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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923482/comparison-of-outcomes-following-intersphincteric-resection-vs-low-anterior-resection-for-low-rectal-cancer-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
P Ursi, A Santoro, A Gemini, A Arezzo, D Pironi, C Renzi, R Cirocchi, F M Di Matteo, A Maturo, V D'Andrea, J Sagar
BACKGROUND: Low Rectal Anterior Resection (LAR) is challenging when anal canal mucosa and/or internal sphincter are involved by very low tumors. In these cases, Intersphincteric resection (ISR) with the removal of the internal sphincter is designed to increase the distal margin of resection, thus preserving the external sphincter and pubo-rectalis muscle complex. Aim is to compare results after ISR with those of LAR, including subgroup analysis of open, laparoscopic and robotic ISR. METHODS: Studies published from January 1991 to January 2017 describing ISR and comparing results with LAR in adults were included irrespective of the technique...
May 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907489/extended-field-chemoradiation-therapy-for-definitive-treatment-of-anal-canal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-involving-the-para-aortic-lymph-nodes
#2
Emma B Holliday, Scott C Lester, W Scott Harmsen, Cathy Eng, Michael G Haddock, Sunil Krishnan, Prajnan Das, Christopher L Hallemeier
PURPOSE: To report cancer control rates and adverse events (AEs) of curative-intent, extended-field chemoradiation therapy administered to patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal presenting with distant metastasis limited to the para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients with SCC of the anal canal metastatic to the PA lymph nodes at initial diagnosis who were treated with curative-intent, extended-field chemoradiation therapy between September 2002 and February 2016 at two tertiary care centers...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891206/association-of-interim-fdg-pet-imaging-during-chemoradiation-for-squamous-anal-canal-carcinoma-with-recurrence
#3
Julian C Hong, Yunfeng Cui, Bhavik N Patel, Christel N Rushing, Austin M Faught, Jared S Eng, Kyle Higgins, Fang-Fang Yin, Shiva Das, Brian G Czito, Christopher G Willett, Manisha Palta
PURPOSE: Imaging parameters from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) before and after chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for anal canal cancer correlate with clinical outcomes. This prospective, hypothesis-generating pilot study investigates the relationship between interim PET imaging during CRT for anal canal cancer and clinical outcome. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From June 2012 to August 2015, 30 patients with anal canal cancer were enrolled in a prospective clinical study of PET prior to and during CRT after ∼30 Gy...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888243/high-resolution-anorectal-manometry-new-insights-in-the-diagnostic-assessment-of-functional-anorectal-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Henriette Heinrich, Benjamin Misselwitz
Functional anorectal disorders such as faecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain, and functional defecation disorders (FDD) are highly prevalent and represent a high socioeconomic burden. Several tests of anorectal function exist in this setting; however, high-resolution anorectal manometry (HR-ARM) is a new tool that depicts pressure all along the anal canal and can assess rectoanal coordination. HR-ARM is used in the diagnosis of FI and especially FDD although data in health is still sparse, and pressure phenomena seen during simulated defecation, such as dyssynergia, are highly prevalent in health...
April 2018: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879763/evaluation-of-153-asymptomatic-subjects-using-the-anopress-portable-anal-manometry-device
#5
Cosimo Alex Leo, Emanuel Cavazzoni, Gregory P Thomas, Jonathan Hodgkison, Jamie Murphy, Carolynne J Vaizey
Background/Aims: The Anopress device is a new portable manometry system. The aim of this study is to formulate normative data using this new device by recording the anorectal function of asymptomatic subjects. Patient comfort was also assessed. Methods: Anorectal function was assessed in asymptomatic volunteers using the Anopress. All volunteers were examined in a standardized way in accordance with the study protocol. Normative values for the Anopress were obtained from the recorded data and patient comfort was assessed using a visual analogue scale...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871700/duration-taken-for-the-anal-sphincter-pressures-to-stabilize-prior-to-anorectal-manometry
#6
Dakshitha Praneeth Wickramasinghe, Umesh Jayarajah, Dharmabandhu Nandadeva Samarasekera
OBJECTIVES: Anorectal manometry (ARM) is an integral part of evaluating the anal sphincter function. The current recommendation of waiting for 5 min (lead-in-time) prior to beginning the recording has no evidence. A prolonged procedure may reduce patient compliance. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 100 consecutive patients who underwent 3-dimensional ARM at a single center. Their pressure studies were analyzed in consecutive 10-s segments, beginning from the time of insertion of the probe into the anal canal...
June 5, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869844/transanal-minimally-invasive-surgery-for-local-excision-of-early-rectal-tumor
#7
Mami Yoshitomi, Suguru Hasegawa, Ryo Takahashi, Koya Hida, Kenji Kawada, Yoshiharu Sakai
INTRODUCTION: Local excision (LE) is used in early rectal cancer and other pathologies for diagnostic purposes and curative treatment, as well as for palliative surgery in patients who are medically unfit for radical resection. Recently, transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) has been increasingly accepted as a means for performing LE. Here, we present a TAMIS technique for LE to which endoscopic submucosal dissection was applied. MATERIALS AND SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: We used conventional laparoscopic instruments, including a 10-mm 30° camera...
