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Behavioral Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910868/relationship-between-nanotopographical-alignment-and-stem-cell-fate-with-live-imaging-and-shape-analysis
#1
Peter Newman, Jorge Luis Galenano-Niño, Pamela Graney, Joselito M Razal, Andrew I Minett, João Ribas, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Maté Biro, Hala Zreiqat
The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910865/auditory-evoked-potential-could-reflect-emotional-sensitivity-and-impulsivity
#2
Ji Sun Kim, Sungkean Kim, Wookyoung Jung, Chang-Hwan Im, Seung-Hwan Lee
Emotional sensitivity and impulsivity could cause interpersonal conflicts and neuropsychiatric problems. Serotonin is correlated with behavioral inhibition and impulsivity. This study evaluated whether the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potential (LDAEP), a potential biological marker of central serotonergic activity, could reflect emotional sensitivity and impulsivity. A total of 157 healthy individuals were recruited, who performed LDAEP and Go/Nogo paradigms during electroencephalogram measurement...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910820/4d-bioprinting-the-next-generation-technology-for-biofabrication-enabled-by-stimuli-responsive-materials
#3
Yi-Chen Li, Yu Shrike Zhang, Ali Akpek, Su Ryon Shin, Ali Khademhosseini
Four-dimensional (4D) bioprinting, encompassing a wide range of disciplines including bioengineering, materials science, chemistry, and computer sciences, is emerging as the next-generation biofabrication technology. By utilizing stimuli-responsive materials and advanced three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategies, 4D bioprinting aims to create dynamic 3D patterned biological structures that can transform their shapes or behavior under various stimuli. In this review, we highlight the potential use of various stimuli-responsive materials for 4D printing and their extension into biofabrication...
December 2, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910408/universal-handheld-micropipette
#4
Justin Beroz, A John Hart
The handheld micropipette is the most ubiquitous instrument for precision handling of microliter-milliliter liquid volumes, which is an essential capability in biology and chemistry laboratories. The range of one pipette is typically adjustable up to 10-fold its minimum volume, requiring the use and maintenance of multiple pipettes for liquid handling across larger ranges. Here we propose a design for a single handheld pipette adjustable from 0.1 μl to 1000 μl (i.e., 10(4)-fold) which spans the range of an entire suite of current commercial pipettes...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909729/self-renewal-molecular-mechanisms-of-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells
#5
Tianhui Pan, Jinghong Xu, Yongliang Zhu
Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), specific roles mediated by cell surface markers and micro-environmental factors are involved in the regulation of self-renewal...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909692/origin-of-cancer-an-information-energy-and-matter-disease
#6
Rainer G Hanselmann, Cornelius Welter
Cells are open, highly ordered systems that are far away from equilibrium. For this reason, the first function of any cell is to prevent the permanent threat of disintegration that is described by thermodynamic laws and to preserve highly ordered cell characteristics such as structures, the cell cycle, or metabolism. In this context, three basic categories play a central role: energy, information, and matter. Each of these three categories is equally important to the cell and they are reciprocally dependent...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#7
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908747/tci-tcii-and-tcvi-trypanosoma-cruzi-samples-from-chagas-disease-patients-with-distinct-clinical-forms-and-critical-analysis-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-behavior-response-to-treatment-and-infection-evolution-in-murine-model
#8
Maykon Tavares de Oliveira, Renata Tupinambá Branquinho, Gláucia Diniz Aléssio, Carlos Geraldo Campos Mello, Nívia Carolina Nogueira de Paiva, Cláudia Martins Carneiro, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Olindo Assis Martins Filho, Marta de Lana
The clonal evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi sustains scientifically the hypothesis of association between parasite's genetic, biological behavior and possibly the clinical aspects of Chagas disease in patients from whom they were isolated. This study intended to characterize a range of biological properties of TcI, TcII and TcVI T. cruzi samples in order to verify the existence of these associations. Several biological features were evaluated, including in vitro epimastigote-growth, "Vero"cells infectivity and growth, along with in vivo studies of parasitemia, polymorphism of trypomastigotes, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and response to treatment by nifurtimox during the acute and chronic murine infection...
