiple tumors but rather reverse spread of tumor along the venous system. This intravascular spread has previously been reported in clear cell RCC and RCC unclassified. However, to our knowledge, this has never been reported in chromophobe RCC. Chromophobe RCC is a unique histologic subtype of renal cancer, generally thought to have less aggressive behavior...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Zhizhen Dong, Jianrong Chen, Xuli Yang, Wenjie Zheng, Li Wang, Miao Fang, Mengna Wu, Min Yao, Dengfu Yao
Lung cancer is the most common malignant tumor with increasing angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and a high rate of metastasis. However, the mechanism of Ang-2 enhancing tumor proliferation and facilitating metastasis remains to be clarified. In this study, Ang-2 expression and its gene transcription on effects of biological behaviors and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated in lung cancers. Total incidence of Ang-2 expression in the cancerous tissues was up to 91.8 % (112 of 122) with significantly higher (χ2 =103...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Michael F Sweeney, Carlos Sonnenschein, Ana M Soto
Background: Three-dimensional cultures of mammary epithelial cells allow for biologically-relevant studies of the development of the mammary gland in rodents and humans under normal and pathological conditions, like carcinogenesis. Under these conditions, mammotropic hormones play significant roles in tissue morphogenesis. Therefore, a system that recreates the normal, hormonally responsive epithelium would be a valuable tool to study the normal state and its transition to carcinogenesis...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Nicole Racine, Andre Plamondon, Sheri Madigan, Sheila McDonald, Suzanne Tough
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prenatal and postnatal mechanisms by which maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) predict the early development of their offspring, specifically via biological (maternal health risk in pregnancy, infant health risk at birth) and psychosocial risk (maternal stress during and after pregnancy, as well as hostile behavior in early infancy). METHODS: Participants were 1994 women (mean age = 31 years) and their infants, who were recruited in pregnancy as part of a prospective longitudinal cohort from 2008 to 2010...
March 20, 2018: Pediatrics
Tara McCrimmon, Susan Witte, Gaukhar Mergenova, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Azamat Kuskulov, Scarlett L Bellamy, Nabila El-Bassel
BACKGROUND: Among women at high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), gender and economic issues limit the impact of behavioral prevention strategies. Women in Kazakhstan with dual risks of sex trading and drug use face elevated risk for HIV and STIs and may benefit from an economic empowerment intervention which combines HIV-risk reduction (HIVRR) education with financial skills-building and asset-building to promote reduced reliance on sex trading for income. METHODS/DESIGN: The study employs a two-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial (c-RCT) design...
March 20, 2018: Trials
Javier I Borráz-León, Ana Lilia Cerda-Molina, Markus J Rantala, Lilian Mayagoitia-Novales
Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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