May 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864972/oxycodone-and-macrogol-3350-treatment-reduces-anal-sphincter-relaxation-compared-to-combined-oxycodone-and-naloxone-tablets
#8
Jakob Lykke Poulsen, Christina Brock, Debbie Grønlund, Klaus Krogh, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
Background Opioid analgesics inhibit anal sphincter function and contribute to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. However, it is unknown if the inhibition can be reduced by opioid antagonism with oral naloxone, and how this compares to osmotic laxative treatment. Aims To compare the effects of oxycodone and macrogol 3350 treatment (OX + PEG) versus combined oral oxycodone and naloxone (OXN) on anal sphincter function and gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods A randomised, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted in 20 healthy, male volunteers...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858669/extended-pelvic-resection-for-rectal-and-anal-canal-tumors-is-a-significant-risk-factor-for-perineal-wound-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Ken Imaizumi, Yuji Nishizawa, Koji Ikeda, Yuichiro Tsukada, Takeshi Sasaki, Masaaki Ito
PURPOSE: Perineal wound infection (PWI) rates are high after abdominoperineal resection (APR) and total pelvic exenteration (TPE). This study identified risk factors for PWI after surgery for anorectal tumors and examined the relationship between the surgical excision volume with the PWI degree. METHODS: A retrospective review involving 135 patients who underwent surgical excision of anorectal tumors was performed. Superficial PWI included cellulitis and superficial dehiscence; deep PWI included major dehiscence, perineal abscess, and presacral abscess...
June 1, 2018: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844517/beta-and-gamma-human-papillomaviruses-in-anal-and-genital-sites-among-men-prevalence-and-determinants
#10
Vitaly Smelov, Richard Muwonge, Olga Sokolova, Sandrine McKay-Chopin, Carina Eklund, Boris Komyakov, Tarik Gheit
Data regarding the anogenital distribution of and type-specific concordance for cutaneous β- and γ-HPV types in men who have sex with women is limited and geographically narrow. Knowledge of determinants of anogenital detection of cutaneous HPV types in different regions is needed for better understanding of the natural history and transmission dynamics of HPV, and its potential role in the development of anogenital diseases. Genital and anal canal samples obtained from 554 Russian men were screened for 43 β-HPVs and 29 γ-HPVs, using a multiplex PCR combined with Luminex technology...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805357/giant-symptomatic-rectal-mucocele-following-subtotal-colectomy
#11
Romano Schneider, Marko Kraljević, Markus von Flüe, Ida Füglistaler
Introduction: Rectal mucoceles rarely occur and only a few cases are described in the literature. They usually appear after subtotal colectomy or Hartmann procedure originating from persisting rectal mucus production and simultaneous stenosis of the anal canal. Case Presentation: A 74-year-old female patient presented with the feeling of an abdominal growing mass. Complex medical history included a subtotal colectomy with an end ileostomy and a mucous fistula at the descending colon due to Crohn disease at the age of 16 years...
January 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797586/determinants-of-presence-of-human-papillomaviruses-in-the-anal-canal-of-russian-men
#12
Vitaly Smelov, K Miriam Elfström, Carina Eklund, Olga Sokolova, Joakim Dillner
Knowledge of determinants of anal HPV infections among men is still limited as most of the studies are focused on high-risk populations and geographically narrowed. Such knowledge obtained in different populations is essential for better understanding of HPV natural history, transmission dynamics, and its role in the development and prevention of anogenital malignancies in different regions. Here we tested anal canal swab samples from 359 Russian heterosexual (323 HIV-negative and 27 HIV-positive, aged 18-67 years) men attending an STI clinic were tested for 36 HPV types using a proficient Luminex assay...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797501/peri-anal-surface-dose-in-anal-canal-vmat-radiotherapy
#13
Kurian Joseph, Brenda Rose, Heather Warkentin, Jihyun Yun, Sunita Ghosh, Keith Tankel
INTRODUCTION: Skin bolus may routinely be used in the perineum to build up the surface dose in the treatment of anal cancer (ACC); this may contribute to significant acute skin toxicity. Skin bolus may not be needed with the introduction of modern radiotherapy techniques if these planning techniques would achieve adequate surface dose. Our study is to ascertain if appropriate skin dose can be achieved without the use of bolus when VMAT is used in the treatment of ACC. METHODS: The study includes 10 ACC patients treated with VMAT radiotherapy...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797379/a-high-resolution-anorectal-manometry-parameter-based-on-integrated-pressurized-volume-a-study-based-on-204-male-patients-with-constipation-and-26-controls
#14
M Seo, S Joo, K W Jung, J Lee, H J Lee, J S Soh, I J Yoon, H S Koo, S Y Seo, D Kim, S W Hwang, S H Park, D-H Yang, B D Ye, J-S Byeon, H-Y Jung, S-K Yang, S S Rao, S-J Myung
BACKGROUND: Conventional anorectal manometric parameters based on linear waves cannot properly predict balloon expulsion (BE) time. We aimed to determine the correlation between integrated pressurized volume (IPV) parameters during simulated evacuation (SE) and BE time in healthy individuals and constipated patients and to assess the correlation between each parameter and symptoms. METHODS: A total of 230 male participants (including 26 healthy volunteers and 204 chronically constipated patients) underwent high-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) and BE tests...