November 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908265/bioengineered-3d-scaffolds-in-cancer-research-focus-on-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-drug-screening
#9
XiaoLi Xu, LiLing Tang
BACKGROUND: The living environment of cancer cells is complicated and information-rich. Thus, traditional 2D culture mold in vitro cannot mimic the microenvironment of cancer cells exactly. Currently, bioengineered 3D scaffolds have been developed which can better simulate the microenvironment of tumors and fill the gap between 2D culture and clinical application. CONCLUSION: In this review, we discuss the scaffold materials used for fabrication techniques, biological behaviors of cancer cells in 3D scaffold and the scaffold-based drug screening...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907996/probabilistic-information-transmission-in-a-network-of-coupled-oscillators-reveals-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-responding-to-threats
#10
Amanda Chicoli, Derek A Paley
Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907045/pulse-detecting-genetic-circuit-a-new-design-approach
#11
Nasimul Noman, Mara Inniss, Hitoshi Iba, Jeffrey C Way
A robust cellular counter could enable synthetic biologists to design complex circuits with diverse behaviors. The existing synthetic-biological counters, responsive to the beginning of the pulse, are sensitive to the pulse duration. Here we present a pulse detecting circuit that responds only at the falling edge of a pulse-analogous to negative edge triggered electric circuits. As biological events do not follow precise timing, use of such a pulse detector would enable the design of robust asynchronous counters which can count the completion of events...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906449/differential-mutation-frequencies-in-metastatic-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinomas-versus-primary-tumors
#12
Ayse Selen Yilmaz, Hatice Gulcin Ozer, Jessica L Gillespie, Dawn C Allain, Madison N Bernhardt, Karina Colossi Furlan, Leticia T F Castro, Sara B Peters, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Stephen Y Kang, O Hans Iwenofu, Thomas Olencki, Theodoros N Teknos, Amanda Ewart Toland
BACKGROUND: Exome and targeted sequencing studies have identified potential driver mutations for a variety of tumor types. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most highly mutated cancers but typically is associated with low rates of metastasis and high survival rates. Nevertheless, metastatic cSCC is a significant health threat; up to 8800 individuals die each year of this disease. METHODS: Because it is difficult to predict which cSCCs are more likely to metastasize, and because to the best of the authors' knowledge there are no targeted therapies specifically designated for patients with metastatic cSCC, exome and/or targeted sequencing of 18 metastatic and 10 primary cSCCs was performed to identify mutations that were more frequent in metastatic tumors and might be targeted for therapeutic benefit...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906389/emulation-of-synaptic-metaplasticity-in-memristors
#13
Xiaojian Zhu, Chao Du, YeonJoo Jeong, Wei D Lu
Recent studies have shown that nanoionic-based memristors can offer rich internal dynamics during ion movement that enables these solid-state devices to emulate various synaptic functions in biological systems naturally. The experimental observations can be explained within the 2nd-order memristor theoretical framework, which states that the device conductance (weight) can be determined by multiple internal state variables that can be modulated at different time scales and lead to different activity-dependent synaptic behaviors...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904675/expression-of-long-non-coding-rna-hotair-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-tca8113-cells-and-its-associated-biological-behavior
#14
Huawei Liu, Zhiyong Li, Chao Wang, Lin Feng, Haitao Huang, Changkui Liu, Fengxia Li
As a long noncoding RNA, HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is highly expressed in many types of tumors. However, its expression and function in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells and tissues remains largely unknown. We herein studied the biological functions of HOTAIR in OSCC Tca8113 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that HOTAIR, p21 and p53 mRNA expressions in doxorubicin (DOX)-treated or γ-ray-irradiated Tca8113 cells were up-regulated. Knockdown of p53 expression inhibited DOX-induced HOTAIR up-regulation, suggesting that DNA damage-induced HOTAIR expression may be associated with p53...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903842/a-comprehensive-lifestyle-randomized-clinical-trial-design-and-initial-patient-experience
#15
Banu Arun, Taylor Austin, Gildy V Babiera, Karen Basen-Engquist, Cindy L Carmack, Alejandro Chaoul, Lorenzo Cohen, Lisa Connelly, Robin Haddad, Carol Harrison, Yisheng Li, Smitha Mallaiah, Raghuram Nagarathna, Patricia A Parker, George H Perkins, James M Reuben, Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Amy Spelman, Anil Sood, Peiying Yang, Sai-Ching J Yeung
BACKGROUND: Although epidemiological research demonstrates that there is an association between lifestyle factors and risk of breast cancer recurrence, progression of disease, and mortality, no comprehensive lifestyle change clinical trials have been conducted to determine if changing multiple risk factors leads to changes in biobehavioral processes and clinical outcomes in women with breast cancer. This article describes the design, feasibility, adherence to the intervention and data collection, and patient experience of a comprehensive lifestyle change clinical trial (CompLife)...