May 24, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776939/outcomes-of-transanal-endorectal-pull-through-for-rectal-atresia
#15
Mutaz Gieballa, Nawaf AlKharashi, Mohammed Al-Namshan, Saud AlJadaan
Rectal atresia is a rare anorectal malformation, and it has been reported to represent 1%-2% of all anorectal malformations. We report three newborns who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for abdominal distention, bilious vomiting and failure to pass meconium. The external anus and genitalia were normal and well formed. Digital rectal examination showed a blind-ending anal canal. All three infants were initially managed with diverting colostomy and then transanal resection of the rectal atresia with primary anastomosis, followed by colostomy closure...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763492/perianal-extramammary-paget-disease-treated-with-topical-imiquimod-and-oral-cimetidine
#16
Jayla Gray, Arielle Gray, James Swan, Joshua Eberhardt, Kumaran Mudaliar, Rebecca Tung
Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepithelial adenocarcinoma. The current mainstay of treatment is wide local excision. We present the case of a 56-year-old woman with perianal EMPD that recurred 4 years after initial treatment with wide local excision with Mohs micrographic surgery tissue processing of marginal tissue. Upon recurrence with anal canal involvement, the patient was treated with a 16-week combination course of topical imiquimod and oral cimetidine. There is growing evidence to support both the use of topical imiquimod for the treatment of EMPD as well as the antioncogenic effects of oral cimetidine...
April 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755775/rectal-and-anal-canal-neuroendocrine-tumours
#17
Teresa Raposo André, Margarida Brito, João Geraldes Freire, António Moreira
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare, representing 0.5% of all newly diagnosed malignancies. Rectal and anal canal (AC) NETs account for less than 1% of all rectal and AC cancers. Review our institutional experience on NET of the rectum and AC, with emphasis on demographic, histological and treatment features and oncologic outcomes. The study group was identified from the Portuguese Regional South Oncological Registry. From 2000 to 2014, 22 patients with rectal or AC NETs were treated at our institution. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed...
April 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750133/use-of-indirect-target-gating-in-magnetic-resonance-guided-liver-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-case-report-of-an-oligometastatic-patient
#18
Luca Boldrini, Francesco Cellini, Stefania Manfrida, Giuditta Chiloiro, Stefania Teodoli, Davide Cusumano, Bruno Fionda, Gian Carlo Mattiucci, Anna Maria De Gaetano, Luigi Azario, Vincenzo Valentini
The case of a 73-year-old woman affected by anal canal cancer with concomitant liver metastases is presented here. The patient was addressed to stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) on two hepatic secondary lesions after the first radiochemotherapy treatment of the primary tumor. A Tri-60-Co magnetic resonance hybrid radiotherapy unit was used for SBRT treatment delivery. Both liver lesions were not clearly visible on the setup magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to their limited dimensions (maximum diameter 13 mm); however, the presence of two cysts adjacent to the metastases allowed the use of an indirect target gating approach...
March 9, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720242/anorectal-metastasis-from-breast-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Hannes Ruymbeke, Luc Harlet, Barbara Stragier, Edwin Steenkiste, Merijn Ryckx, Francois Marolleau
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal metastasis from primary breast carcinoma is uncommon, anorectal involvement is extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 65-year old woman who underwent treatment for an infiltrative lobular carcinoma of the left breast with bone metastases and who developed metastasis of the rectum and anal canal 4 years later. CONCLUSIONS: A patient with a history of breast cancer, especially lobular carcinoma, presenting with anorectal symptoms, should raise the suspicion of metastatic disease...
May 2, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720197/the-prognostic-role-of-hemoglobin-levels-in-patients-undergoing-concurrent-chemo-radiation-for-anal-cancer
#20
Pierfrancesco Franco, Francesco Montagnani, Francesca Arcadipane, Chiara Casadei, Kalliopi Andrikou, Stefania Martini, Giuseppe Carlo Iorio, Mario Scartozzi, Massimiliano Mistrangelo, Lorenzo Fornaro, Paola Cassoni, Stefano Cascinu, Umberto Ricardi, Andrea Casadei Gardini
BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemo-radiation (CT-RT) is a standard therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Different clinical and biological factors may potentially affect outcome. We investigated the prognostic role of baseline hemoglobin (Hb) in a cohort of anal cancer patients submitted to CT-RT with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. METHODS: Up to 161 patients with clinical stage T1-T4/N0-N3/M0 were treated. Response was assessed at 6 weeks and thereafter at 3, 6 and 12 months...
May 2, 2018: Radiation Oncology
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