November 30, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903280/a-critical-review-of-the-current-knowledge-regarding-the-biological-impact-of-nanocellulose
#16
REVIEW
C Endes, S Camarero-Espinosa, S Mueller, E J Foster, A Petri-Fink, B Rothen-Rutishauser, C Weder, M J D Clift
Several forms of nanocellulose, notably cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrillated cellulose, exhibit attractive property matrices and are potentially useful for a large number of industrial applications. These include the paper and cardboard industry, use as reinforcing filler in polymer composites, basis for low-density foams, additive in adhesives and paints, as well as a wide variety of food, hygiene, cosmetic, and medical products. Although the commercial exploitation of nanocellulose has already commenced, little is known as to the potential biological impact of nanocellulose, particularly in its raw form...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903179/gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-from-pulmonary-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-a-japanese-multi-institutional-cooperative-study-jlgk1401
#17
Takuya Kawabe, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yasunori Sato, Shoji Yomo, Takeshi Kondoh, Osamu Nagano, Toru Serizawa, Takahiko Tsugawa, Hisayo Okamoto, Atsuya Akabane, Kazuyasu Aita, Manabu Sato, Hidefumi Jokura, Jun Kawagishi, Takashi Shuto, Hideya Kawai, Akihito Moriki, Hiroyuki Kenai, Yoshiyasu Iwai, Masazumi Gondo, Toshinori Hasegawa, Soichiro Yasuda, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Yasushi Nagatomo, Shinya Watanabe, Naoya Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE In 1999, the World Health Organization categorized large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung as a variant of large cell carcinoma, and LCNEC now accounts for 3% of all lung cancers. Although LCNEC is categorized among the non-small cell lung cancers, its biological behavior has recently been suggested to be very similar to that of a small cell pulmonary malignancy. The clinical outcome for patients with LCNEC is generally poor, and the optimal treatment for this malignancy has not yet been established...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#18
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902957/giant-pedunclated-lipoma-of-the-esophagus-a-case-report
#19
Naohiro Taira, Hidenori Kawasaki, Akiko Koja, Tomonori Furugen, Yasuji Oshiro, Eriko Atsumi, Takaharu Ichi, Kazuaki Kushi, Tomofumi Yohena, Tsutomu Kawabata, Masanao Saio, Naoki Yoshimi
INTRODUCTION: Although Esophageal lipoma is extremely rare and pathologically benign, surgical excision of the lipoma is recommended when symptomatic or uncertain biological behavior. In general, some of the esophageal lipoma has a stalk. The pedunclated non-invasive tumor can be removed by stalk ligation, which is either endoscopic or surgical approache. Therefore, the preoperative evaluation is essential. We herein present a case of a huge esophageal lipoma. CASE REPORT: A 82-year-old man, with a wet cough and dyspnea for 6 months, who had the huge mass that almost completely occupied the esophageal lumen, was referred to our institution for the treatment...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902954/multi-recurrent-invasive-ameloblastoma-a-surgical-challenge
#20
Fatemah Faras, Fawaz Abo-Alhassan, Yona Israël, Barbara Hersant, Jean-Paul Meningaud
INTRODUCTION: Ameloblastomas are rare head and neck tumors, and yet the most common odontogenic neoplasms. They account for 1% and 11% of all head and neck and odontogenic tumors respectively. Embryologically, they originate from remnants of odontogenic epithelium. Their aggressive, destructive nature, as well as their anticipated high rate of recurrence, even after en bloc resection, poses a surgical predicament. PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 56 year-old Asian female with a multi-recurrent invasive ameloblastoma...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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